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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/07060661.2020.1793222

First report of Fusarium proliferatum causing crown and stem rot, and pith necrosis, in cannabis (Cannabis sativa L., marijuana) plants

04 Mar 2021-Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology-revue Canadienne De Phytopathologie (Taylor & Francis)-Vol. 43, Iss: 2, pp 236-255
Abstract: Cannabis (Cannabis sativa L., marijuana) plants grown under greenhouse or controlled environments with symptoms of leaf yellowing, leaf necrosis and defoliation were observed during 2018–2019. Addi...

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Topics: Fusarium proliferatum (57%), Stem rot (54%), Pith (51%)
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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/07060661.2020.1866672
Zamir K. Punja1, Li Ni1, Alastair J. Roberts1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Greenhouse-grown cannabis (Cannabis sativa L., marijuana) plants with yellowing, crown rot and root-browning symptoms were sampled from six production facilities during 2019–2020. Among 34 fungal i...

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5 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/07060661.2021.1954695
Abstract: Cannabis (Cannabis sativa L., marijuana) plants with symptoms of crown rot, root decay, wilting and plant death were sampled during 2018 and 2019 from seven production greenhouses. Affected tissues...

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Topics: Pythium (57%), Root rot (56%), Wilting (52%)

5 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/PS.6307
Zamir K. Punja1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Cultivation of cannabis plants (Cannabis sativa L., marijuana) has taken place worldwide for centuries. In Canada, legalization of cannabis in October 2018 for the medicinal and recreational markets has spurned interest in large-scale growing. This increased production has seen a rise in the incidence and severity of plant pathogens, causing a range of previously unreported diseases. The objective of this review is to highlight the important diseases currently affecting the cannabis and hemp industries in North America and to discuss various mitigation strategies. Progress in molecular diagnostics for pathogen identification and determining inoculum sources and methods of pathogen spread have provided useful insights. Sustainable disease management approaches include establishing clean planting stock, modifying environmental conditions to reduce pathogen development, implementing sanitation measures, and applying fungal and bacterial biological control agents. Fungicides are not currently registered for use and hence there are no published data on their efficacy. The greatest challenge remains in reducing microbial loads (colony-forming units) on harvested inflorescences (buds). Contaminating microbes may be introduced during the cultivation and postharvest phases, or constitute resident endophytes. Failure to achieve a minimum threshold of microbes deemed to be safe for utilization of cannabis products can arise from conventional and organic cultivation methods, or following applications of beneficial biocontrol agents. The current regulatory process for approval of cannabis products presents a challenge to producers utilizing biological control agents for disease management. © 2021 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

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5 Citations


Open access
01 Jan 1966-
Abstract: In a previous paper, Katsanos and Pappelis (1) reported an increase in pith condition rating (based on areas of dead cells) and a decrease in pith demity with time for lower stalk tissue of six varieties of sorghum. Discoloration of stalk tissue following natural infection did not greatly exceed areas of dead cells in the stalk.

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Topics: Pith (61%), Stalk (51%)

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/07060661.2021.1936650
Zamir K. Punja1, Li Ni1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Bud rot pathogens cause diseases on Cannabis sativa L. (cannabis, hemp) worldwide through pre- and post-harvest infections of the inflorescence. Seven indoor or outdoor cannabis production sites an...

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Topics: Botrytis cinerea (53%), Cannabis (51%), Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (51%) ... read more

