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Journal ArticleDOI

Feminism in advertising: irony or revolution? A critical review of femvertising

29 Sep 2020-Feminist Media Studies (Routledge)-pp 1-19
TL;DR: There is an increasing presence of "femvertising" in the media; an advertising style that highlights women's talents, centers themes on pro-woman messaging and counters stereotyping as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: There is an increasing presence of ‘femvertising’ in the media; an advertising style that highlights women’s talents, centers themes on pro-woman messaging and counters stereotyping. However, no sy...
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a quantitative content analysis was performed assessing company leadership team listings, annual reports, CSR reports and CSR websites of 61 US-based companies (31 award winners and 30 non-winning competitors) to compare the prevalence of internal and external gender-equality CSR activities of companies that have (versus have not) won femvertising awards.
Abstract: This study examined the potential for a new area of corporate social responsibility (CSR) washing: gender equality. Companies are increasingly recognized for advertisements promoting gender equality, termed “femvertisements.” However, it is unclear whether companies that win femvertising awards actually support women with an institutionalized approach to gender equality. A quantitative content analysis was performed assessing company leadership team listings, annual reports, CSR reports, and CSR websites of 61 US-based companies (31 award winners and 30 non-winning competitors) to compare the prevalence of internal and external gender-equality CSR activities of companies that have (versus have not) won femvertising awards. When controlling for number of employees and annual revenue, award-winning companies committed to more internal efforts that support women than non-award-winning companies. However, no significant differences were found in the number of external efforts or representation in female leadership between companies with and without award-winning femvertisements. Overall, a majority of award-winning companies (81%) engaged in less than ten of the possible 23 gender-equality CSR activities, suggesting these companies’ female empowerment commercials were often not in line with their broader CSR activities. While more research is needed in this area, we propose the term “fempower-washing” to describe CSR-washing in the context of gender equality.

33 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: By speaking up and fighting back, individually and collectively, we affirm and ensure that #MeToo is a strong and diverse movement, not simply a historical moment whose gains can be erased as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: By speaking up and fighting back, individually and collectively, we affirm and ensure that #MeToo is a strong and diverse movement, not simply a historical moment whose gains can be erased. From bo...

24 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , the authors present a conceptual model of persuading consumer attitudes through virtual and augmented reality advertisements using the social psychology theory of elaboration likelihood modeling (ELM) and identify six research prepositions that facilitate the investigation of consumer attitude persuasion through these advertisements based on the literature.
Abstract: Using the social psychology theory of elaboration likelihood model (ELM), we present a conceptual model of persuading consumer attitudes through virtual and augmented reality advertisements. We begin this paper with a systematic literature review that assesses a number of theoretical and empirical papers that utilize ELM for virtual reality and augmented reality advertisements. The second section presents research prepositions that facilitate the investigation of consumer attitude persuasion through virtual reality and augmented reality advertisements. The authors identified six research prepositions that facilitate the investigation of consumer attitude persuasion through these advertisements based on the literature. Presented in the third section of this paper is a detailed future research agenda organized by two main research paths: central and peripheral. Moreover, advertisement quality, demographic differences, and the technological context of virtual and augmented reality advertisements helped to facilitate central route persuasion. Variables such as source credibility, social presence, and message content in virtual reality and augmented reality advertisements were found as the persuasion factors under the peripheral route. Therefore, this study provides a method to examine consumer attitudes through virtual reality and augmented reality advertisements using the social psychology theory of elaboration likelihood modelling (ELM).

6 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , the authors conceptualized femvertising from a consumer perspective, explored the nature of authentic femvertising, and differentiated it from femwashing, and found that the concepts of femvertising and femwashing coexist in consumers' minds.
Abstract: Stereotypes in advertising are recognized as contributing to the perpetuation of inequalities. In response to this, femvertising—“advertising that employs pro-female talents, messages, and imagery to empower women and girls” (SheKnows, 2014)—is increasingly observed in the marketplace. Despite femvertising's prevalence, current research has failed to identify women's core understanding of it. The objectives of this research are to conceptualize femvertising from a consumer perspective, explore the nature of authentic femvertising, and differentiate it from femwashing. In-depth interviews were conducted with 17 women. The findings help uncover femvertising's complex meaning as perceived by consumers and distinguish it from femwashing. The results suggest that the concepts of femvertising and femwashing coexist in consumers' minds. Six dimensions of authentic femvertising are identified: transparency, consistency, identification, diversity, respect, and challenging stereotypes. This research contributes to the consumer research, advertising, and branding literature; encourages a broader societal reflection about gender stereotypes; and offers several managerial implications.

5 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
15 Dec 2020
TL;DR: In this article, a metodologia for la investigación sobre femvertising que prevalece sobre el debate entre the honestidad de las marcas and la responsabilidad social de sus mensajes.
Abstract: La estrategia de comunicacion publicitaria denominada femvertising esta siendo utilizada cada vez mas por empresas en todo el mundo. Consiste en elaborar una comunicacion publicitaria comprometida con la igualdad entre sexos y con un discurso positivo sobre y para las mujeres. Sin embargo, el caracter intrinsicamente comercial de la publicidad siempre pone bajo sospecha las verdaderas intenciones de las marcas, que pueden instrumentalizar en su beneficio aquellos movimientos sociales con prestigio. Es por ello que, en los todavia escasos analisis academicos sobre el fenomeno, suele primar la reflexion sobre la existencia o no de un feminismo espurio, asi como la critica al consumo y el modelo neoliberal, dejando en la oscuridad las cuestiones formales de una formula publicitaria que cada vez tiene mas presencia. El presente texto, partiendo de la imposibilidad de diagnosticar el compromiso real o interesado de una firma, y aceptando que el consumo tambien puede implicar compromiso politico, propone una metodologia para la investigacion sobre femvertising que prevalece sobre el debate entre la honestidad de las marcas y la responsabilidad social de sus mensajes.

