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Journal ArticleDOI

Family Positions and the Attainment of Eminence: A Study of Special Family Positions and Special Family Experiences:

Robert S. Albert1
01 Apr 1980-Gifted Child Quarterly (SAGE Publications)-Vol. 24, Iss: 2, pp 87-95
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors show how the family position of gifted children can put them in alignment with selected family experiences, socialization, and motivations that help prepare them for particular careers; secondly, they show that often an unanticipated event such as the death of older siblings and/or a parent is not necessarily an impediment to this growth but can be an opportunity and a challenge to healthy ego development.
Abstract: There are two basic transformations in the achievement of eminence. The first is that of intellectual giftedness to creative giftedness (Albert, 1979); the second, even more important, is the transformation of this intelligent creativeness into a combination of talent, drive, and values that &dquo;succeed.&dquo; The transformation of early giftedness into adult eminence is one of the most enthralling and secretive processes of human development. Because its occurrence is relatively difficult to predict, it does not mean one should appeal to shopworn explanations such as &dquo;luck,&dquo; &dquo;breaks,&dquo; &dquo;knowing the right people,&dquo; &dquo;genius,&dquo; or other cliche. The attainment of eminence, although difficult to predict, is not without rational, developmental aspects (Albert, 1975). In this paper I wish to show how the family position of gifted children can put them in alignment with selected family experiences, socialization, and motivations that help prepare them for particular careers; secondly, I wish to show that often an unanticipated event such as the death of older siblings and/or a parent is not necessarily an impediment to this growth but can be an opportunity and a challenge to healthy ego development. The means and the direction in which these traumatic experiences influence
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Apres une definition du concept de creativite est effectuee une revue de la litterature consacree au developpement de l'innovation dans la reussite professionnelle, mettant l'accent sur l'integration and la reorganisation des structures cognitives as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: Apres une definition du concept de creativite est effectuee une revue de la litterature consacree au developpement de l'innovation dans la reussite professionnelle, mettant l'accent sur l'integration et la reorganisation des structures cognitives

1,617 citations

Book
01 May 1990
TL;DR: A survey of contemporary theories of creativity can be found in this article, where a range of sub-topics, levels of analysis, and emphases within the study of creativity are discussed.
Abstract: This article surveys the range of contemporary theories of creativity. These are heuristically divided into ten categories: developmental, psychometric, economic, stage and componential process, cognitive, problem solving and expertise-based, problem finding, evolutionary, typological, and systems. These perspectives span a range of subtopics, levels of analysis, and emphases within the study of creativity. Beyond the general overview, prospects for the future role and development of theories of creativity are discussed, offering a critical but hopefully constructive appraisal of current theories and their promise for a continued deeper understanding of the nature of creativity.

987 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the APT model of creativity is proposed to allow better understanding of what is known about gender differences in creativity, including creativity test scores, creative achievements, and self-reported creativity.
Abstract: Research on gender differences in creativity, including creativity test scores, creative achievements, and self-reported creativity is reviewed, as are theories that have been offered to explain such differences and available evidence that supports or refutes such theories. This is a difficult arena in which to conduct research, but there is a consistent lack of gender differences both in creativity test scores and in the creative accomplishments of boys and girls (which if anything tend to favor girls). As a result, it is difficult to show how innate gender differences in creativity could possibly explain later differences in creative accomplishment. At the same time, the large difference in the creative achievement of men and women in many fields make blanket environmental explanations inadequate, and the explanations that have been proposed thus far are at best incomplete. A new theoretical framework (the APT model of creativity) is proposed to allow better understanding of what is known about gender differences in creativity.

449 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT) was administered in the late 1950s and personal and public achievement data were obtained 50 years later and used as criteria in analyses reported in this article.
Abstract: This article presents the results of the 50-year follow-up of the longitudinal study E. Paul Torrance initiated 5 decades ago. The Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT) was administered in the late 1950s and personal and public achievement data were obtained 50 years later and used as criteria in analyses reported here. These showed that TTCT scores were moderately correlated with personal, but not with public, achievement. However, an interaction of intelligence and creativity was significantly related to public achievement but not to personal achievement. When a composite was formed from the 4 TTCT indexes (fluency, originality, flexibility, and elaboration), a significant quadratic trend was found with the personal achievement criterion. Three of the indicators (“Love of work,” Tolerance of mistakes, and Minority of one) from the Beyonder instrument developed by Torrance (2003) were related to public achievement. Only one other indicator from the Beyonder measure (“Well-roundedness”) was associated...

