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Journal ArticleDOI

Features and uses of high-fidelity medical simulations that lead to effective learning: a BEME systematic review

01 Jan 2005-Medical Teacher (Taylor & Francis)-Vol. 27, Iss: 1, pp 10-28

TL;DR: While research in this field needs improvement in terms of rigor and quality, high-fidelity medical simulations are educationally effective and simulation-based education complements medical education in patient care settings.

AbstractSUMMARY Review date: 1969 to 2003, 34 years. Background and context: Simulations are now in widespread use in medical education and medical personnel evaluation. Outcomes research on the use and effectiveness of simulation technology in medical education is scattered, inconsistent and varies widely in methodological rigor and substantive focus. Objectives: Review and synthesize existing evidence in educational science that addresses the question, ‘What are the features and uses of high-fidelity medical simulations that lead to most effective learning?’. Search strategy: The search covered five literature databases (ERIC, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Web of Science and Timelit) and employed 91 single search terms and concepts and their Boolean combinations. Hand searching, Internet searches and attention to the ‘grey literature’ were also used. The aim was to perform the most thorough literature search possible of peer-reviewed publications and reports in the unpublished literature that have been judged for academic quality. Inclusion and exclusion criteria: Four screening criteria were used to reduce the initial pool of 670 journal articles to a focused set of 109 studies: (a) elimination of review articles in favor of empirical studies; (b) use of a simulator as an educational assessment or intervention with learner outcomes measured quantitatively; (c) comparative research, either experimental or quasi-experimental; and (d) research that involves simulation as an educational intervention. Data extraction: Data were extracted systematically from the 109 eligible journal articles by independent coders. Each coder used a standardized data extraction protocol. Data synthesis: Qualitative data synthesis and tabular presentation of research methods and outcomes were used. Heterogeneity of research designs, educational interventions, outcome measures and timeframe precluded data synthesis using meta-analysis. Headline results: Coding accuracy for features of the journal articles is high. The extant quality of the published research is generally weak. The weight of the best available evidence suggests that high-fidelity medical simulations facilitate learning under the right conditions. These include the following:

Topics: Empirical research (52%), Data extraction (52%), Educational assessment (51%), MEDLINE (50%)

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article reviews and critically evaluates historical and contemporary research on simulation‐based medical education (SBME) and presents and discusses 12 features and best practices that teachers should know in order to use medical simulation technology to maximum educational benefit.
Abstract: Objectives This article reviews and critically evaluates historical and contemporary research on simulation-based medical education (SBME). It also presents and discusses 12 features and best practices of SBME that teachers should know in order to use medical simulation technology to maximum educational benefit. Methods This qualitative synthesis of SBME research and scholarship was carried out in two stages. Firstly, we summarised the results of three SBME research reviews covering the years 1969–2003. Secondly, we performed a selective, critical review of SBME research and scholarship published during 2003–2009. Results The historical and contemporary research synthesis is reported to inform the medical education community about 12 features and best practices of SBME: (i) feedback; (ii) deliberate practice; (iii) curriculum integration; (iv) outcome measurement; (v) simulation fidelity; (vi) skill acquisition and maintenance; (vii) mastery learning; (viii) transfer to practice; (ix) team training; (x) high-stakes testing; (xi) instructor training, and (xii) educational and professional context. Each of these is discussed in the light of available evidence. The scientific quality of contemporary SBME research is much improved compared with the historical record. Conclusions Development of and research into SBME have grown and matured over the past 40 years on substantive and methodological grounds. We believe the impact and educational utility of SBME are likely to increase in the future. More thematic programmes of research are needed. Simulation-based medical education is a complex service intervention that needs to be planned and practised with attention to organisational contexts. Medical Education 2010: 44: 50–63

