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Open accessPosted Content

Fixing Data Augmentation to Improve Adversarial Robustness

Abstract: Adversarial training suffers from robust overfitting, a phenomenon where the robust test accuracy starts to decrease during training. In this paper, we focus on both heuristics-driven and data-driven augmentations as a means to reduce robust overfitting. First, we demonstrate that, contrary to previous findings, when combined with model weight averaging, data augmentation can significantly boost robust accuracy. Second, we explore how state-of-the-art generative models can be leveraged to artificially increase the size of the training set and further improve adversarial robustness. Finally, we evaluate our approach on CIFAR-10 against $\ell_\infty$ and $\ell_2$ norm-bounded perturbations of size $\epsilon = 8/255$ and $\epsilon = 128/255$, respectively. We show large absolute improvements of +7.06% and +5.88% in robust accuracy compared to previous state-of-the-art methods. In particular, against $\ell_\infty$ norm-bounded perturbations of size $\epsilon = 8/255$, our model reaches 64.20% robust accuracy without using any external data, beating most prior works that use external data.

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15 results found


Open accessPosted Content
19 Oct 2020-arXiv: Learning
Abstract: As a research community, we are still lacking a systematic understanding of the progress on adversarial robustness, which often makes it hard to identify the most promising ideas in training robust models. A key challenge in benchmarking robustness is that its evaluation is often error-prone, leading to overestimation of the true robustness of models. While adaptive attacks designed for a particular defense are a potential solution, they have to be highly customized for particular models, which makes it difficult to compare different methods. Our goal is to instead establish a standardized benchmark of adversarial robustness, which as accurately as possible reflects the robustness of the considered models within a reasonable computational budget. To evaluate the robustness of models for our benchmark, we consider AutoAttack, an ensemble of white- and black-box attacks which was recently shown in a large-scale study to improve almost all robustness evaluations compared to the original publications. We also impose some restrictions on the admitted models to rule out defenses that only make gradient-based attacks ineffective without improving actual robustness. Our leaderboard, hosted at this https URL, contains evaluations of 90+ models and aims at reflecting the current state of the art on a set of well-defined tasks in $\ell_\infty$- and $\ell_2$-threat models and on common corruptions, with possible extensions in the future. Additionally, we open-source the library this https URL that provides unified access to 60+ robust models to facilitate their downstream applications. Finally, based on the collected models, we analyze the impact of robustness on the performance on distribution shifts, calibration, out-of-distribution detection, fairness, privacy leakage, smoothness, and transferability.

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57 Citations


Open accessPosted Content
19 Apr 2021-arXiv: Learning
Abstract: We focus on the use of proxy distributions, i.e., approximations of the underlying distribution of the training dataset, in both understanding and improving the adversarial robustness in image classification. While additional training data helps in adversarial training, curating a very large number of real-world images is challenging. In contrast, proxy distributions enable us to sample a potentially unlimited number of images and improve adversarial robustness using these samples. We first ask the question: when does adversarial robustness benefit from incorporating additional samples from the proxy distribution in the training stage? We prove that the difference between the robustness of a classifier on the proxy and original training dataset distribution is upper bounded by the conditional Wasserstein distance between them. Our result confirms the intuition that samples from a proxy distribution that closely approximates training dataset distribution should be able to boost adversarial robustness. Motivated by this finding, we leverage samples from state-of-the-art generative models, which can closely approximate training data distribution, to improve robustness. In particular, we improve robust accuracy by up to 6.1% and 5.7% in $l_{\infty}$ and $l_2$ threat model, and certified robust accuracy by 6.7% over baselines not using proxy distributions on the CIFAR-10 dataset. Since we can sample an unlimited number of images from a proxy distribution, it also allows us to investigate the effect of an increasing number of training samples on adversarial robustness. Here we provide the first large scale empirical investigation of accuracy vs robustness trade-off and sample complexity of adversarial training by training deep neural networks on 2K to 10M images.

