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Journal ArticleDOI

Fibroblast growth factors, their receptors and signaling.

01 Sep 2000-Endocrine-related Cancer (Bioscientifica Ltd)-Vol. 7, Iss: 3, pp 165-197

TL;DR: FGF signaling also appears to play a role in tumor growth and angiogenesis, and autocrine FGF signaling may be particularly important in the progression of steroid hormone-dependent cancers to a hormone-independent state.

AbstractFibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are small polypeptide growth factors, all of whom share in common certain structural characteristics, and most of whom bind heparin avidly. Many FGFs contain signal peptides for secretion and are secreted into the extracellular environment, where theycan bind to the heparan-like glycosaminoglycans (HLGAGs) of the extracellular matrix (ECM). From this reservoir, FGFs mayact directlyon target cells, or theycan be released through digestion of the ECM or the activityof a carrier protein, a secreted FGF binding protein. FGFs bind specific receptor tyrosine kinases in the context of HLGAGs and this binding induces receptor dimerization and activation, ultimatelyresulting in the activation of various signal transduction cascades. Some FGFs are potent angiogenic factors and most playimportant roles in embry onic development and wound healing. FGF signaling also appears to playa role in tumor growth and angiogenesis, and autocrine FGF signaling maybe particularlyimportant in the progression of steroid hormone-dependent cancers to a hormone-independent state.

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Wound healing is an evolutionarily conserved, complex, multicellular process that, in skin, aims at barrier restoration. This process involves the coordinated efforts of several cell types including keratinocytes, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, macrophages, and platelets. The migration, infiltration, proliferation, and differentiation of these cells will culminate in an inflammatory response, the formation of new tissue and ultimately wound closure. This complex process is executed and regulated by an equally complex signaling network involving numerous growth factors, cytokines and chemokines. Of particular importance is the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family, transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) family, fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), interleukin (IL) family, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha family. Currently, patients are treated by three growth factors: PDGF-BB, bFGF, and GM-CSF. Only PDGF-BB has successfully completed randomized clinical trials in the Unites States. With gene therapy now in clinical trial and the discovery of biodegradable polymers, fibrin mesh, and human collagen serving as potential delivery systems other growth factors may soon be available to patients. This review will focus on the specific roles of these growth factors and cytokines during the wound healing process.

2,210 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A subset of the FGF family, expressed in adult tissue, is important for neuronal signal transduction in the central and peripheral nervous systems.
Abstract: Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) make up a large family of polypeptide growth factors that are found in organisms ranging from nematodes to humans. In vertebrates, the 22 members of the FGF family range in molecular mass from 17 to 34 kDa and share 13-71% amino acid identity. Between vertebrate species, FGFs are highly conserved in both gene structure and amino-acid sequence. FGFs have a high affinity for heparan sulfate proteoglycans and require heparan sulfate to activate one of four cell-surface FGF receptors. During embryonic development, FGFs have diverse roles in regulating cell proliferation, migration and differentiation. In the adult organism, FGFs are homeostatic factors and function in tissue repair and response to injury. When inappropriately expressed, some FGFs can contribute to the pathogenesis of cancer. A subset of the FGF family, expressed in adult tissue, is important for neuronal signal transduction in the central and peripheral nervous systems.

2,149 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is concluded that FGF-21, which was discovered to be a potent regulator of glucose uptake in mouse 3T3-L1 and primary human adipocytes, exhibits the therapeutic characteristics necessary for an effective treatment of diabetes.
Abstract: Diabetes mellitus is a major health concern, affecting more than 5% of the population. Here we describe a potential novel therapeutic agent for this disease, FGF-21, which was discovered to be a potent regulator of glucose uptake in mouse 3T3-L1 and primary human adipocytes. FGF-21-transgenic mice were viable and resistant to diet-induced obesity. Therapeutic administration of FGF-21 reduced plasma glucose and triglycerides to near normal levels in both ob/ob and db/db mice. These effects persisted for at least 24 hours following the cessation of FGF-21 administration. Importantly, FGF-21 did not induce mitogenicity, hypoglycemia, or weight gain at any dose tested in diabetic or healthy animals or when overexpressed in transgenic mice. Thus, we conclude that FGF-21, which we have identified as a novel metabolic factor, exhibits the therapeutic characteristics necessary for an effective treatment of diabetes.

