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Journal ArticleDOI

Folding Under Pressure or Rising to the Occasion? Perceived Time Pressure and the Moderating Role of Team Temporal Leadership

03 Oct 2014-Academy of Management Journal (Academy of Management)-Vol. 58, Iss: 5, pp 1313-1333

Abstract"Team temporal leadership" orients teams toward managing the time-related aspects of their work. We examine how perceived time pressure affects team processes and subsequent performance under weak versus strong team temporal leadership. The results of our field study of 111 project teams show that the mediated relationship between perceived time pressure and team performance is non-linear. Moreover, this non-linear mediated relationship is moderated by team temporal leadership such that, under strong team temporal leadership, the indirect effect of perceived time pressure on team performance is mostly positive, while, under conditions of weak team temporal leadership, the indirect effect is positive at low levels of perceived time pressure and negative at intermediate to high levels. Implications for current and future time pressure research are also discussed

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Building theories is important for advancing knowledge of management. But it is also a highly challenging task. Although there is a burgeoning literature that offers many theorizing tools, we lack a coherent understanding of how these tools fit together—when to use a particular tool and which combination of tools can be used in the theorizing process. In this article, we organize a systematic review of the literature on theory building in management around the five key elements of a good story: conflict, character, setting, sequence, and plot and arc. In doing so, we hope to provide a richer understanding of how specific theorizing tools facilitate aspects of the theorizing process and offer a clearer big picture of the process of building important theories. We also offer pragmatic empirical theorizing as an approach that uses quantitative empirical findings to stimulate theorizing.

237 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: With roots dating back to Fiedler’s (1978) contingency model, contextual leadership has been one of the most trending topics in leadership research over the last decade. However, although roughly 500 studies have examined the impact of context on leadership and its outcomes, there is neither a systematic approach to nor agreement regarding what constitutes the context for leadership. This is surprising, considering the central role that context plays in leadership: Leadership does not occur in a vacuum, but rather exists in a context where leaders function. This review article uses Johns’s (2006) categorical framework to fully portray the leadership context and systematically reviews the existing theoretical frameworks and empirical findings for the impact of context. When called for, this review also integrates related streams of research (e.g., institutional theory). Finally, the article summarizes the general trends in the study of contextual leadership and suggests future directions, offering ideas to help meaningfully structure the voluminous and diverse body of research on the leadership context.

112 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: How CEOs think and feel about time may have a big influence on their firms’ strategies. We examine how two distinct CEO temporal dispositions—time urgency (the feeling of being chronically hurried) and pacing style (one’s pattern of effort over time in working toward deadlines)—each influence corporate entrepreneurship, a key strategic behavior. We propose that CEOs’ temporal leadership—how they manage the temporal aspects of top management teams’ activities—mediates the relationships between their temporal dispositions and corporate entrepreneurship—firms’ innovation, corporate venturing, and strategic renewal activities. Using a sample of 129 small and medium-sized Chinese firms, we find that CEOs’ time urgency is positively related to their temporal leadership, which in turn is positively related to corporate entrepreneurship. We also examine the effects of three distinct pacing styles: early-action, meaning the CEO exerts the most effort early in the task process and relaxes as the deadline nears; ste...

76 citations


Cites background from "Folding Under Pressure or Rising to..."

  • ...Team leaders create a coherent temporal framework to ensure that each team member carries out the assigned action at the appropriate time, and they continually adjust this framework to accommodate gaps, delays, and deviations (Maruping et al., 2015)....

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  • ...Therefore, temporal leadership is conceptualized as a unified and coherent construct (Mohammed and Nadkarni, 2011; Maruping et al., 2015)....

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  • ...Team leaders prioritize the team’s task goals, efficiently allocate time to different subtasks, and create built-in blocks of time for unexpected contingencies (Maruping et al., 2015)....

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  • ...Originating in the time, interaction, and performance (TIP) theory, temporal leadership has strong theoretical foundations and has received growing academic attention (Mohammed and Nadkarni, 2011; Maruping et al., 2015 )....

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  • ...Temporal leadership behaviors have been shown to enhance teams’ performance (Mohammed and Nadkarni, 2011) and determine how effectively teams respond to time pressure (Maruping et al., 2015)....

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Dissertation
01 Dec 2017
Abstract: This thesis studied the slack - performance relationship under different external environments by taking advantage of the financial crisis of 2008-09, which provides a natural experiment opportunity for the study. Besides the management of slack, adaptation profiles are also examined by building the two-stage adaptation process model in concordance with different period of financial crisis. Based on empirical analysis and theoretical research, this thesis finds that slack management impacts the firms' performance as well as firms' adaptation to respond to financial crisis. Another novelty of this thesis is to examine ambidexterity in detail by employing constructs of alignment and adaptability from the perspective of organizational slack. Thesis tries to evidence that European manufacturing firms have various adaptation processes, profiles and risk-taking behaviors with varying performance implications based on their slack management in response to financial crisis. To that end, this study investigates empirically, publicly-held 671 western European manufacturing firms, by comparatively examining their organizational slack management and performance characteristics before, during and after the recent financial crisis period 2007-8 . This research employs longitudinal panel data. The data was drawn from Thomson one banker database for the period of2004-2013.

41 citations


Cites background from "Folding Under Pressure or Rising to..."

  • ...When temporal constraints (begin with onset of the financial crisis) increased around the firm environment, according to findings, this led to the payment of less dividends for firm’s operational tasks during and after financial crisis (Maruping et al., 2014)....

