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Journal ArticleDOI

Fate and transport of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid in surface waters of agricultural basins.

01 Jan 2012-Pest Management Science (Pest Manag Sci)-Vol. 68, Iss: 1, pp 16-30

TL;DR: Glyphosate use in a watershed results in some occurrence in surface water; however, the watersheds most at risk for the offsite transport of glyphosate are those with high application rates, rainfall that results in overland runoff and a flow route that does not include transport through the soil.

AbstractBACKGROUND: Glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] is a herbicide used widely throughout the world in the production of many crops and is heavily used on soybeans, corn and cotton. Glyphosate is used in almost all agricultural areas of the United States, and the agricultural use of glyphosate has increased from less than 10000 Mg in 1992 to more than 80000 Mg in 2007. The greatest intensity of glyphosate use is in the midwestern United States, where applications are predominantly to genetically modified corn and soybeans. In spite of the increase in usage across the United States, the characterization of the transport of glyphosate and its degradate aminomethylphosphonicacid (AMPA) on a watershed scale is lacking. RESULTS: Glyphosate and AMPA were frequently detected in the surface waters of four agricultural basins. The frequency and magnitude of detections varied across basins, and the load, as a percentage of use, ranged from 0.009 to 0.86% and could be related to three general characteristics: source strength, rainfall runoff andflow route. CONCLUSIONS: Glyphosate use in a watershed results in some occurrence in surface water; however, the watersheds most at risk for the offsite transport of glyphosate are those with high application rates, rainfall that results in overland runoff and a flow route that does not include transport through the soil. c � 2011 Society of Chemical Industry

Topics: Aminomethylphosphonic acid (62%), Glyphosate (53%)

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Glyphosate will likely remain the most widely applied pesticide worldwide for years to come, and interest will grow in quantifying ecological and human health impacts, according to published global pesticide use data.
Abstract: Accurate pesticide use data are essential when studying the environmental and public health impacts of pesticide use. Since the mid-1990s, significant changes have occurred in when and how glyphosate herbicides are applied, and there has been a dramatic increase in the total volume applied. Data on glyphosate applications were collected from multiple sources and integrated into a dataset spanning agricultural, non-agricultural, and total glyphosate use from 1974–2014 in the United States, and from 1994–2014 globally. Since 1974 in the U.S., over 1.6 billion kilograms of glyphosate active ingredient have been applied, or 19 % of estimated global use of glyphosate (8.6 billion kilograms). Globally, glyphosate use has risen almost 15-fold since so-called “Roundup Ready,” genetically engineered glyphosate-tolerant crops were introduced in 1996. Two-thirds of the total volume of glyphosate applied in the U.S. from 1974 to 2014 has been sprayed in just the last 10 years. The corresponding share globally is 72 %. In 2014, farmers sprayed enough glyphosate to apply ~1.0 kg/ha (0.8 pound/acre) on every hectare of U.S.-cultivated cropland and nearly 0.53 kg/ha (0.47 pounds/acre) on all cropland worldwide. Genetically engineered herbicide-tolerant crops now account for about 56 % of global glyphosate use. In the U.S., no pesticide has come remotely close to such intensive and widespread use. This is likely the case globally, but published global pesticide use data are sparse. Glyphosate will likely remain the most widely applied pesticide worldwide for years to come, and interest will grow in quantifying ecological and human health impacts. Accurate, accessible time-series data on glyphosate use will accelerate research progress.

