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Journal ArticleDOI

Fixing and Aligning Methods for Dielectric Resonator Antennas in K Band and Beyond

01 Jan 2019-IEEE Access (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE))-Vol. 7, pp 12638-12646
TL;DR: The results demonstrate that the proposed fixing strategy provides superior characteristics such as shock-resistance, fabrication and assembly simplicity, and robust antenna performance.
Abstract: Various conventional and novel fixing strategies for dielectric resonator antennas (DRAs) in K band and beyond are presented and investigated. Their effects on DRAs are studied in depth and explained theoretically through the perturbation theory and basic principles of DRAs. Multifunctional fixtures which achieve different antenna performance are then proposed and discussed. Their mechanisms for offering flexible bandwidth, miniaturization, frequency diversity, low cross polarization, and circular polarization are explained. In practical applications, glue is used besides fixtures to increase reliability, and its influence on antenna performance is difficult to predict. By considering various glue distributions in simulation beforehand, potential performance degradation is successfully mitigated. For validation, a four-element DRA array for 24-GHz automotive radars is fabricated. The results demonstrate that the proposed fixing strategy provides superior characteristics such as shock-resistance, fabrication and assembly simplicity, and robust antenna performance.

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a self-packaging high-permittivity dielectric material-filled substrate integrated suspended line (SISL) antenna with size reduction is proposed, which provides a novel fixing method for dielectral resonator antenna (DRA).
Abstract: A high-permittivity dielectric material-filled substrate integrated suspended line (SISL) antenna with size reduction is proposed, which provides a novel fixing method for dielectric resonator antenna (DRA). The proposed antenna is based on five substrate layers with two air cavities while the high-permittivity dielectric material is filled with the upper air cavity of the hollowed substrate. So the antenna is self-packaging. The feeding line is on M5 layer and the bottom air cavity affects the resonant frequency much. The expression about the resonant frequencies, the height of the bottom air cavities, and the size of DRA is given. The operating frequency band is from 6.2 to 6.5 GHz and the maximum antenna gain is 6 dBi. In order to reduce the resonant frequency further, a cross strip is added to M2 layer. At last, the impedance bandwidth for | S 11| < −10 dB is from 5.7 to 6 GHz and the maximum antenna gain is 5.2 dBi.

11 citations


Cites methods from "Fixing and Aligning Methods for Die..."

  • ...Therefore, chemical glue is utilized to assemble the DRA [9]–[11]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a high gain dielectric resonance antenna (DRA) array for vehicular wireless communication and 5G system in millimeter wave band, which takes the advantage of low side lobe level (SLL), is presented.
Abstract: This paper presents a high gain dielectric resonance antenna (DRA) array for vehicular wireless communication and 5G system in millimeter wave band, which takes the advantage of low side lobe level (SLL). The planar antenna array is composed of 8 × 8 rectangular DRA elements, whose operation mode is the fundamental mode TE111. The beamforming weights of the array are designed based on the principle of Dolph-Chebyshev distribution to suppress the antenna SLL. The planar array consists of 8 linear sub-arrays, which are fed with standing-wave series resonance method respectively. The excitations of sub-array elements are precisely adjusted based on the aperture coupling model. Furthermore, the series-parallel hybrid feed network and parallel-cascaded feed network are applied to unequally feed the sub-arrays in accordance with Chebyshev polynomials. The measurement results of prototype validate the design solution of antenna array. The impedance bandwidth is 570 MHz (25.77 GHz–26.34 GHz) for reflection coefficients less than −10 dB, and the antenna gain and SLL are 20.5 ± 1 dBi and 20 dB, respectively. Due to the advantages of miniaturization and narrow beam, the proposed DRA antenna array is adequate for vehicle communication equipment.

7 citations


Cites background from "Fixing and Aligning Methods for Die..."

  • ...Dielectric resonator antenna (DRA) has the advantages of high degree of freedom, rich resonant modes, small size, wide frequency band and high radiation efficiency, which is promising for the vehicle wireless communication equipment [12]....

