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Book ChapterDOI

Fault-Tolerant Routing in WSNs

19 Aug 2016-pp 97-121
About: The article was published on 2016-08-19. It has received None citations till now. The article focuses on the topics: Zone Routing Protocol & Dynamic Source Routing.
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Journal Article
TL;DR: S-MAC as discussed by the authors is a medium access control protocol designed for wireless sensor networks, which uses three novel techniques to reduce energy consumption and support self-configuration, including virtual clusters to auto-sync on sleep schedules.
Abstract: This paper proposes S-MAC, a medium-access control (MAC) protocol designed for wireless sensor networks. Wireless sensor networks use battery-operated computing and sensing devices. A network of these devices will collaborate for a common application such as environmental monitoring. We expect sensor networks to be deployed in an ad hoc fashion, with individual nodes remaining largely inactive for long periods of time, but then becoming suddenly active when something is detected. These characteristics of sensor networks and applications motivate a MAC that is different from traditional wireless MACs such as IEEE 802.11 in almost every way: energy conservation and self-configuration are primary goals, while per-node fairness and latency are less important. S-MAC uses three novel techniques to reduce energy consumption and support self-configuration. To reduce energy consumption in listening to an idle channel, nodes periodically sleep. Neighboring nodes form virtual clusters to auto-synchronize on sleep schedules. Inspired by PAMAS, S-MAC also sets the radio to sleep during transmissions of other nodes. Unlike PAMAS, it only uses in-channel signaling. Finally, S-MAC applies message passing to reduce contention latency for sensor-network applications that require store-and-forward processing as data move through the network. We evaluate our implementation of S-MAC over a sample sensor node, the Mote, developed at University of California, Berkeley. The experiment results show that, on a source node, an 802.11-like MAC consumes 2–6 times more energy than S-MAC for traffic load with messages sent every 1–10s.

5,354 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
07 Nov 2002
TL;DR: S-MAC uses three novel techniques to reduce energy consumption and support self-configuration, and applies message passing to reduce contention latency for sensor-network applications that require store-and-forward processing as data move through the network.
Abstract: This paper proposes S-MAC, a medium-access control (MAC) protocol designed for wireless sensor networks Wireless sensor networks use battery-operated computing and sensing devices A network of these devices will collaborate for a common application such as environmental monitoring We expect sensor networks to be deployed in an ad hoc fashion, with individual nodes remaining largely inactive for long periods of time, but then becoming suddenly active when something is detected These characteristics of sensor networks and applications motivate a MAC that is different from traditional wireless MACs such as IEEE 80211 in almost every way: energy conservation and self-configuration are primary goals, while per-node fairness and latency are less important S-MAC uses three novel techniques to reduce energy consumption and support self-configuration To reduce energy consumption in listening to an idle channel, nodes periodically sleep Neighboring nodes form virtual clusters to auto-synchronize on sleep schedules Inspired by PAMAS, S-MAC also sets the radio to sleep during transmissions of other nodes Unlike PAMAS, it only uses in-channel signaling Finally, S-MAC applies message passing to reduce contention latency for sensor-network applications that require store-and-forward processing as data move through the network We evaluate our implementation of S-MAC over a sample sensor node, the Mote, developed at University of California, Berkeley The experiment results show that, on a source node, an 80211-like MAC consumes 2-6 times more energy than S-MAC for traffic load with messages sent every 1-10 s

5,117 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper proposes S-MAC, a medium access control (MAC) protocol designed for wireless sensor networks that enables low-duty-cycle operation in a multihop network and reveals fundamental tradeoffs on energy, latency and throughput.
Abstract: This paper proposes S-MAC, a medium access control (MAC) protocol designed for wireless sensor networks. Wireless sensor networks use battery-operated computing and sensing devices. A network of these devices will collaborate for a common application such as environmental monitoring. We expect sensor networks to be deployed in an ad hoc fashion, with nodes remaining largely inactive for long time, but becoming suddenly active when something is detected. These characteristics of sensor networks and applications motivate a MAC that is different from traditional wireless MACs such as IEEE 802.11 in several ways: energy conservation and self-configuration are primary goals, while per-node fairness and latency are less important. S-MAC uses a few novel techniques to reduce energy consumption and support self-configuration. It enables low-duty-cycle operation in a multihop network. Nodes form virtual clusters based on common sleep schedules to reduce control overhead and enable traffic-adaptive wake-up. S-MAC uses in-channel signaling to avoid overhearing unnecessary traffic. Finally, S-MAC applies message passing to reduce contention latency for applications that require in-network data processing. The paper presents measurement results of S-MAC performance on a sample sensor node, the UC Berkeley Mote, and reveals fundamental tradeoffs on energy, latency and throughput. Results show that S-MAC obtains significant energy savings compared with an 802.11-like MAC without sleeping.

2,843 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors explore and evaluate the use of directed diffusion for a simple remote-surveillance sensor network analytically and experimentally and demonstrate that directed diffusion can achieve significant energy savings and can outperform idealized traditional schemes under the investigated scenarios.
Abstract: Advances in processor, memory, and radio technology will enable small and cheap nodes capable of sensing, communication, and computation. Networks of such nodes can coordinate to perform distributed sensing of environmental phenomena. In this paper, we explore the directed-diffusion paradigm for such coordination. Directed diffusion is data-centric in that all communication is for named data. All nodes in a directed-diffusion-based network are application aware. This enables diffusion to achieve energy savings by selecting empirically good paths and by caching and processing data in-network (e.g., data aggregation). We explore and evaluate the use of directed diffusion for a simple remote-surveillance sensor network analytically and experimentally. Our evaluation indicates that directed diffusion can achieve significant energy savings and can outperform idealized traditional schemes (e.g., omniscient multicast) under the investigated scenarios.

2,550 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A definition for cross-layer design is suggested, the basic types of cross- layer design with examples drawn from the literature are discussed, and the initial proposals on howcross-layer interactions may be implemented are categorized.
Abstract: Of late, there has been an avalanche of cross-layer design proposals for wireless networks. A number of researchers have looked at specific aspects of network performance and, approaching cross-layer design via their interpretation of what it implies, have presented several cross-layer design proposals. These proposals involve different layers of the protocol stack, and address both cellular and ad hoc networks. There has also been work relating to the implementation of cross-layer interactions. It is high time that these various individual efforts be put into perspective and a more holistic view be taken. In this article, we take a step in that direction by presenting a survey of the literature in the area of cross-layer design, and by taking stock of the ongoing work. We suggest a definition for cross-layer design, discuss the basic types of cross-layer design with examples drawn from the literature, and categorize the initial proposals on how cross-layer interactions may be implemented. We then highlight some open challenges and new opportunities for cross-layer design. Designers presenting cross-layer design proposals can start addressing these as they move ahead.

1,057 citations