781 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: GBHs are the most heavily applied herbicide in the world and usage continues to rise; Worldwide, GBHs often contaminate drinking water sources, precipitation, and air, especially in agricultural regions and regulatory estimates of tolerable daily intakes for glyphosate in the United States and European Union are based on outdated science.
Abstract: The broad-spectrum herbicide glyphosate (common trade name “Roundup”) was first sold to farmers in 1974. Since the late 1970s, the volume of glyphosate-based herbicides (GBHs) applied has increased approximately 100-fold. Further increases in the volume applied are likely due to more and higher rates of application in response to the widespread emergence of glyphosate-resistant weeds and new, pre-harvest, dessicant use patterns. GBHs were developed to replace or reduce reliance on herbicides causing well-documented problems associated with drift and crop damage, slipping efficacy, and human health risks. Initial industry toxicity testing suggested that GBHs posed relatively low risks to non-target species, including mammals, leading regulatory authorities worldwide to set high acceptable exposure limits. To accommodate changes in GBH use patterns associated with genetically engineered, herbicide-tolerant crops, regulators have dramatically increased tolerance levels in maize, oilseed (soybeans and canola), and alfalfa crops and related livestock feeds. Animal and epidemiology studies published in the last decade, however, point to the need for a fresh look at glyphosate toxicity. Furthermore, the World Health Organization’s International Agency for Research on Cancer recently concluded that glyphosate is “probably carcinogenic to humans.” In response to changing GBH use patterns and advances in scientific understanding of their potential hazards, we have produced a Statement of Concern drawing on emerging science relevant to the safety of GBHs. Our Statement of Concern considers current published literature describing GBH uses, mechanisms of action, toxicity in laboratory animals, and epidemiological studies. It also examines the derivation of current human safety standards. We conclude that: (1) GBHs are the most heavily applied herbicide in the world and usage continues to rise; (2) Worldwide, GBHs often contaminate drinking water sources, precipitation, and air, especially in agricultural regions; (3) The half-life of glyphosate in water and soil is longer than previously recognized; (4) Glyphosate and its metabolites are widely present in the global soybean supply; (5) Human exposures to GBHs are rising; (6) Glyphosate is now authoritatively classified as a probable human carcinogen; (7) Regulatory estimates of tolerable daily intakes for glyphosate in the United States and European Union are based on outdated science. We offer a series of recommendations related to the need for new investments in epidemiological studies, biomonitoring, and toxicology studies that draw on the principles of endocrinology to determine whether the effects of GBHs are due to endocrine disrupting activities. We suggest that common commercial formulations of GBHs should be prioritized for inclusion in government-led toxicology testing programs such as the U.S. National Toxicology Program, as well as for biomonitoring as conducted by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

474 citations


Cites background from "Fate and transport of glyphosate an..."

  • ...GBHs contaminate drinking water via rainwater, surface runoff and leaching into groundwater, thereby adding drinking water, bathing, and washing water as possible routine exposure pathways [48, 54, 55]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is hypothesized that the selection pressure for glyphosate-resistance in bacteria could lead to shifts in microbiome composition and increases in antibiotic resistance to clinically important antimicrobial agents, which would have an impact on plant, animal and human health.
Abstract: The herbicide glyphosate, N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine, has been used extensively in the past 40years, under the assumption that side effects were minimal. However, in recent years, concerns have increased worldwide about the potential wide ranging direct and indirect health effects of the large scale use of glyphosate. In 2015, the World Health Organization reclassified glyphosate as probably carcinogenic to humans. A detailed overview is given of the scientific literature on the movement and residues of glyphosate and its breakdown product aminomethyl phosphonic acid (AMPA) in soil and water, their toxicity to macro- and microorganisms, their effects on microbial compositions and potential indirect effects on plant, animal and human health. Although the acute toxic effects of glyphosate and AMPA on mammals are low, there are animal data raising the possibility of health effects associated with chronic, ultra-low doses related to accumulation of these compounds in the environment. Intensive glyphosate use has led to the selection of glyphosate-resistant weeds and microorganisms. Shifts in microbial compositions due to selective pressure by glyphosate may have contributed to the proliferation of plant and animal pathogens. Research on a link between glyphosate and antibiotic resistance is still scarce but we hypothesize that the selection pressure for glyphosate-resistance in bacteria could lead to shifts in microbiome composition and increases in antibiotic resistance to clinically important antimicrobial agents. We recommend interdisciplinary research on the associations between low level chronic glyphosate exposure, distortions in microbial communities, expansion of antibiotic resistance and the emergence of animal, human and plant diseases. Independent research is needed to revisit the tolerance thresholds for glyphosate residues in water, food and animal feed taking all possible health risks into account.