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6 Citations


Open accessPosted Content
28 Sep 2021-arXiv: Learning
Abstract: Machine learning (ML) systems are rapidly increasing in size, are acquiring new capabilities, and are increasingly deployed in high-stakes settings. As with other powerful technologies, safety for ML should be a leading research priority. In response to emerging safety challenges in ML, such as those introduced by recent large-scale models, we provide a new roadmap for ML Safety and refine the technical problems that the field needs to address. We present four problems ready for research, namely withstanding hazards ("Robustness"), identifying hazards ("Monitoring"), steering ML systems ("Alignment"), and reducing risks to how ML systems are handled ("External Safety"). Throughout, we clarify each problem's motivation and provide concrete research directions.

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5 Citations


Open accessPosted Content
29 Sep 2021-arXiv: Learning
Abstract: Adversarial training (AT) is one of the most effective strategies for promoting model robustness, whereas even the state-of-the-art adversarially trained models struggle to exceed 60% robust test accuracy on CIFAR-10 without additional data, which is far from practical. A natural way to break this accuracy bottleneck is to introduce a rejection option, where confidence is a commonly used certainty proxy. However, the vanilla confidence can overestimate the model certainty if the input is wrongly classified. To this end, we propose to use true confidence (T-Con) (i.e., predicted probability of the true class) as a certainty oracle, and learn to predict T-Con by rectifying confidence. We prove that under mild conditions, a rectified confidence (R-Con) rejector and a confidence rejector can be coupled to distinguish any wrongly classified input from correctly classified ones, even under adaptive attacks. We also quantify that training R-Con to be aligned with T-Con could be an easier task than learning robust classifiers. In our experiments, we evaluate our rectified rejection (RR) module on CIFAR-10, CIFAR-10-C, and CIFAR-100 under several attacks, and demonstrate that the RR module is well compatible with different AT frameworks on improving robustness, with little extra computation.

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5 Citations


Open accessPosted Content
Florian Tramèr1Institutions (1)
24 Jul 2021-arXiv: Learning
Abstract: Making classifiers robust to adversarial examples is hard. Thus, many defenses tackle the seemingly easier task of detecting perturbed inputs. We show a barrier towards this goal. We prove a general hardness reduction between detection and classification of adversarial examples: given a robust detector for attacks at distance {\epsilon} (in some metric), we can build a similarly robust (but inefficient) classifier for attacks at distance {\epsilon}/2. Our reduction is computationally inefficient, and thus cannot be used to build practical classifiers. Instead, it is a useful sanity check to test whether empirical detection results imply something much stronger than the authors presumably anticipated. To illustrate, we revisit 13 detector defenses. For 11/13 cases, we show that the claimed detection results would imply an inefficient classifier with robustness far beyond the state-of-the-art.

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1 Citations


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72 results found


Open accessProceedings ArticleDOI: 10.1109/CVPR.2016.90
Kaiming He1, Xiangyu Zhang1, Shaoqing Ren1, Jian Sun1Institutions (1)
27 Jun 2016-
Abstract: Deeper neural networks are more difficult to train. We present a residual learning framework to ease the training of networks that are substantially deeper than those used previously. We explicitly reformulate the layers as learning residual functions with reference to the layer inputs, instead of learning unreferenced functions. We provide comprehensive empirical evidence showing that these residual networks are easier to optimize, and can gain accuracy from considerably increased depth. On the ImageNet dataset we evaluate residual nets with a depth of up to 152 layers—8× deeper than VGG nets [40] but still having lower complexity. An ensemble of these residual nets achieves 3.57% error on the ImageNet test set. This result won the 1st place on the ILSVRC 2015 classification task. We also present analysis on CIFAR-10 with 100 and 1000 layers. The depth of representations is of central importance for many visual recognition tasks. Solely due to our extremely deep representations, we obtain a 28% relative improvement on the COCO object detection dataset. Deep residual nets are foundations of our submissions to ILSVRC & COCO 2015 competitions1, where we also won the 1st places on the tasks of ImageNet detection, ImageNet localization, COCO detection, and COCO segmentation.

