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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/MNRAS/STAB692

Forming massive seed black holes in high-redshift quasar host progenitors

02 Mar 2021-Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (Oxford University Press (OUP))-Vol. 503, Iss: 4, pp 5046-5060
Abstract: The presence of massive black holes (BHs) with masses of order $10^9\rm\, M_\odot$, powering bright quasars when the Universe was less than 1 Gyr old, poses strong constraints on their formation mechanism. Several scenarios have been proposed to date to explain massive BH formation, from the low-mass seed BH remnants of the first generation of stars to the massive seed BHs resulting from the rapid collapse of massive gas clouds. However, the plausibility of some of these scenarios to occur within the progenitors of high-z quasars has not yet been thoroughly explored. In this work, we investigate, by combining dark-matter only N-body simulations with a semi-analytic framework, whether the conditions for the formation of massive seed BHs from synchronised atomic-cooling halo pairs and/or dynamically-heated mini-haloes are fulfilled in the overdense regions where the progenitors of a typical high-redshift quasar host form and evolve. Our analysis shows that the peculiar conditions in such regions, i.e. strong halo clustering and high star formation rates, are crucial to produce a non-negligible number of massive seed BH host candidates: we find $\approx1400$ dynamically heated metal-free mini-haloes, including one of these which evolves to a synchronised pair and ends up in the massive quasar-host halo by $z=6$. This demonstrates that the progenitors of high-redshift quasar host haloes can harbour early massive seed BHs. Our results further suggest that multiple massive seed BHs may form in or near the quasar host's progenitors, potentially merging at lower redshifts and yielding gravitational wave events.

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Topics: Star formation (51%), Quasar (50%)
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7 results found


Open accessPosted Content
Abstract: We review the properties of the established Scaling Relations (SRs) of galaxies and active galactic nuclei (AGN), focusing on their origin and expected evolution back in time, providing a short history of the most important progresses obtained up to now and discussing the possible future studies. We also try to connect the observed SRs with the physical mechanisms behind them, examining to what extent current models reproduce the observational data. The emerging picture clarifies the complexity intrinsic to the galaxy formation and evolution process as well as the basic uncertainties still affecting our knowledge of the AGN phenomenon. At the same time, however, it suggests that the detailed analysis of the SRs can profitably contribute to our understanding of galaxies and AGN.

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Topics: Active galactic nucleus (54%), Galaxy (51%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/AC0ADC
Wenxiu Li, Kohei Inayoshi1, Yu QiuInstitutions (1)
Abstract: High-redshift luminous quasars powered by accreting supermassive black holes (SMBHs) with mass $\gtrsim 10^9 M_\odot$ constrain their formation pathways. We investigate the formation of heavy seeds of SMBHs through gas collapse in the quasar host progenitors, using merger trees to trace the halo growth in highly-biased, overdense regions of the universe. The progenitor halos are likely irradiated by intense H$_2$-photodissociating radiation from nearby star-forming galaxies and heat the interior gas by successive mergers. The kinetic energy of the gas originating from mergers as well as baryonic streaming motion prevents gas collapse and delays prior star formation. With a streaming velocity higher than the root-mean-square value, gas clouds in nearly all $10^4$ realizations of merger trees enter the atomic-cooling stage and begin to collapse isothermally with $T \simeq 8000 K$ via Ly$\alpha$ cooling. The fraction of trees which host isothermal gas collapse is $14\%$ and increases with streaming velocity, while the rest form H$_2$-cooled cores after short isothermal phases. If the collapsing gas is enriched to $Z_{crit}\sim 2\times 10^{-3} Z_\odot$, requiring efficient metal mixing, this fraction could be reduced by additional cooling via metal fine-structure lines. In the massive collapsing gas, the accretion rate onto a newly-born protostar ranges between $3 \times 10^{-3}-5 M_\odot yr^{-1}$, among which a large fraction exceeds the critical rate suppressing stellar radiative feedback. As a result, we expect a distribution of stellar mass (presumably BH mass) ranging from several hundred to above $10^5 M_\odot$, potentially forming massive BH binary mergers and yielding gravitational wave events.