343 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It was demonstrated that glyphosate and AMPA are present in soils under agricultural activity, and it was found that in stream samples the presence of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid is relatively more frequent in suspended particulate matter and sediment than in water.
Abstract: Argentinian agricultural production is fundamentally based on a technological package that combines no-till and glyphosate in the cultivation of transgenic crops. Transgenic crops (soybean, maize and cotton) occupy 23 million hectares. This means that glyphosate is the most employed herbicide in the country, where 180-200 million liters are applied every year. The aim of this work is to study the environmental fate of glyphosate and its major degradation product, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), in surface water and soil of agricultural basins. Sixteen agricultural sites and forty-four streams in the agricultural basins were sampled three times during 2012. The samples were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS ESI(+/-). In cultivated soils, glyphosate was detected in concentrations between 35 and 1502 μg kg(-1), while AMPA concentration ranged from 299 to 2256 μg kg(-1). In the surface water studied, the presence of glyphosate and AMPA was detected in about 15% and 12% of the samples analyzed, respectively. In suspended particulate matter, glyphosate was found in 67% while AMPA was present in 20% of the samples. In streams sediment glyphosate and AMPA were also detected in 66% and 88.5% of the samples respectively. This study is, to our knowledge, the first dealing with glyphosate fate in agricultural soils in Argentina. In the present study, it was demonstrated that glyphosate and AMPA are present in soils under agricultural activity. It was also found that in stream samples the presence of glyphosate and AMPA is relatively more frequent in suspended particulate matter and sediment than in water.

291 citations


Cites background from "Fate and transport of glyphosate an..."

  • ...…transport of glyphosate and AMPA in streams located in United States show that glyphosate and AMPA have been frequently detected in surface waters of agricultural basins where it is used and their concentrations are influenced by source, hydrology and water movement pathways (Coupe et al., 2012)....

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  • ...Recently, studies about the transport of glyphosate and AMPA in streams located in United States show that glyphosate and AMPA have been frequently detected in surface waters of agricultural basins where it is used and their concentrations are influenced by source, hydrology and water movement pathways (Coupe et al., 2012)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A coherent body of evidence is revealed indicating that GlyBH could be toxic below the regulatory lowest observed adverse effect level for chronic toxic effects, which includes teratogenic, tumorigenic and hepatorenal effects.
Abstract: Glyphosate-based herbicides (GlyBH), including Roundup, are the most widely used pesticides worldwide. Their uses have increased exponentially since their introduction on the market. Residue levels in food or water, as well as human exposures, are escalating. We have reviewed the toxic effects of GlyBH measured below regulatory limits by evaluating the published literature and regulatory reports. We reveal a coherent body of evidence indicating that GlyBH could be toxic below the regulatory lowest observed adverse effect level for chronic toxic effects. It includes teratogenic, tumorigenic and hepatorenal effects. They could be explained by endocrine disruption and oxidative stress, causing metabolic alterations, depending on dose and exposure time. Some effects were detected in the range of the recommended acceptable daily intake. Toxic effects of commercial formulations can also be explained by GlyBH adjuvants, which have their own toxicity, but also enhance glyphosate toxicity. These challenge the assumption of safety of GlyBH at the levels at which they contaminate food and the environment, albeit these levels may fall below regulatory thresholds. Neurodevelopmental, reproductive, and transgenerational effects of GlyBH must be revisited, since a growing body of knowledge suggests the predominance of endocrine disrupting mechanisms caused by environmentally relevant levels of exposure.

280 citations


Cites background from "Fate and transport of glyphosate an..."

  • ...Residues of glyphosate and AMPA have also been found to contaminate surface waters, even in areas without GMO crops (Coupe et al., 2012; IFEN, 2006)....

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References
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825 citations


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418 citations


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197 citations