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Topics: Deep learning (53%), Residual (53%), Convolutional neural network (53%) ... read more

93,356 Citations


Open accessPosted Content
Diederik P. Kingma1, Jimmy Ba2Institutions (2)
22 Dec 2014-arXiv: Learning
Abstract: We introduce Adam, an algorithm for first-order gradient-based optimization of stochastic objective functions, based on adaptive estimates of lower-order moments. The method is straightforward to implement, is computationally efficient, has little memory requirements, is invariant to diagonal rescaling of the gradients, and is well suited for problems that are large in terms of data and/or parameters. The method is also appropriate for non-stationary objectives and problems with very noisy and/or sparse gradients. The hyper-parameters have intuitive interpretations and typically require little tuning. Some connections to related algorithms, on which Adam was inspired, are discussed. We also analyze the theoretical convergence properties of the algorithm and provide a regret bound on the convergence rate that is comparable to the best known results under the online convex optimization framework. Empirical results demonstrate that Adam works well in practice and compares favorably to other stochastic optimization methods. Finally, we discuss AdaMax, a variant of Adam based on the infinity norm.

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23,369 Citations


Open accessProceedings Article
20 Mar 2015-
Abstract: Several machine learning models, including neural networks, consistently misclassify adversarial examples---inputs formed by applying small but intentionally worst-case perturbations to examples from the dataset, such that the perturbed input results in the model outputting an incorrect answer with high confidence. Early attempts at explaining this phenomenon focused on nonlinearity and overfitting. We argue instead that the primary cause of neural networks' vulnerability to adversarial perturbation is their linear nature. This explanation is supported by new quantitative results while giving the first explanation of the most intriguing fact about them: their generalization across architectures and training sets. Moreover, this view yields a simple and fast method of generating adversarial examples. Using this approach to provide examples for adversarial training, we reduce the test set error of a maxout network on the MNIST dataset.

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Topics: Adversarial machine learning (65%), Overfitting (54%), MNIST database (52%) ... read more

7,946 Citations


Open accessProceedings Article
Christian Szegedy1, Wojciech Zaremba2, Ilya Sutskever1, Joan Bruna2  +4 moreInstitutions (4)
01 Jan 2014-
Abstract: Deep neural networks are highly expressive models that have recently achieved state of the art performance on speech and visual recognition tasks. While their expressiveness is the reason they succeed, it also causes them to learn uninterpretable solutions that could have counter-intuitive properties. In this paper we report two such properties. First, we find that there is no distinction between individual high level units and random linear combinations of high level units, according to various methods of unit analysis. It suggests that it is the space, rather than the individual units, that contains of the semantic information in the high layers of neural networks. Second, we find that deep neural networks learn input-output mappings that are fairly discontinuous to a significant extend. We can cause the network to misclassify an image by applying a certain imperceptible perturbation, which is found by maximizing the network's prediction error. In addition, the specific nature of these perturbations is not a random artifact of learning: the same perturbation can cause a different network, that was trained on a different subset of the dataset, to misclassify the same input.

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6,703 Citations


Open accessProceedings ArticleDOI: 10.1109/SP.2017.49
Nicholas Carlini1, David Wagner1Institutions (1)
22 May 2017-
Abstract: Neural networks provide state-of-the-art results for most machine learning tasks. Unfortunately, neural networks are vulnerable to adversarial examples: given an input x and any target classification t, it is possible to find a new input x' that is similar to x but classified as t. This makes it difficult to apply neural networks in security-critical areas. Defensive distillation is a recently proposed approach that can take an arbitrary neural network, and increase its robustness, reducing the success rate of current attacks' ability to find adversarial examples from 95% to 0.5%.In this paper, we demonstrate that defensive distillation does not significantly increase the robustness of neural networks by introducing three new attack algorithms that are successful on both distilled and undistilled neural networks with 100% probability. Our attacks are tailored to three distance metrics used previously in the literature, and when compared to previous adversarial example generation algorithms, our attacks are often much more effective (and never worse). Furthermore, we propose using high-confidence adversarial examples in a simple transferability test we show can also be used to break defensive distillation. We hope our attacks will be used as a benchmark in future defense attempts to create neural networks that resist adversarial examples.

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3,972 Citations


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