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Topics: Star formation (54%), Supermassive black hole (53%), Quasar (53%) ... show more

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/AC2A45
Abstract: Identifying stars formed in pristine environments (Pop III) within the first billion years is vital to uncovering the earliest growth and chemical evolution of galaxies. Pop III galaxies, however, are typically expected to be too faint and too few in number to be detectable by forthcoming instruments without extremely long integration times and/or extreme lensing. In an environment, however, where star formation is suppressed until a halo crosses the atomic cooling limit (e.g., by a modest Lyman-Werner flux, high baryonic streaming velocities, and/or dynamical heating effects),primordial halos can form substantially more numerous and more massive stars. Some of these stars will in-turn be accreting more rapidly than they can thermally relax at any given time. Using high resolution cosmological zoom-in simulations of massive star formation in high-z halos, we find that such rapidly accreting stars produce prominent spectral features which would be detectable by {\it JWST}. The rapid accretion episodes within the halo lead to stochastic reprocessing of 0--20\% of the total stellar emission into the rest-frame optical over long timescales, a unique signature which may allow deep observations to identify such objects out to $z \sim 10-13$ using mid- and wide-band NIRCam colors alone.

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Topics: Star formation (57%), Stars (56%), Accretion (astrophysics) (55%) ... show more

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/MNRAS/STAB1737
Abstract: Observations of hyper-luminous quasars at $z>6$ reveal the rapid growth of supermassive black holes (SMBHs $>10^9 \rm M_{\odot}$) whose origin is still difficult to explain. Their progenitors may have formed as remnants of massive, metal free stars (light seeds), via stellar collisions (medium-weight seeds) and/or massive gas clouds direct collapse (heavy seeds). In this work we investigate for the first time the relative role of these three seed populations in the formation of $z>6$ SMBHs within an Eddington-limited gas accretion scenario. To this aim, we implement in our semi-analytical data-constrained model a statistical description of the spatial fluctuations of Lyman-Werner (LW) photo-dissociating radiation and of metal/dust enrichment. This allows us to set the physical conditions for BH seeds formation, exploring their relative birth rate in a highly biased region of the Universe at $z>6$. We find that the inclusion of medium-weight seeds does not qualitatively change the growth history of the first SMBHs: although less massive seeds ($ 15$.

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Topics: Supermassive black hole (53%), Stellar collision (51%), Quasar (50%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FSPAS.2021.694554
Abstract: We review the properties of the established Scaling Relations (SRs) of galaxies and active galactic nuclei (AGN), focusing on their origin and expected evolution back in time, providing a short history of the most important progresses obtained up to now and discussing the possible future studies. We also try to connect the observed SRs with the physical mechanisms behind them, examining to what extent current models reproduce the observational data. The emerging picture clarifies the complexity intrinsic to the galaxy formation and evolution process as well as the basic uncertainties still affecting our knowledge of the AGN phenomenon. At the same time, however, it suggests that the detailed analysis of the SRs can profitably contribute to our understanding of galaxies and AGN.

... read more

Topics: Active galactic nucleus (54%), Galaxy (51%)