1,716 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Members of the FGF family function in the earliest stages of embryonic development and during organogenesis to maintain progenitor cells and mediate their growth, differentiation, survival, and patterning.
Abstract: The signaling component of the mammalian Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) family is comprised of eighteen secreted proteins that interact with four signaling tyrosine kinase FGF receptors (FGFRs) Interaction of FGF ligands with their signaling receptors is regulated by protein or proteoglycan cofactors and by extracellular binding proteins Activated FGFRs phosphorylate specific tyrosine residues that mediate interaction with cytosolic adaptor proteins and the RAS-MAPK, PI3K-AKT, PLCγ, and STAT intracellular signaling pathways Four structurally related intracellular non-signaling FGFs interact with and regulate the family of voltage gated sodium channels Members of the FGF family function in the earliest stages of embryonic development and during organogenesis to maintain progenitor cells and mediate their growth, differentiation, survival, and patterning FGFs also have roles in adult tissues where they mediate metabolic functions, tissue repair, and regeneration, often by reactivating developmental signaling pathways Consistent with the presence of FGFs in almost all tissues and organs, aberrant activity of the pathway is associated with developmental defects that disrupt organogenesis, impair the response to injury, and result in metabolic disorders, and cancer © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc

1,105 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The expansion of the Fgf and Fgfr gene families has enabled this signaling system to acquire functional diversity and, therefore, an almost ubiquitous involvement in developmental and physiological processes.
Abstract: Fibroblast growth factors (Fgfs) and Fgf receptors (Fgfrs) comprise a signaling system that is conserved throughout metazoan evolution Twenty-two Fgfs and four Fgfrs have been identified in humans and mice During evolution, the Fgf family appears to have expanded in two phases In the first phase, during early metazoan evolution, Fgfs expanded from two or three to six genes by gene duplication In the second phase, during the evolution of early vertebrates, the Fgf family expanded by two large-scale gen(om)e duplications By contrast, the Fgfr family has expanded only in the second phase However, the acquisition of alternative splicing by Fgfrs has increased their functional diversity The mechanisms that regulate alternative splicing have been conserved since the divergences of echinoderms and vertebrates The expansion of the Fgf and Fgfr gene families has enabled this signaling system to acquire functional diversity and, therefore, an almost ubiquitous involvement in developmental and physiological processes

988 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
22 Feb 1991-Cell
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that free heparin and heparan sulfate can reconstitute a low affinity receptor that is, in turn, required for the high affinity binding of bFGF.
Abstract: The role of low affinity, heparin-like binding sites for basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was investigated in CHO cells mutant in their metabolism of glycosaminoglycans. Heparan sulfate-deficient mutants transfected to express a cloned mouse FGF receptor cDNA are not able to bind bFGF. It is demonstrated that free heparin and heparan sulfate can reconstitute a low affinity receptor that is, in turn, required for the high affinity binding of bFGF. These studies suggest that the low affinity receptor is an accessory molecule required for binding of bFGF to the high affinity site. Such an obligatory interaction of low and high affinity FGF receptors suggests a physiological role for heparin-like, low affinity receptors and constitutes a novel mechanism for the regulation of growth factor-receptor interactions.

2,409 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
16 Feb 1995-Nature
TL;DR: This work highlights conserved protein domains that act as key regulatory participants in many of these different signalling pathways in multicellular organisms.
Abstract: Communication between cells assumes particular importance in multicellular organisms. The growth, migration and differentiation of cells in the embryo, and their organization into specific tissues, depend on signals transmitted from one cell to another. In the adult, cell signalling orchestrates normal cellular behaviour and responses to wounding and infection. The consequences of breakdowns in this signalling underlie cancer, diabetes and disorders of the immune and cardiovascular systems. Conserved protein domains that act as key regulatory participants in many of these different signalling pathways are highlighted.