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DOI
TL;DR: In this paper , a dielectric resonator with artificial electromagnetic boundaries is implemented by introducing the electromagnetic band-gap structure along the four side-wall boundaries of a certain Dielectric region on a printed circuit board.
Abstract: To address the issues of the inconvenient fabrication and integration for millimeter-wave dielectric resonator antennas, a new configuration is proposed. Firstly, a dielectric resonator with artificial electromagnetic boundaries is implemented by introducing the electromagnetic band-gap structure along the four side-wall boundaries of a certain dielectric region on a printed circuit board. The EBG structure is constructed using a printed array of periodic upside-down mushroom-type unit cells. The resonant-mode analysis reveals that the proposed DR can support conventional dielectric resonator modes and dense dielectric patch cavity modes simultaneously. To excite the DR, a substrate integrated gap waveguide transmission line is embedded in the proposed structure for implementing a fully integrated dielectric resonator antenna. For demonstration, a FIDRA operating at 31 GHz is designed. Simulated results show that the antenna offers an 11.5 % -10-dB impedance bandwidth (29.6 GHz to 33.2 GHz), in which a peak gain of 7.85 dBi is obtained. As an extension, a multi-beam antenna array composed of a 1 × 4 FIDRA antenna array and a SIGW 4 × 4 Butler matrix is designed and fabricated. The experimental results verified the effectiveness of the proposed configuration in integrating the DRA and feeding network.

7 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , a dielectric resonator with artificial electromagnetic boundaries is implemented by introducing the electromagnetic band-gap structure along the four side-wall boundaries of a certain dielectrics region on a printed circuit board.
Abstract: To address the issues of the inconvenient fabrication and integration for millimeter-wave (MMW) dielectric resonator antennas (DRAs), a new configuration is proposed. First, a dielectric resonator with artificial electromagnetic boundaries is implemented by introducing the electromagnetic band-gap structure along the four side-wall boundaries of a certain dielectric region on a printed circuit board. The electromagnetic bandgap (EBG) structure is constructed using a printed array of periodic upside-down mushroom-type unit cells. The resonant-mode analysis reveals that the proposed DR can support conventional dielectric resonator modes and dense dielectric patch (DDP) cavity modes simultaneously. To excite the DR, a substrate-integrated gap waveguide transmission line is embedded in the proposed structure for implementing a fully integrated DRA. For demonstration, a fully integrated dielectric resonator antenna (FIDRA) operating at 31 GHz is designed. Simulated results show that the antenna offers an 11.5% −10 dB impedance bandwidth (29.6 to 33.2 GHz), in which a peak gain of 7.85 dBi is obtained. As an extension, a multi-beam antenna array composed of a $1 \times 4$ FIDRA antenna array and a SIGW $4 \times 4$ Butler matrix is designed and fabricated. The experimental results verified the effectiveness of the proposed configuration in integrating the DRA and feeding network.

6 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , a wideband hemispherical dielectric resonator antenna (DRA) with enhanced gain was proposed for a frequency band of 20 to 28 GHz, and the precise alignment and assembly of the DRA represent key challenges at such frequencies that were addressed using three approaches: the first was based on outlining the DSA position on the ground plane, the second involved creating a groove in the compound ground plane in which the DCA is placed, and third was based upon the 3D-printing of the antenna on a perforated substrate.
Abstract: A wideband hemispherical dielectric resonator antenna (DRA) with enhanced gain is proposed for a frequency band of 20 to 28 GHz. The precise alignment and assembly of the DRA represent key challenges at such frequencies that were addressed using three approaches: the first was based on outlining the DRA position on the ground plane, the second involved creating a groove in the compound ground plane in which the DRA is placed, and the third was based on the 3D-printing of the DRA on a perforated substrate. In all cases, the same DRA was utilized and excited in a higher-order mode using an annular ring slot. The high gain was achieved by exciting a higher-order mode, and the wideband was obtained by merging the bandwidths of the two excited modes. The alignment methods used expedite the DRA prototyping by saving substantial time that is usually spent in adjusting the DRA position with respect to the feeding slot. The proposed configurations were measured, with an impedance bandwidth of 33.33% and a maximum gain of 10 dBi observed. Close agreement was achieved between the measured and simulated results.

5 citations

References
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Book
01 Apr 1990

10,459 citations


"Fixing and Aligning Methods for Die..." refers background in this paper

  • ...According to the perturbation theory [44], E‖ mode is more likely to be influenced due to the concentration of E-field around the feet....

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Book ChapterDOI
15 Apr 2005
TL;DR: Linearly and circularly polarized conformal strip-fed dielectric resonator antennas (DRAs) are studied in this article, where a parasitic patch is used to excite a nearly degenerate mode.
Abstract: Linearly and circularly polarized conformal strip-fed dielectric resonator antennas (DRAs) are studied in this article. In the latter case, a parasitic patch is used to excite a nearly degenerate mode. The hemispherical DRA, excited in its fundamental broadside TE111 mode, is used for the demonstration. In the analysis, the mode-matching method is used to obtain the Green's functions, whereas the method of moments is used to solve for the unknown strip currents. In order to solve the singularity problem of the Green's functions, a recurrence technique is used to evaluate the impedance integrals. This greatly increases the numerical efficiency. Measurements were carried out to verify the calculations, with good results. Keywords: circularly polarized antenna; dielectric antennas; mode-matching methods; moment methods; parasitic antennas; resonance