2 Citations


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68 results found


Open accessBook
20 Jun 2006-
Abstract: Foreword Preface 1. Introduction Techniques and Methods 2. Media - Recipes and Preparation 2.1 Media for Growing and Identifying Fusarium 2.2 Supplementary Identification Media 2.3 Media for Isolating Fusarium 2.4 Media for the Preparation of Natural Inocula 2.5 Synthetic and Semi-synthetic Media 2.6 Media for Sexual Crosses 2.7 Sterilization of Media and Materials 3. Techniques for Recovering Fusarium 3.1 Collecting strategy(ies) 3.2 Isolation Techniques - Plants 3.3 Isolation Techniques - Soil 3.4 Isolation Techniques - Spore Trapping and Air Sampling 3.5 Seed Disinfestation 4. Techniques for Growing and Maintaining Fusarium 4.1 Vegetative Propagation 4.2 Preparing Cultures for Identification 4.3 Single Spore Subcultures 4.4 Mutagenesis 4.5 Culture Preservation 5. Vegetative Compatibility Groups (VCGs) 5.1 History of and Genetic Basis Underlying Vegetative Compatibility 5.2 Overall Strategy for Determining if Strains are Vegetatively Compatible 5.3 Recovering and Identifying nit Mutants 5.4 Typical Pairing Protocols 5.5 Common Trouble Spots - HSI, crn, and NitMs 5.6 Characterizing a Population with VCGs 6. Fertility Concepts 6.1 Heterothallic, Homothallic and Pseudohomothallic 6.2 Mating Type 6.3 Population Effects of Mating Type 6.4 Male, Female, and Hermaphrodite 6.5 Crossing Protocols 6.6 Developing Female-Fertile Tester Strains 6.7 Species Identification Through Sexual Crosses 7. Nucleic Acid Analyses 7.1 DNA Extraction and Purification 7.2 PCR - Mating-Type Alleles 7.3 Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLPs) 7.4 Sequence Analysis and Sequenced Loci 7.5 Genetic Maps Taxonomy and Identification of Fusarium 8. A Brief History of Fusarium Taxonomy 9. Species Concepts in Fusarium 9.1 Generic Problems in Speciation in Fusarium 9.2 Morphological Species Concepts 9.3 Biological Species Concepts 9.4 Phylogenetic Species Concepts 9.5 How Many Strains Make a Species? 9.6 Species Names 9.7 Subspecific Terminology 9.8 A Species Concept for Fusarium 10. Teleomorphs of Fusarium 10.1 Taxonomy of Teleomorphs 10.2 General Teleomorph Characters 10.3 Sexual Development and Differentiation 10.4 Spore Killer 10.5 Anamorph-Teleomorph Connections 11. Practical Approaches to Identification 11.1 Overall Identification Strategy 11.2 The Diseased Plant and Its Geographic Origin 11.3 Native and Agricultural Populations 11.4 Culture Preparation 11.5 The Essence of Morphological Identifications 11.6 Beyond Morphology - Sexual Cross Fertility 11.7 Beyond Morphology - Molecular Diagnostics 11.8 The Special Case of Fusarium oxysporum 11.9 Differences Between Temperate and Tropical Regions 11.10 Conclusions Species Descriptions 12. Morphological Characters 12.1 Macroconidia 12.2 Microconidia 12.3 Chlamydospores 12.4 Other Characters 12.5 Secondary Characters 13. Species Descriptions F. acuminatum F. acutatum F. andiyazi F. anthophilum F. armeniacum F. avenaceum F. aywerte F. babinda F. begoniae F. beomiforme F. brevicatenulatum F. bulbicola F. camptoceras F. chlamydosporum F. circinatum F. compactum F. concentricum F. crookwellense (F. cerealis) F. culmorum F. decemcellulare F. denticulatum F. dimerum F. dlamini F. equiseti F. foetens F. fujikuroi F. globosum F. graminearum F. guttiforme F. heterosporum F. hostae F. konzum F. lactis F. lateritium F. longipes F. mangiferae F. merismoides F. miscanthi F. musarum F. napiforme F. nelsonii F. nisikadoi F. nurragi F. nygamai F. oxysporum F. phyllophilum F. poae F. polyphialidicum F. proliferatum F. pseudoanthophilum F. pseudocircinatum F. pseudograminearum F. pseudonygamai F. ramigenum F. redolens F. sacchari F. sambucinum F. scirpi F. semitectum (F. incarnatum) F. solani F. sporotrichioides F. sterilihyphosum F. subglutinans F. succisae F. thapsinum F. torulosum F. tricinctum F. udum F. venenatum F. verticillioides References Index

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Topics: Fusarium subglutinans (60%), Fusarium sacchari (60%), Fusarium incarnatum (59%) ... read more

