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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/TPS.2018.2835465

Fast Ionization-Front-Induced Anomalous Switching Behavior in Trigger Bipolar Transistors of Marx-Bank Circuits Under Base-Drive Conditions

21 May 2018-IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science (IEEE)-Vol. 46, Iss: 6, pp 2064-2071
Abstract: The operation of transistorized Marx-bank circuits (MBCs) is analyzed, and physics-based modeling is used to understand the anomalous switching behavior of the first stage single trigger avalanche transistors of MBCs at high-current-injection conditions. The role of a voltage trigger pulse having variable rise time when applied to the base terminal is investigated to model the underlying physics of the anomalous switching behavior. Experimental observations related to ultrafast anomalous switching mechanisms of trigger transistor, i.e., either primary breakdown or current mode secondary breakdown, for faster and slower base drives are presented. This demonstrates the importance of the dynamic avalanche process and reverse saturation current on the switching mechanism under high-speed base-trigger ramps for different avalanche BJTs from various manufacturers and different lots. The agreement between 2-D TCAD device simulation results and the experimental observations shows the validity of the proposed theory when the base width and mobile carrier recombination rate are used as parameters in the device simulation setup. more

Topics: Bipolar junction transistor (53%), Marx generator (52%), Transistor (50%)

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/TPEL.2020.2976145
Abstract: Water treatment is one of the most important issues for all walks of life around the world. Different from the conventional water treatment technology, the advanced power electronic pulse technology has unique features and advantages for the modern water treatment. Unfortunately, there is no literature reported to describe them in a comprehensive and systematic way. To fill this gap, an overview of modern power electronic pulse generators (PPGs) for water treatment is presented. This article, for the first time, classifies the different types of PPGs from the viewpoint of pulse formation. Each of them is discussed, and the advantages and disadvantages are compared and summarized. Aside from that, this article presents the development and trend of the pulse generators suitable for the specified water treatment processes such as electrolysis, sterilization, and discharge degradation. Finally, a list of more than 100 relevant technical papers is also appended for a quick reference. more

Topics: Pulse generator (50%)

4 Citations


Open access
01 Mar 2009-
Topics: Semiconductor device (57%)

14,581 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/T-ED.1962.14965
Jr. C.T. Kirk1Institutions (1)
Abstract: It is shown that the observed falloff in the f T of a transistor at high currents is due to the spreading of the neutral base layer into the collector region of the device at high current densities. The base layer spreading mechanism derives from an analysis of the effect of the current-dependent buildup of the mobile-carrier space-charge density in the collector transition layer. Calculations show that at sufficiently high collector current levels, the mobile space-charge density in the collector transition layer cannot be considered negligible in comparison to the fixed charge density of that region. The over-all effect of taking the mobile space charge into account in analyzing the collector transition region is that, at high current densities, the transition region boundary adjacent to the neutral base layer is displaced toward the collector metal contact with increasing collector current. The attendant widening of the neutral base layer results in the observed, high-current falloff in f T . The application of this theory to transistor structures of both the alloy and mesa variety yields, in each case, calculated curves of f T vs I c which are in reasonably good agreement with experiment. more

Topics: Space charge (53%)

559 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/T-ED.1970.16976
P.L. Hower1, V.G. Krishna Reddi1Institutions (1)
Abstract: A rapid type of second breakdown observed in silicon n+-p-n-n+transistors is shown to be due to avalanche injection at the collector n-n+junction. Localized thermal effects, which are usually associated With second breakdown, are shown to play a minor role in the initiation of the transition to the low voltage state. A useful tool in the analysis of avalanche injection is the n+-n-n+diode, which exhibits negative resistance at a critical voltage and current. A close correspondence between the behavior of the diode and the transistor (open base) is established both theoretically and experimentally. Qualitative agreement with the proposed model is obtained for both directions of base current flow. It is shown that transistors having thin, lightly doped collector regions are particularly susceptible to avalanche injection, which suggests that some compromise may be necessary in the design of high-frequency power transistors. more

Topics: Avalanche breakdown (71%), Avalanche diode (71%), Zener diode (63%) more

211 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/T-ED.1970.16917
B.C. DeLoach1, D.L. Scharfetter1Institutions (1)
Abstract: This paper utilizes a simplified physical model to describe TRAPATT (TRApped Plasma Avalanche Triggered Transit) operation. By yielding on computational accuracy, a complete high-efficiency device design is generated and the dependence of operation on physical parameters is elucidated. The extreme complexity of the precise differential equations describing TRAPATT operation has made the calculation of a single diode-circuit configuration a tour de force. However, by observing the important features of such a solution, a simplified approach giving realistic answers has been evolved. A theoretical device design has been evolved. This design provides device width and impurity density as a function of TRAPATT frequency, and indicates a decreasing degree of "reach through" with increasing frequency. In addition, the explicit dependence of width and impurity density on the diode's reverse saturation current has been obtained. The launching of the avalanche zone through the diode, and, in particular, the limitations implicit in the recovery to a swept-out state, are of broad significance in other types of diodes, particularly p-i-n switches and "snap" diodes. more

Topics: Saturation current (50%)

108 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/T-ED.1966.15838
Abstract: High voltage diodes made of PνN (or PπN) structures sometimes fail by second breakdown when high voltage pulses are applied. The avalanche characteristics of PνN junction diodes are analysed and it is theoretically shown that they have negative resistance regions caused by the space charge effect of the carriers. Experiments on the second breakdown are also reported and it is concluded that the current concentration induced by the negative resistance may cause diode failure. more

Topics: Avalanche diode (71%), Avalanche breakdown (68%), Zener diode (66%) more

106 Citations

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