299 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: This book is a kind of precious book written by an experienced author and it will show one of recommendation of the book that you need to read.
Abstract: This volume was extremely difficult to review not only because of the complexities of the subject matter but also because of the scope of its intended audience. It might even be said that the findings of this research are of less significance than the new departure in writing initiated in its style. In its essence, this book is a description of the methodology and findings in a research project relating parental attitudes and feelings to the results produced by these attitudes and feelings upon a child9s development. The findings of the research were established by the application of psychologic measuring techniques to interviews of a fairly structured type.

245 citations

References
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Book
01 Jan 1953
TL;DR: An analytical biography of the precursor of psychoanalysis and famous neurologist, which reveals his childhood, courtship and marriage, career, ill health and death from cancer is given in this article.
Abstract: An analytical biography of the precursor of psychoanalysis and famous neurologist, which reveals his childhood, courtship and marriage, career, ill health and death from cancer. Bibliogs.

1,053 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
16 Apr 1976-Science
TL;DR: An attempt is made to show generally that variations in aggregate intelligence scores are closely associated with variations in patterns of family configuration and that these aggregate family factors are deeply implicated in the declining Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores.
Abstract: An attempt is made to show generally that variations in aggregate intelligence scores are closely associated with variations in patterns of family configuration and that these aggregate family factors are deeply implicated in the declining Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores the discussion summarizes a recent theoretical analysis that specifies the conditions under which family configuration may foster or impede intellectual growth and examines some relevant empirical findings finally returning to the special case of the SATs. A variety of findings reveal the impact of family configuration on intelligence: intellectual performance increases with decreasing family size; children born early in the sibship perform births are relatively short; long intersibling spacing appears to cancel the negative effects of birth order and in extreme cases to reverse them; in general long intervals enhance intellectual growth; the adverse effects of short intervals are reflected in the typically low intelligence quotients (IQs) of children of multiple births; only children the benefits of a small family are apparently counteracted by the lack of opportunities to serve as teachers to younger children; last children suffer that handicap also; temporal changes in family patterns such as birthrates average orders of births intervals between children and family size are reflected in temporal changes in aggregate measures of intellectual performance; and males and females differ in average birth order and this difference is reflected in aggregate intellectual performance scores. The pattern of these diverse data is consistent with the analysis of intellectual development based on the confluence model. Not all variation in intelligence is accounted for by variation in family configuration. For example the large decline in SAT Scores in the US cannot be a function of changes in family configuration alone because it is considerably larger that would be expected on the basis of a simple extrapolation from the four national samples.

609 citations

Book
01 Jan 1953

493 citations

Book
01 Jan 1875
TL;DR: The Natural History of the English Men of Science of the present day as mentioned in this paper is a collection of genealogies of the most prominent men of science in order to establish certain laws relating to heredity.
Abstract: This edition first published in 1970. Francis Galton has been honoured as the founder of biostatics and one of the creators of modern psychology. His principal aim was to establish a body of statistical knowledge about mental heredity which would result in a new pattern of behaviour for society. The relationship between outstanding men had led him to conclude that mental traits are inherited, and that an ideal society would take advantage of this "fact". In this particular work, which he termed a "Natural History of the English Men of Science of the present day", he examined at great length the antecedents, environment, education and hereditary features of the most prominent men of science in order to establish certain laws relating to heredity. It is a landmark in the transition from introspective to objective methods in biological and psychological research, and the author’s statistical, nonanecdotal approach was to prove immensely fruitful for the development of psychology. Indeed the questionnaire included in the work is probably the earliest in existence. As Professor Cowan points out in her introduction, historians as well as scientists intent upon a deeper understanding of the Victorian mind will find much of interest in this remarkable book.

401 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: This book is a kind of precious book written by an experienced author and it will show one of recommendation of the book that you need to read.
Abstract: This volume was extremely difficult to review not only because of the complexities of the subject matter but also because of the scope of its intended audience. It might even be said that the findings of this research are of less significance than the new departure in writing initiated in its style. In its essence, this book is a description of the methodology and findings in a research project relating parental attitudes and feelings to the results produced by these attitudes and feelings upon a child9s development. The findings of the research were established by the application of psychologic measuring techniques to interviews of a fairly structured type.

245 citations