1,308 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
07 Sep 2011-JAMA
TL;DR: In comparison with no intervention, technology-enhanced simulation training in health professions education is consistently associated with large effects for outcomes of knowledge, skills, and behaviors and moderate effects for patient-related outcomes.
Abstract: Context Although technology-enhanced simulation has widespread appeal, its effectiveness remains uncertain. A comprehensive synthesis of evidence may inform the use of simulation in health professions education. Objective To summarize the outcomes of technology-enhanced simulation training for health professions learners in comparison with no intervention. Data Source Systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, ERIC, PsychINFO, Scopus, key journals, and previous review bibliographies through May 2011. Study Selection Original research in any language evaluating simulation compared with no intervention for training practicing and student physicians, nurses, dentists, and other health care professionals. Data Extraction Reviewers working in duplicate evaluated quality and abstracted information on learners, instructional design (curricular integration, distributing training over multiple days, feedback, mastery learning, and repetitive practice), and outcomes. We coded skills (performance in a test setting) separately for time, process, and product measures, and similarly classified patient care behaviors. Data Synthesis From a pool of 10 903 articles, we identified 609 eligible studies enrolling 35 226 trainees. Of these, 137 were randomized studies, 67 were nonrandomized studies with 2 or more groups, and 405 used a single-group pretest-posttest design. We pooled effect sizes using random effects. Heterogeneity was large (I2>50%) in all main analyses. In comparison with no intervention, pooled effect sizes were 1.20 (95% CI, 1.04-1.35) for knowledge outcomes (n = 118 studies), 1.14 (95% CI, 1.03-1.25) for time skills (n = 210), 1.09 (95% CI, 1.03-1.16) for process skills (n = 426), 1.18 (95% CI, 0.98-1.37) for product skills (n = 54), 0.79 (95% CI, 0.47-1.10) for time behaviors (n = 20), 0.81 (95% CI, 0.66-0.96) for other behaviors (n = 50), and 0.50 (95% CI, 0.34-0.66) for direct effects on patients (n = 32). Subgroup analyses revealed no consistent statistically significant interactions between simulation training and instructional design features or study quality. Conclusion In comparison with no intervention, technology-enhanced simulation training in health professions education is consistently associated with large effects for outcomes of knowledge, skills, and behaviors and moderate effects for patient-related outcomes.

1,272 citations


Cites background or methods from "Features and uses of high-fidelity ..."

  • ...Criterion B was fulfilled if (1) a randomized study concealed allocation or (2) an observational study controlled for another baseline learner characteristic....

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  • ...We sought to answer 2 questions: (1) To what extent are simulation technologies for training health care professionals associated with improved outcomes in comparison with no intervention? and (2) How do outcomes vary for different simulation instructional designs? Based on the strength of the theoretical foundations and currency in the field, we selected 5 instructional design features(2,9) (curricular integration, distributed practice, feedback, mastery learning, and range of difficulty) for subgroup analyses (see eBox for definitions; available at http://www ....

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  • ...Beyond descriptive analysis (2) 560 (91....

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  • ...When authors reported multiple measures of a single outcome (eg, multiple measures of efficiency), we selected in decreasing order of priority (1) the authordefined primary outcome; (2) a global or summary measure of effect; (3) the most clinically relevant measure; or (4) the mean of the measures reported....

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  • ...cComparability of cohorts criterion A was fulfilled if the study (1) was randomized or (2) controlled for a baseline learning outcome....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The aim of this paper is to critically review what is felt to be important about the role of debriefing in the field of simulation-based learning, how it has come about and developed over time, and the different styles or approaches that are used and how effective the process is.
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to critically review what is felt to be important about the role of debriefing in the field of simulation-based learning, how it has come about and developed over time, and the different styles or approaches that are used and how effective the process is. A recent systematic

1,210 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
10 Sep 2008-JAMA
TL;DR: Internet-based learning is associated with large positive effects compared with no intervention and with non-Internet instructional methods, suggesting effectiveness similar to traditional methods.
Abstract: Context The increasing use of Internet-based learning in health professions education may be informed by a timely, comprehensive synthesis of evidence of effectiveness. Objectives To summarize the effect of Internet-based instruction for health professions learners compared with no intervention and with non-Internet interventions. Data Sources Systematic search of MEDLINE, Scopus, CINAHL, EMBASE, ERIC, TimeLit, Web of Science, Dissertation Abstracts, and the University of Toronto Research and Development Resource Base from 1990 through 2007. Study Selection Studies in any language quantifying the association of Internet-based instruction and educational outcomes for practicing and student physicians, nurses, pharmacists, dentists, and other health care professionals compared with a no-intervention or non-Internet control group or a preintervention assessment. Data Extraction Two reviewers independently evaluated study quality and abstracted information including characteristics of learners, learning setting, and intervention (including level of interactivity, practice exercises, online discussion, and duration). Data Synthesis There were 201 eligible studies. Heterogeneity in results across studies was large (I2 ≥ 79%) in all analyses. Effect sizes were pooled using a random effects model. The pooled effect size in comparison to no intervention favored Internet-based interventions and was 1.00 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.90-1.10; P Conclusions Internet-based learning is associated with large positive effects compared with no intervention. In contrast, effects compared with non-Internet instructional methods are heterogeneous and generally small, suggesting effectiveness similar to traditional methods. Future research should directly compare different Internet-based interventions.

1,147 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Although the number of reports analyzed in this meta-analysis is small, these results show that SBME with DP is superior to traditional clinical medical education in achieving specific clinical skill acquisition goals.
Abstract: Purpose This article presents a comparison of the effectiveness of traditional clinical education toward skill acquisition goals versus simulation-based medical education (SBME) with deliberate practice (DP). Method This is a quantitative meta-analysis that spans 20 years, 1990 to 2010. A search strategy involving three literature databases, 12 search terms, and four inclusion criteria was used. Four authors independently retrieved and reviewed articles. Main outcome measures were extracted to calculate effect sizes.