2,961 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1073/PNAS.95.5.2044
Abstract: Panama disease of banana, caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, is a serious constraint both to the commercial production of banana and cultivation for subsistence agriculture. Previous work has indicated that F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense consists of several clonal lineages that may be genetically distant. In this study we tested whether lineages of the Panama disease pathogen have a monophyletic origin by comparing DNA sequences of nuclear and mitochondrial genes. DNA sequences were obtained for translation elongation factor 1α and the mitochondrial small subunit ribosomal RNA genes for F. oxysporum strains from banana, pathogenic strains from other hosts and putatively nonpathogenic isolates of F. oxysporum. Cladograms for the two genes were highly concordant and a partition-homogeneity test indicated the two datasets could be combined. The tree inferred from the combined dataset resolved five lineages corresponding to “F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense” with a large dichotomy between two taxa represented by strains most commonly isolated from bananas with Panama disease. The results also demonstrate that the latter two taxa have significantly different chromosome numbers. F. oxysporum isolates collected as nonpathogenic or pathogenic to other hosts that have very similar or identical elongation factor 1α and mitochondrial small subunit genotypes as banana pathogens were shown to cause little or no disease on banana. Taken together, these results indicate Panama disease of banana is caused by fungi with independent evolutionary origins.

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Topics: Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (66%), Panama disease (64%), Fusarium oxysporum (61%) ... read more

1,336 Citations


Open accessBook
01 Jan 2006-
Topics: Fusarium (51%)

788 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1128/AEM.68.5.2101-2105.2002
Abstract: The fumonisins, a family of food-borne carcinogenic mycotoxins, were first isolated in 1988 (21) from cultures of Fusarium verticillioides (Sacc.) Nirenberg (previously known as Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon). During the same year, the structures of the fumonisins were elucidated (6) and fumonisin B1 was shown to cause equine leukoencephalomalacia (34). There have been numerous publications dealing with this group of novel, carcinogenic mycotoxins, and comprehensive reviews of different aspects of the fumonisins are available (20, 22, 23, 24, 35, 36, 37, 41, 43, 46, 52, 55, 60, 61, 66). Due to the widespread occurrence of the fumonisins in maize, a dietary staple in many countries, the carcinogenic risk of fumonisins to humans was evaluated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer in 1993, and the toxins produced by F. moniliforme were evaluated as “Group 2B carcinogens,” i.e., probably carcinogenic to humans (24). This review focuses on the Fusarium species that produce fumonisins and the fumonisin analogs produced by each of these species.

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Topics: Fumonisin B1 (67%), Fumonisin (62%), Fusarium (56%)

535 Citations


Book ChapterDOI: 10.1007/978-94-010-0001-7_1
Abstract: Several Fusarium species occurring worldwide on maize as causal agents of ear rot, are capable of producing mycotoxins in infected kernels, some of which have a notable impact on human and animal health. The main groups of Fusarium toxins commonly found are: trichothecenes, zearalenones, fumonisins, and moniliformin. In addition, beauvericin and fusaproliferin have been found in Fusarium-infected maize ears. Zearalenone and deoxynivalenol are commonly found in maize red ear rot, which is essentially caused by species of the Discolour section, particularly F. graminearum. Moreover, nivalenol and fusarenone-X were often found associated with the occasional occurrence of F. cerealis, and diacetoxyscirpenol and T-2 toxin with the occurrence of F. poae and F. sporotrichioides, respectively. In addition, the occurrence of F. avenaceum and F. subglutinans usually led to the accumulation of moniliformin. In maize pink ear rot, which is mainly caused by F. verticillioides, there is increasing evidence of the wide occurrence of fumonisin B1. This carcinogenic toxin is usually found in association with moniliformin, beauvericin, and fusaproliferin, both in central Europe due to the co-occurrence of F. subglutinans, and in southern Europe where the spread of F. verticillioides is reinforced by the widespread presence of F. proliferatum capable of producing fumonisin B1, moniliformin, beauvericin, and fusaproliferin.

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Topics: Moniliformin (63%), Zearalenone (59%), Fumonisin B1 (57%) ... read more

441 Citations