First results of electron cooling experiments at LEAR
Abstract: The first results are presented of electron cooling experiments in the Low-Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR) at CERN, performed with a proton beam of about 50 and 21 MeV. The number of stored protons ranged from 107 to 3 × 109. Cooling times of the order 1 s and proton drag rates of up to 0.7 MeV/s were obtained. The capture of cooling electrons by protons producing hydrogen atoms was used to derive an effective electron temperature (0.25 eV). From the angular profile of the neutral hydrogen beam an upper limit of 3π mm.mrad could be deduced for the horizontal equilibrium proton-beam emittance. The lowest equilibrium momentum spread was 2 × 105 (FWHM), as derived from the analysis of the longitudinal Schottky signal. This Schottky signal exhibited an unusual behaviour with beam intensity and under certain conditions showed a doublepeak structure which was associated with collective beam noise. For very cold beams transverse instabilities were observed, which resulted in a rapid spill-off of protons and a stabilization at lower intensities. The threshold of these instabilities was raised by heating the proton or the electron beam. The cooling of a bunched proton beam was investigated. The reduction of the proton momentum spread led to bunch lengths of about 2 m, containing 3 × 108 protons.