2,401 citations


"Fibroblast growth factors, their re..." refers background in this paper

  • ...One way these recruited target proteins may be localized to the activated receptor is through the interaction between their Src-homology 2 (SH2) domains and specific phosphotyrosine residues on the activated receptor (Pawson 1995)....

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  • ...Phosphorylated tyrosine residues, in turn, recruit other signaling molecules to the activated receptors and propagate the signal through many possible transduction pathways (Pawson 1995)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Electron microscopic examination of the corneal neovascularization of thalidomide-treated rabbits revealed specific ultrastructural changes similar to those seen in the deformed limb bud vasculature of Thalidomid-treated embryos.
Abstract: Thalidomide is a potent teratogen causing dysmelia (stunted limb growth) in humans. We have demonstrated that orally administered thalidomide is an inhibitor of angiogenesis induced by basic fibroblast growth factor in a rabbit cornea micropocket assay. Experiments including the analysis of thalidomide analogs revealed that the antiangiogenic activity correlated with the teratogenicity but not with the sedative or the mild immunosuppressive properties of thalidomide. Electron microscopic examination of the corneal neovascularization of thalidomide-treated rabbits revealed specific ultrastructural changes similar to those seen in the deformed limb bud vasculature of thalidomide-treated embryos. These experiments shed light on the mechanism of thalidomide's teratogenicity and hold promise for the potential use of thalidomide as an orally administered drug for the treatment of many diverse diseases dependent on angiogenesis.

2,303 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that FGF 1 is the only FGF that can activate all FGF receptor splice variants and the relative activity of all the other members of the FGF family is determined.
Abstract: Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are essential molecules for mammalian development. The nine known FGF ligands and the four signaling FGF receptors (and their alternatively spliced variants) are expressed in specific spatial and temporal patterns. The activity of this signaling pathway is regulated by ligand binding specificity, heparan sulfate proteoglycans, and the differential signaling capacity of individual FGF receptors. To determine potentially relevant ligand-receptor pairs we have engineered mitogenically responsive cell lines expressing the major splice variants of all the known FGF receptors. We have assayed the mitogenic activity of the nine known FGF ligands on these cell lines. These studies demonstrate that FGF 1 is the only FGF that can activate all FGF receptor splice variants. Using FGF 1 as an internal standard we have determined the relative activity of all the other members of the FGF family. These data should serve as a biochemical foundation for determining developmental, physiological, and pathophysiological processes that involve FGF signaling pathways.

2,000 citations


"Fibroblast growth factors, their re..." refers background in this paper

  • ...†From Ornitz et al. (1996), except where stated; ‡From Koga et al. (1995); §From Miralles et al. (1999); ¶From Xu et al. (1999). topologically identical to interleukin-1β (IL-1β) (Zhu et al. 1991), with which some members also share the feature of secretion by an endoplasmic reticulum…...

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  • ...Mutation of all four cysteines to serines results in a protein with the same secondary structure and equally mitogenic for 3T3 cells as the wild-type FGF-2 (Foxet al. 1988), suggesting that the formation of disulfide bridges is not important for the secondary structure and mitogenic activity of…...

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  • ...Ornitz et al. (1996) determined the specificity of different FGFs for different receptor isoforms by overexpressing these isoforms in Baf3 cells, which do not normally express FGFRs, and assaying for [3H]thymidine incorporation in these cells following treatment with different FGFs (see Table 2)....

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  • ...1, IIIb 100 60 34 16 4 5 6 4 4 1, IIIc 100 104 0 102 59 55 0 1 21 2, IIIb 100 9 45 15 5 5 81 4 7 2, IIIc 100 64 4 94 25 61 2.5 16 89 3, IIIb 100 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 42 3, IIIc 100 107 1 69 12 9 1 41 96 4 100 113 6 108 7 79 2 76 75 Modified from Ornitz et al. (1996)....

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Journal ArticleDOI

1,977 citations


"Fibroblast growth factors, their re..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Defining features of the FGF family are a strong affinity for heparin and HLGAGs (Burgess & Maciag 1989), as well as a central core of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between different family members....

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