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: This article examines the adequacy of the “rules of thumb” conventional cutoff criteria and several new alternatives for various fit indexes used to evaluate model fit in practice. Using a 2‐index presentation strategy, which includes using the maximum likelihood (ML)‐based standardized root mean squared residual (SRMR) and supplementing it with either Tucker‐Lewis Index (TLI), Bollen's (1989) Fit Index (BL89), Relative Noncentrality Index (RNI), Comparative Fit Index (CFI), Gamma Hat, McDonald's Centrality Index (Mc), or root mean squared error of approximation (RMSEA), various combinations of cutoff values from selected ranges of cutoff criteria for the ML‐based SRMR and a given supplemental fit index were used to calculate rejection rates for various types of true‐population and misspecified models; that is, models with misspecified factor covariance(s) and models with misspecified factor loading(s). The results suggest that, for the ML method, a cutoff value close to .95 for TLI, BL89, CFI, RNI, and G...

63,509 citations


"Folding Under Pressure or Rising to..." refers background in this paper

  • ...…factors (the three team processes) and one second-order factor were within acceptable levels (CFI 5 .95, GFI 5 .95, SRMR 5 .06, RMSEA 5 .07) (Hu & Bentler, 1999), thus suggesting that a superordinate team process variable could be computed by averaging scores for the three team processes…...

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: (1994). Multiple Regression: Testing and Interpreting Interactions. Journal of the Operational Research Society: Vol. 45, No. 1, pp. 119-120.

11,971 citations


"Folding Under Pressure or Rising to..." refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...However, the coefficient on the linear term for time pressure is also negative and significant, suggesting that the inverted U-shape curve has an overall negative trend (Aiken & West, 1991)....

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  • ...In order to reduce possible non-essential multicollinearity, we mean-centered the time pressure variable prior to computing the squared term (Aiken & West, 1991)....

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  • ...…a full inverted U-shape relationship to be supported, the coefficient on the linear term should be nonsignificant and the coefficient on the quadratic term should be negative and significantly different from zero (Aiken & West, 1991). team processes would be moderated by team temporal leadership....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: We describe the development and validation of a new instrument, KEYS: Assessing the Climate for Creativity, designed to assess perceived stimulants and obstacles to creativity in organizational work environments. The KEYS scales have acceptable factor structures, internal consistencies, test-retest reliabilities, and preliminary convergent and discriminant validity. A construct validity study shows that perceived work environments, as assessed by the KEYS scales, discriminate between high-creativity projects and low-creativity projects; certain scales discriminate more strongly and consistently than others. We discuss the utility of this tool for research and practice.

4,817 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A general analytical framework for combining moderation and mediation that integrates moderated regression analysis and path analysis is presented that clarifies how moderator variables influence the paths that constitute the direct, indirect, and total effects of mediated models.
Abstract: Studies that combine moderation and mediation are prevalent in basic and applied psychology research. Typically, these studies are framed in terms of moderated mediation or mediated moderation, both of which involve similar analytical approaches. Unfortunately, these approaches have important shortcomings that conceal the nature of the moderated and the mediated effects under investigation. This article presents a general analytical framework for combining moderation and mediation that integrates moderated regression analysis and path analysis. This framework clarifies how moderator variables influence the paths that constitute the direct, indirect, and total effects of mediated models. The authors empirically illustrate this framework and give step-by-step instructions for estimation and interpretation. They summarize the advantages of their framework over current approaches, explain how it subsumes moderated mediation and mediated moderation, and describe how it can accommodate additional moderator and mediator variables, curvilinear relationships, and structural equation models with latent variables.

2,992 citations


"Folding Under Pressure or Rising to..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...In order to test this hypothesis, we first conducted moderated-mediation analysis following the guidelines of Edwards and Lambert (2007)....

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  • ...In order to test Hypothesis 3, we conducted amoderated-mediation analysis (Edwards & Lambert, 2007) followed by a test of instantaneous indirect effects at varying levels of team temporal leadership (Hayes & Preacher, 2010)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article defines team process in the context of a multiphase episodic framework related to goal accomplishment, arguing that teams are multitasking units that perform multiple processes simultaneously and sequentially to orchestrate goal-directed taskwork.
Abstract: In this article we examine the meaning of team process. We first define team process in the context of a multiphase episodic framework related to goal accomplishment, arguing that teams are multitasking units that perform multiple processes simultaneously and sequentially to orchestrate goal-directed taskwork. We then advance a taxonomy of team process dimensions synthesized from previous research and theorizing. a taxonomy that reflects our time-based conceptual framework. We conclude with implications for future research and application.

2,732 citations


"Folding Under Pressure or Rising to..." refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...Affect management reflects teams’ efforts to regulate potentially destructive emotions, such as frustration or anger, during mission accomplishment (Marks et al., 2001)....

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  • ...Project teams often perform work that involves multiple tasks that must be managed simultaneously, and each task is made up of multiple, interrelated subtasks (Marks et al., 2001; McGrath, 1991)....

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  • ...Interpersonal processes do not occur in phases and involve team efforts to manage conflict, develop and maintain a sense of collective motivation, and regulate team members’ affect (Marks et al., 2001)....

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  • ...We posit that temporal leadership plays an important role in directing teams’ attention to the need for team processes, defined as task management processes that teams use to handle interdependencies between the multiple tasks for which they are responsible (Marks et al., 2001)....

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  • ...” We posit that temporal leadership plays an important role in directing teams’ attention to the need for team processes, defined as task management processes that teams use to handle interdependencies between the multiple tasks for which they are responsible (Marks et al., 2001)....

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