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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41538-021-00090-7

Formation of contractile 3D bovine muscle tissue for construction of millimetre-thick cultured steak

02 Mar 2021-Vol. 5, Iss: 1, pp 6-6
Abstract: Owing to the increase in the global demand of meat, cultured meat technology is being developed to circumvent a shortage of meat in the future. However, methods for construction of millimetre-thick bovine muscle tissues with highly aligned myotubes have not yet been established. Here, we propose a culture method for constructing 3D-cultured bovine muscle tissue containing myotubes aligned along its long-axial direction, which contracted in response to electrical stimulation. First, we optimised the composition of biomaterials used in the construction and the electrical stimulation applied to the tissue during culture. Subsequently, we fabricated millimetre-thick bovine muscle tissues containing highly aligned myotubes by accumulating bovine myoblast-laden hydrogel modules. The microbial content of the bovine muscle tissue cultured for 14 days was below the detection limit, indicating that the muscle tissues were sterile, unlike commercial meat. Therefore, the proposed construction method for bovine muscle tissues will be useful for the production of clean cultured steak meat simulating real meat.

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9 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41467-021-25236-9
Dong-Hee Kang1, Fiona Louis1, Hao Liu1, Hiroshi Shimoda2  +9 moreInstitutions (4)
Abstract: With the current interest in cultured meat, mammalian cell-based meat has mostly been unstructured. There is thus still a high demand for artificial steak-like meat. We demonstrate in vitro construction of engineered steak-like tissue assembled of three types of bovine cell fibers (muscle, fat, and vessel). Because actual meat is an aligned assembly of the fibers connected to the tendon for the actions of contraction and relaxation, tendon-gel integrated bioprinting was developed to construct tendon-like gels. In this study, a total of 72 fibers comprising 42 muscles, 28 adipose tissues, and 2 blood capillaries were constructed by tendon-gel integrated bioprinting and manually assembled to fabricate steak-like meat with a diameter of 5 mm and a length of 10 mm inspired by a meat cut. The developed tendon-gel integrated bioprinting here could be a promising technology for the fabrication of the desired types of steak-like cultured meats. Mammalian cell-based cultured meat has mostly been unstructured, leaving a demand for artificial steak-like meat. Here the authors present an assembled steak-like tissue of bovine skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and blood capillary tissue fabricated by tendon-gel integrated printing technology.

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3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1042/EBC20200092
Byeongwook Jo1, Minghao Nie1, Shoji Takeuchi1Institutions (1)
Abstract: With the current rapidly growing global population, the animal product industry faces challenges which not only demand drastically increased amounts of animal products but also have to limit the emission of greenhouse gases and animal waste. These issues can be solved by the combination of microfabrication and tissue engineering techniques, which utilize the microtissue as a building component for larger tissue assembly to fabricate animal products. Various methods for the assembly of microtissue have been proposed such as spinning, cell layering, and 3D bioprinting to mimic the intricate morphology and function of the in vivo animal tissues. Some of the demonstrations on cultured meat and leather-like materials present promising outlooks on the emerging field of in vitro production of animal products.

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Topics: 3D bioprinting (53%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/IJMS22136780
Abstract: Culturing three-dimensional (3D) tissues with an appropriate microenvironment is a critical and fundamental technology in broad areas of cutting-edge bioengineering research. In addition, many technologies have engineered tissue functions. However, an effective system for transporting nutrients, waste, or oxygen to affect the functions of cell tissues has not been reported. In this study, we introduce a novel system that employs diffusion and convection to enhance transportation. To demonstrate the concept of the proposed system, three layers of normal human dermal fibroblast cell sheets are used as a model tissue, which is cultured on a general dish or porous collagen scaffold with perfusable channels for three days with and without the perfusion of culture media in the scaffold. The results show that the viability of the cell tissue was improved by the developed system. Furthermore, glucose consumption, lactate production, and oxygen transport to the tissues were increased, which might improve the viability of tissues. However, mechanical stress in the proposed system did not cause damage or unintentional functional changes in the cultured tissue. We believe that the introduced culturing system potentially suggests a novel standard for 3D cell cultures.

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Topics: Oxygen transport (57%)

1 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/ACSAMI.1C07385
Sohyeon Park1, Sungwon Jung1, Jiwoong Heo1, Won Gun Koh1  +2 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Cultured meat is artificial meat produced via the mass culture of cells without slaughtering livestock. In the production process of cultured meat, the mass proliferation for preparing abundant cells is a strenuous and time-consuming procedure requiring expensive and excess serum. Herein, C-phycocyanin (C-PC) extracted from blue algae was selected as a substitute for animal-derived serum and a polysaccharide film-based platform was developed to effectively deliver C-PC to myoblast while reducing the cost of cell medium. The polysaccharide platform has a sophisticated structure in which an agarose layer is capped on a porous multilayer film formed by molecular reassembly between chitosan and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC). The porous multilayer film provides an inner structure in which C-PC can be incorporated, and the agarose layer protects and stabilizes the C-PC. The completed platform was easily applied to a cell culture plate to efficiently release C-PC, thereby improving myoblast proliferation in a serum-reduced environment during long-term culture. We developed a cell sheet-based meat model using this polysaccharide platform to evaluate the improved cost-efficiency by the platform method in the mass proliferation of cells. This strategy and innovative technology can simplify the production system and secure price competitiveness to commercialize cultured meat.