5 citations

References
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Book
01 Jan 2010
TL;DR: In this paper, world-leading marketing guru Philip Kotler explains why the future of marketing lies in creating products, services, and company cultures that inspire, include, and reflect the values of target customers.
Abstract: Understand the next level of marketingThe new model for marketing-Marketing 3.0-treats customers not as mere consumers but as the complex, multi-dimensional human beings that they are. Customers, in turn, are choosing companies and products that satisfy deeper needs for participation, creativity, community, and idealism.In Marketing 3.0, world-leading marketing guru Philip Kotler explains why the future of marketing lies in creating products, services, and company cultures that inspire, include, and reflect the values of target customers. - Explains the future of marketing, along with why most marketers are stuck in the past - Examines companies that are ahead of the curve, such as S. C. Johnson - Kotler is one of the most highly recognized marketing gurus, famous for his "4 P's of Marketing" In an age of highly aware customers, companies must demonstrate their relevance to customers at the level of basic values. Marketing 3.0 is the unmatched guide to getting out front of this new tide sweeping through the nature of marketing.

554 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a meta-analysis of the research on gender roles in TV and radio advertising based on 64 primary studies was conducted, and the results of a correlation analysis and a simultaneous equation model showed that gender stereotyping in advertising depends on genderrelated developments and value changes in society rather than the other way around.
Abstract: Although interest regarding gender role portrayals in advertising has persisted for many years, the degree of gender stereotyping in advertising, possible changes of gender stereotyping over the years, and the nature of the relationship between gender stereotyping in advertising and role changing developments in society have not yet been studied in previous research. To address these issues, this study provides a meta-analysis of the research on gender roles in TV and radio advertising based on 64 primary studies. The results show that stereotyping is prevalent in advertising. Stereotyping occurs mainly related to gender’s occupational status, meaning gender equality in advertising is least likely in an area that is the primary concern of gender-related politics. Stereotyping in advertising has indeed decreased over the years, although this decrease is almost exclusively due to developments in high masculinity countries. The results of a correlation analysis and a simultaneous equation model show that gender stereotyping in advertising depends on gender-related developments and value changes in society rather than the other way around. These results provide for the first time empirical support for the mirror argument over the mold argument in the long-standing debate about advertising’s consequences for society. The findings further provide implications for researchers, public policy makers, and marketing practitioners.

300 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Munro examines the history of feminism and looks at what contemporary developments might mean for feminist politics as mentioned in this paper, concluding that the internet has emerged as an increasingly important space for feminist activists.
Abstract: The internet has emerged as an increasingly important space for feminist activists Are we witnessing a shift from third- to fourth-wave feminism? Ealasaid Munro examines the history of feminism and looks at what contemporary developments might mean for feminist politics

237 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors empirically test one of the "self-evident" truths in contemporary theorizing about consumer behavior, that people go about purchasing one thing or another only if these things are consistent with, enhance, or in some other way fit well with the conception they have of themselves.
Abstract: The basic purpose of this research is to empirically test one of the "self-evident" truths in contemporary theorizing about consumer behavior-that people go about purchasing one thing or another only if these things are consistent with, enhance, or in some other way fit well with the conception they have of themselves. Secondarily, the research seeks to distinguish the role of two different modes of self-concept as they relate to consumer behavior-"actual self-concept," the way a person actually ("really") sees himself to be, and "ideal selfconcept," the way a person would ideally ("like to") be.

233 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors highlight the historical context of gender stereotypes in advertising and then examine the scholarship related to gender stereotypes, concluding that women were presented in an inferior manner relative to their potential and capabilities, while at the same the data indicated a shift towards more positive role portrayals.
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to highlight the historical context of gender stereotypes in advertising and then examine the scholarship related to gender stereotypes. Gender portrayals in advertising have been examined extensively in the last five decades and still remain an important topic. Changing role structure in the family and in the labor force has brought significant variation in both male and female roles and subsequently how it is reflected in advertising. It has been noted that there is a culture lag. Sexes for a long period of time were depicted in advertising in more traditional roles. Women were presented in an inferior manner relative to their potential and capabilities, while at the same the data indicated a shift towards more positive role portrayals. The changing role of men is the area that has seen the greatest interest in the past few years. Men are depicted in advertising in ‘softer’ roles, while interacting with their children. Men are also shown in more egalitarian roles. The paper ...

228 citations

Trending Questions (3)
How does the portrayal of women in advertising change under the influence of feminism?

The answer to the query is not present in the provided paper. The paper discusses the presence of 'femvertising' in advertising but does not specifically address how the portrayal of women in advertising changes under the influence of feminism.

How has feminism influenced the way that women are portrayed in advertising?

The provided paper does not directly answer the query about how feminism has influenced the portrayal of women in advertising. The paper discusses the presence of 'femvertising' in the media, which highlights women's talents and counters stereotyping.

How did the role of women in advertising change during World War II?

The role of women in advertising during World War II changed as they were portrayed as strong and independent, taking on traditionally male roles.