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Journal ArticleDOI

Foam structures with a negative poisson's ratio

27 Feb 1987-Science (American Association for the Advancement of Science)-Vol. 235, Iss: 4792, pp 1038-1040

TL;DR: A novel foam structure is presented, which exhibits a negative Poisson's ratio, and such a material expands laterally when stretched, in contrast to ordinary materials.
Abstract: A novel foam structure is presented, which exhibits a negative Poisson's ratio. Such a material expands laterally when stretched, in contrast to ordinary materials.
Topics: Poisson's ratio (66%), Poisson distribution (58%), Auxetics (53%)
Citations
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Book
Randall J. LeVeque1Institutions (1)
01 Jan 2002-
Abstract: Preface 1. Introduction 2. Conservation laws and differential equations 3. Characteristics and Riemann problems for linear hyperbolic equations 4. Finite-volume methods 5. Introduction to the CLAWPACK software 6. High resolution methods 7. Boundary conditions and ghost cells 8. Convergence, accuracy, and stability 9. Variable-coefficient linear equations 10. Other approaches to high resolution 11. Nonlinear scalar conservation laws 12. Finite-volume methods for nonlinear scalar conservation laws 13. Nonlinear systems of conservation laws 14. Gas dynamics and the Euler equations 15. Finite-volume methods for nonlinear systems 16. Some nonclassical hyperbolic problems 17. Source terms and balance laws 18. Multidimensional hyperbolic problems 19. Multidimensional numerical methods 20. Multidimensional scalar equations 21. Multidimensional systems 22. Elastic waves 23. Finite-volume methods on quadrilateral grids Bibliography Index.

5,409 citations


MonographDOI
Graeme W. Milton1Institutions (1)
06 May 2002-
Abstract: Some of the greatest scientists including Poisson, Faraday, Maxwell, Rayleigh, and Einstein have contributed to the theory of composite materials Mathematically, it is the study of partial differential equations with rapid oscillations in their coefficients Although extensively studied for more than a hundred years, an explosion of ideas in the last five decades (and particularly in the last three decades) has dramatically increased our understanding of the relationship between the properties of the constituent materials, the underlying microstructure of a composite, and the overall effective (electrical, thermal, elastic) moduli which govern the macroscopic behavior This renaissance has been fueled by the technological need for improving our knowledge base of composites, by the advance of the underlying mathematical theory of homogenization, by the discovery of new variational principles, by the recognition of how important the subject is to solving structural optimization problems, and by the realization of the connection with the mathematical problem of quasiconvexification This 2002 book surveys these exciting developments at the frontier of mathematics

2,347 citations


Cites background from "Foam structures with a negative poi..."

  • ...Now their existence has been confirmed both experimentally and theoretically [see, for example, Lakes (1987) and Milton (1992) and references therein, and also section 30.5 on page 652]....

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  • ...After Lakes (1996)....

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  • ...Experimentally the question was settled when Lakes (1987) and Friis, Lakes, and Park (1988) manufactured polymeric and metallic foams with negative Poisson’s ratios....

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  • ...Now their existence has been confirmed both experimentally and theoretically [see, for example, Lakes (1987) and Milton (1992) and references therein, and also section 30....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
Haiyan Sun1, Zhen Xu1, Chao Gao1Institutions (1)
14 May 2013-Advanced Materials
TL;DR: All carbon aerogels with ultralow density and temperature-invariant super-elasticity are fabricated by facile assembling of commercial carbon nanotubes and chemically-converted giant graphene sheets, on the basis of the synergistic effect between elastic CNTs ribs and giant graphene cell walls.
Abstract: All carbon aerogels (up to 1000 cm(3)) with ultralow density (down to 0.16 mg cm(-3)) and temperature-invariant (-190-900 °C) super-elasticity are fabricated by facile assembling of commercial carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and chemically-converted giant graphene sheets, on the basis of the synergistic effect between elastic CNTs ribs and giant graphene cell walls.

1,481 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Nov 2011-Nature Materials
TL;DR: On the bicentenary of the publication of Poisson's Traité de Mécanique, the continuing relevance of Poissons's ratio in the understanding of the mechanical characteristics of modern materials is reviewed.
Abstract: In comparing a material's resistance to distort under mechanical load rather than to alter in volume, Poisson's ratio offers the fundamental metric by which to compare the performance of any material when strained elastically. The numerical limits are set by ½ and -1, between which all stable isotropic materials are found. With new experiments, computational methods and routes to materials synthesis, we assess what Poisson's ratio means in the contemporary understanding of the mechanical characteristics of modern materials. Central to these recent advances, we emphasize the significance of relationships outside the elastic limit between Poisson's ratio and densification, connectivity, ductility and the toughness of solids; and their association with the dynamic properties of the liquids from which they were condensed and into which they melt.

1,303 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Roderic S. Lakes1Institutions (1)
11 Feb 1993-Nature
TL;DR: Understanding the effects of hierarchical structure can guide the synthesis of new materials with physical properties that are tailored for specific applications, as well as determining the bulk material properties.
Abstract: The role of structural hierarchy in determining bulk material properties is examined. Dense hierarchical materials are discussed, including composites and polycrystals, polymers, and biological materials. Hierarchical cellular materials are considered, including cellular solids and the prediction of strength and stiffness in hierarchical cellular materials.

1,067 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The mechanical properties (elastic, plastic, creep, and fracture) of cellular solids or foams are related to the properties of the cell wall material and to the cell geometry.
Abstract: The mechanical properties (elastic, plastic, creep, and fracture) of cellular solids or foams are related to the properties of the cell wall material and to the cell geometry The properties are well described by simple formulae Such materials occur widely in nature and have many potential engineering applications

779 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
27 Feb 1987-Science
TL;DR: In these studies, encystation of Giardia lamblia in vitro was demonstrated by morphologic, immunologic, and biochemical criteria and will aid in understanding the differentiation of an important protozoan pathogen.
Abstract: The cyst form of Giardia lamblia is responsible for transmission of giardiasis, a common waterborne intestinal disease. In these studies, encystation of Giardia lamblia in vitro was demonstrated by morphologic, immunologic, and biochemical criteria. In the suckling mouse model, the jejunum was shown to be a major site of encystation of the parasite. Small intestinal factors were therefore tested as stimuli of encystation. An antiserum that reacted with cysts, but not with cultured trophozoites was raised in rabbits and used as a sensitive probe for differentiation in vitro. Cultured trophozoites that were exposed to bile salts showed a more than 20-fold increase in the number of oval, refractile cells that reacted strongly with anticyst antibodies, and in the expression of major cyst antigens. Exposure to primary bile salts resulted in higher levels of encystation than exposure to secondary bile salts. These studies will aid in understanding the differentiation of an important protozoan pathogen.

152 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Y. Li1Institutions (1)
Abstract: A method of calculating the anisotropy of Poisson's ratio is applied to trigonal and tetragonal crystals in the literature. The method of calculation is extended to hexagonal crystals. The results are illustrated by reference to Tl and Cd.

79 citations


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No. of citations received by the Paper in previous years
YearCitations
202222
2021262
2020225
2019220
2018191
2017172