898 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
06 Mar 2012
TL;DR: General antenna concepts, partly including some system aspects, as well as three realized antenna configurations will be described in detail in this contribution.
Abstract: Automotive radars are on the market since 1999, both in the frequency range around 24 GHz as well as 76.5 GHz, with a new frequency band ranging from 77 to 81 GHz intended for medium and short-range sensors. The choice and design of the respective sensor antennas are determined by the requirement for high gain and low loss combined with small size and depth for vehicle integration, the challenges by the millimeter-wave frequency range, and a great cost pressure for this commercial application. Consequently, planar antennas are dominating in the lower frequency range, while lens and reflector antennas had been the first choice at 76.5 GHz, partly in folded configurations. With increasing requirements towards a much more detailed observation of the scenery in front or around the vehicle, multibeam antennas or scanning antennas have been designed, and solutions based on (digital) beamforming with a number of integrated antennas are in use or under development. General antenna concepts, partly including some system aspects, as well as three realized antenna configurations will be described in detail in this contribution.

198 citations


"Fixing and Aligning Methods for Die..." refers background in this paper

  • ...V. DESIGN, FABRICATION AND MEASUREMENT A four-element CDRA array with a simple dielectric fixing slab and glue is designed for 24-GHz automotive radars....

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  • ...He, K. Ma, N. Yan, Y. Wang, and H. Zhang, ‘‘A cavity-backed endfire dipole antenna array using substrate-integrated suspended line technology for 24 GHz band applications,’’ IEEE Trans....

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  • ...[38] Y.-X. Sun and K. W. Leung, ‘‘Circularly polarized substrate-integrated cylindrical dielectric resonator antenna array for 60 GHz applications,’’ IEEE Antennas Wireless Propag....

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  • ...One typical system in both K and MMW bands is automotive radar, where short-range systems operate around 24GHz, and mid-to-long-range ones work at 76-81 GHz [7], [8]....

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  • ...In Section IV, a cylindrical DRA (CDRA) array for 24-GHz automotive radars is designed, fabricated and measured for validation....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An up-to-date literature overview on relevant approaches for controlling circuital characteristics and radiation properties of dielectric resonator antennas (DRAs) is presented in this paper.
Abstract: An up-to-date literature overview on relevant approaches for controlling circuital characteristics and radiation properties of dielectric resonator antennas (DRAs) is presented The main advantages of DRAs are discussed in detail, while reviewing the most effective techniques for antenna feeding as well as for size reduction Furthermore, advanced design solutions for enhancing the realized gain of individual DRAs are investigated In this way, guidance is provided to radio frequency (RF) front-end designers in the selection of different antenna topologies useful to achieve the required antenna performance in terms of frequency response, gain, and polarization Particular attention is put in the analysis of the progress which is being made in the application of DRA technology at millimeter-wave frequencies

194 citations


"Fixing and Aligning Methods for Die..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Moreover, because of their three-dimensional (3D) structure, it is easier to excite multiple resonant modes in DRAs to realize multiple polarization, wide bandwidth, multiple bands, and pattern diversity [3]–[5]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper proposes a blind beam tracking approach for Ka-band UAV-satellite communication system, where UAV is equipped with a hybrid large-scale antenna array, where an array structure based simultaneous perturbation algorithm is designed.
Abstract: Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-satellite communication has drawn dramatic attention for its potential to build the integrated space-air-ground network and the seamless wide-area coverage. A key challenge to UAV-satellite communication is its unstable beam pointing due to the UAV navigation, which is a typical SatCom on-the-move scenario. In this paper, we propose a blind beam tracking approach for Ka-band UAV-satellite communication system, where UAV is equipped with a hybrid large-scale antenna array. The effects of UAV navigation are firstly released through the mechanical adjustment, which could approximately point the beam towards the target satellite through beam stabilization and dynamic isolation . Specially, the attitude information for mechanical adjustment can be realtimely derived from data fusion of low-cost sensors. Then, the precision of beam pointing is blindly refined through electrically adjusting the weight of the massive antennas, where an array structure based simultaneous perturbation algorithm is designed. Simulation results are provided to demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method over the existing ones.

145 citations


"Fixing and Aligning Methods for Die..." refers background in this paper

  • ...INVESTIGATION ON GLUE In most cases, fixtures or glue, independently, do not offer enough reliability for devices in terrestrial, aerial, or marine vehicles [11], [16], [17]....

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  • ...However, moving targets like terrestrial, marine, and aerial vehicles [16] often bring about drastic jolt....

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