1,133 citations


References
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BookDOI
01 Jan 2000
TL;DR: Boken presenterer en helhetlig strategi for hvordan myndigheter, helsepersonell, industri og forbrukere kan redusere medisinske feil.
Abstract: Boken presenterer en helhetlig strategi for hvordan myndigheter, helsepersonell, industri og forbrukere kan redusere medisinske feil.

16,388 citations


"Features and uses of high-fidelity ..." refers background or result in this paper

  • ...In addition, the Institute of Medicine report asserts, ‘‘health care organizations should establish team training programs for personnel in critical care areas .. .using proven methods such as crew resource management techniques employed in aviation, including simulation’’ ( Kohn et al., 1999 )....

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  • ...Recent studies and reports, including the US Institute of Medicine’s To Err is Human ( Kohn et al., 1999 ) and a subsequent empirical study reported in the Journal of the American Medical Association (Zahn & Miller, 2003), have drawn attention to the perils of healthcare systems worldwide (Barach & Moss, 2002; Brennan et al., 1991)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A theoretical framework is proposed that explains expert performance in terms of acquired characteristics resulting from extended deliberate practice and that limits the role of innate (inherited) characteristics to general levels of activity and emotionality.
Abstract: because observed behavior is the result of interactions between environmental factors and genes during the extended period of development. Therefore, to better understand expert and exceptional performance, we must require that the account specify the different environmental factors that could selectively promote and facilitate the achievement of such performance. In addition, recent research on expert performance and expertise (Chi, Glaser, & Farr, 1988; Ericsson & Smith, 1991a) has shown that important characteristics of experts' superior performance are acquired through experience and that the effect of practice on performance is larger than earlier believed possible. For this reason, an account of exceptional performance must specify the environmental circumstances, such as the duration and structure of activities, and necessary minimal biological attributes that lead to the acquisition of such characteristics and a corresponding level of performance. An account that explains how a majority of individuals can attain a given level of expert performance might seem inherently unable to explain the exceptional performance of only a small number of individuals. However, if such an empirical account could be empirically supported, then the extreme characteristics of experts could be viewed as having been acquired through learning and adaptation, and studies of expert performance could provide unique insights into the possibilities and limits of change in cognitive capacities and bodily functions. In this article we propose a theoretical framework that explains expert performance in terms of acquired characteristics resulting from extended deliberate practice and that limits the role of innate (inherited) characteristics to general levels of activity and emotionality. We provide empirical support from two new studies and from already published evidence on expert performance in many different domains.

7,293 citations


"Features and uses of high-fidelity ..." refers background in this paper

  • ...professional sports, aviation, chess, musical performance, academic productivity) is governed by a simple set of principles (Ericsson & Charness, 1994; Ericsson et al., 1993; Ericsson & Lehman, 1996)....

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  • ...…that the acquisition of expertise in clinical medicine and a variety of other fields (e.g. professional sports, aviation, chess, musical performance, academic productivity) is governed by a simple set of principles (Ericsson & Charness, 1994; Ericsson et al., 1993; Ericsson & Lehman, 1996)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: There is a substantial amount of injury to patients from medical management, and many injuries are the result of substandard care.
Abstract: Background As part of an interdisciplinary study of medical injury and malpractice litigation, we estimated the incidence of adverse events, defined as injuries caused by medical management, and of the subgroup of such injuries that resulted from negligent or substandard care. Methods We reviewed 30,121 randomly selected records from 51 randomly selected acute care, nonpsychiatric hospitals in New York State in 1984. We then developed population estimates of injuries and computed rates according to the age and sex of the patients as well as the specialties of the physicians. Results Adverse events occurred in 3.7 percent of the hospitalizations (95 percent confidence interval, 3.2 to 4.2), and 27.6 percent of the adverse events were due to negligence (95 percent confidence interval, 22.5 to 32.6). Although 70.5 percent of the adverse events gave rise to disability lasting less than six months, 2.6 percent caused permanently disabling injuries and 13.6 percent led to death. The percentage of adverse events...

4,440 citations


Book
01 Apr 2009
Abstract: The "Kirkpatrick Model" for Evaluating Training Programs is the most widely used approach in the corporate, government, and academic worlds. First developed in 1959, it focuses on four key areas: reaction, learning, behavior, and results. Evaluating Training Programs provides a comprehensive guide to Kirkpatrick's four-level model, along with detailed case studies that show how the approach is used successfully in a wide range of programs and institutions. The third edition revises and updates existing material and includes new strategies for managing change effectively.

3,678 citations