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Topics: Myoblast proliferation (60%)


References
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35 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/JN/133.11.3907S
Christopher L. Delgado1Institutions (1)
Abstract: People in developing countries currently consume on average one-third the meat and one-quarter of the milk products per capita compared to the richer North, but this is changing rapidly. The amount of meat consumed in developing countries over the past has grown three times as much as it did in the developed countries. The Livestock Revolution is primarily driven by demand. Poor people everywhere are eating more animal products as their incomes rise above poverty level and as they become urbanized. By 2020, the share of developing countries in total world meat consumption will expand from 52% currently to 63%. By 2020, developing countries will consume 107 million metric tons (mmt) more meat and 177 mmt more milk than they did in 1996/1998, dwarfing developed-country increases of 19 mmt for meat and 32 mmt for milk. The projected increase in livestock production will require annual feed consumption of cereals to rise by nearly 300 mmt by 2020. Nonetheless, the inflation-adjusted prices of livestock and feed commodities are expected to fall marginally by 2020, compared to precipitous declines in the past 20 y. Structural change in the diets of billions of people is a primal force not easily reversed by governments. The incomes and nutrition of millions of rural poor in developing countries are improving. Yet in many cases these dietary changes also create serious environmental and health problems that require active policy involvement to prevent irreversible consequences.

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624 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1152/AJPCELL.00595.2001
Abstract: Human bioartificial muscles (HBAMs) are tissue engineered by suspending muscle cells in collagen/MATRIGEL, casting in a silicone mold containing end attachment sites, and allowing the cells to differentiate for 8 to 16 days. The resulting HBAMs are representative of skeletal muscle in that they contain parallel arrays of postmitotic myofibers; however, they differ in many other morphological characteristics. To engineer improved HBAMs, i.e., more in vivo-like, we developed Mechanical Cell Stimulator (MCS) hardware to apply in vivo-like forces directly to the engineered tissue. A sensitive force transducer attached to the HBAM measured real-time, internally generated, as well as externally applied, forces. The muscle cells generated increasing internal forces during formation which were inhibitable with a cytoskeleton depolymerizer. Repetitive stretch/relaxation for 8 days increased the HBAM elasticity two- to threefold, mean myofiber diameter 12%, and myofiber area percent 40%. This system allows engineering of improved skeletal muscle analogs as well as a nondestructive method to determine passive force and viscoelastic properties of the resulting tissue.

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Topics: Skeletal muscle (58%), Myocyte (57%), Tissue engineering (50%)

417 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0309-1740(02)00127-4
01 Nov 2002-Meat Science
Abstract: Our objectives for this manuscript are to review the mechanisms of muscle growth, the biological basis of meat tenderness, and the relationship between these two processes. Muscle growth is determined by hyperplasia and hypertrophy. Muscle cell size is determined by the balance between the amount of muscle protein synthesized and the amount of muscle protein degraded. Current evidence suggests that the calpain proteolytic system is a major regulator of muscle protein degradation. Sarcomere length, connective tissue content, and proteolysis of myofibrils and associated proteins account for most, if not all, of the explainable variation in tenderness of meat after postmortem storage. The relative contribution of each of the above components is muscle dependent. The calpain proteolytic system is a key regulator of postmortem proteolysis. While changes in muscle protein degradation affect meat tenderization/tenderness, changes in muscle protein synthesis are not expected to affect meat tenderization/tenderness.

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Topics: Meat tenderness (67%), Tenderness (59%), Myofibril (58%) ... read more

363 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/ES200130U
Abstract: Cultured meat (i.e., meat produced in vitro using tissue engineering techniques) is being developed as a potentially healthier and more efficient alternative to conventional meat. Life cycle assessment (LCA) research method was used for assessing environmental impacts of large-scale cultured meat production. Cyanobacteria hydrolysate was assumed to be used as the nutrient and energy source for muscle cell growth. The results showed that production of 1000 kg cultured meat requires 26–33 GJ energy, 367–521 m3 water, 190–230 m2 land, and emits 1900–2240 kg CO2-eq GHG emissions. In comparison to conventionally produced European meat, cultured meat involves approximately 7–45% lower energy use (only poultry has lower energy use), 78–96% lower GHG emissions, 99% lower land use, and 82–96% lower water use depending on the product compared. Despite high uncertainty, it is concluded that the overall environmental impacts of cultured meat production are substantially lower than those of conventionally produced meat.

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Topics: Cultured meat (58%), Energy source (55%)

345 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.MEATSCI.2012.04.008
Mark J. Post1Institutions (1)
01 Nov 2012-Meat Science
Abstract: As one of the alternatives for livestock meat production, in vitro culturing of meat is currently studied. The generation of bio-artificial muscles from satellite cells has been ongoing for about 15 years, but has never been used for generation of meat, while it already is a great source of animal protein. In order to serve as a credible alternative to livestock meat, lab or factory grown meat should be efficiently produced and should mimic meat in all of its physical sensations, such as visual appearance, smell, texture and of course, taste. This is a formidable challenge even though all the technologies to create skeletal muscle and fat tissue have been developed and tested. The efficient culture of meat will primarily depend on culture conditions such as the source of medium and its composition. Protein synthesis by cultured skeletal muscle cells should further be maximized by finding the optimal combination of biochemical and physical conditions for the cells. Many of these variables are known, but their interactions are numerous and need to be mapped. This involves a systematic, if not systems, approach. Given the urgency of the problems that the meat industry is facing, this endeavor is worth undertaking. As an additional benefit, culturing meat may provide opportunities for production of novel and healthier products.

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Topics: Meat packing industry (65%), Cultured meat (62%)

288 Citations


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