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135 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201525830
Peter A. R. Ade1, Nabila Aghanim2, Monique Arnaud3, M. Ashdown4  +334 moreInstitutions (82)
Abstract: This paper presents cosmological results based on full-mission Planck observations of temperature and polarization anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Our results are in very good agreement with the 2013 analysis of the Planck nominal-mission temperature data, but with increased precision. The temperature and polarization power spectra are consistent with the standard spatially-flat 6-parameter ΛCDM cosmology with a power-law spectrum of adiabatic scalar perturbations (denoted “base ΛCDM” in this paper). From the Planck temperature data combined with Planck lensing, for this cosmology we find a Hubble constant, H0 = (67.8 ± 0.9) km s-1Mpc-1, a matter density parameter Ωm = 0.308 ± 0.012, and a tilted scalar spectral index with ns = 0.968 ± 0.006, consistent with the 2013 analysis. Note that in this abstract we quote 68% confidence limits on measured parameters and 95% upper limits on other parameters. We present the first results of polarization measurements with the Low Frequency Instrument at large angular scales. Combined with the Planck temperature and lensing data, these measurements give a reionization optical depth of τ = 0.066 ± 0.016, corresponding to a reionization redshift of . These results are consistent with those from WMAP polarization measurements cleaned for dust emission using 353-GHz polarization maps from the High Frequency Instrument. We find no evidence for any departure from base ΛCDM in the neutrino sector of the theory; for example, combining Planck observations with other astrophysical data we find Neff = 3.15 ± 0.23 for the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom, consistent with the value Neff = 3.046 of the Standard Model of particle physics. The sum of neutrino masses is constrained to ∑ mν < 0.23 eV. The spatial curvature of our Universe is found to be very close to zero, with | ΩK | < 0.005. Adding a tensor component as a single-parameter extension to base ΛCDM we find an upper limit on the tensor-to-scalar ratio of r0.002< 0.11, consistent with the Planck 2013 results and consistent with the B-mode polarization constraints from a joint analysis of BICEP2, Keck Array, and Planck (BKP) data. Adding the BKP B-mode data to our analysis leads to a tighter constraint of r0.002 < 0.09 and disfavours inflationarymodels with a V(φ) ∝ φ2 potential. The addition of Planck polarization data leads to strong constraints on deviations from a purely adiabatic spectrum of fluctuations. We find no evidence for any contribution from isocurvature perturbations or from cosmic defects. Combining Planck data with other astrophysical data, including Type Ia supernovae, the equation of state of dark energy is constrained to w = −1.006 ± 0.045, consistent with the expected value for a cosmological constant. The standard big bang nucleosynthesis predictions for the helium and deuterium abundances for the best-fit Planck base ΛCDM cosmology are in excellent agreement with observations. We also constraints on annihilating dark matter and on possible deviations from the standard recombination history. In neither case do we find no evidence for new physics. The Planck results for base ΛCDM are in good agreement with baryon acoustic oscillation data and with the JLA sample of Type Ia supernovae. However, as in the 2013 analysis, the amplitude of the fluctuation spectrum is found to be higher than inferred from some analyses of rich cluster counts and weak gravitational lensing. We show that these tensions cannot easily be resolved with simple modifications of the base ΛCDM cosmology. Apart from these tensions, the base ΛCDM cosmology provides an excellent description of the Planck CMB observations and many other astrophysical data sets.

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Topics: Planck energy (70%), Planck particle (68%), Planck temperature (68%) ... show more

10,334 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201525830
Abstract: We present results based on full-mission Planck observations of temperature and polarization anisotropies of the CMB. These data are consistent with the six-parameter inflationary LCDM cosmology. From the Planck temperature and lensing data, for this cosmology we find a Hubble constant, H0= (67.8 +/- 0.9) km/s/Mpc, a matter density parameter Omega_m = 0.308 +/- 0.012 and a scalar spectral index with n_s = 0.968 +/- 0.006. (We quote 68% errors on measured parameters and 95% limits on other parameters.) Combined with Planck temperature and lensing data, Planck LFI polarization measurements lead to a reionization optical depth of tau = 0.066 +/- 0.016. Combining Planck with other astrophysical data we find N_ eff = 3.15 +/- 0.23 for the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom and the sum of neutrino masses is constrained to < 0.23 eV. Spatial curvature is found to be |Omega_K| < 0.005. For LCDM we find a limit on the tensor-to-scalar ratio of r <0.11 consistent with the B-mode constraints from an analysis of BICEP2, Keck Array, and Planck (BKP) data. Adding the BKP data leads to a tighter constraint of r < 0.09. We find no evidence for isocurvature perturbations or cosmic defects. The equation of state of dark energy is constrained to w = -1.006 +/- 0.045. Standard big bang nucleosynthesis predictions for the Planck LCDM cosmology are in excellent agreement with observations. We investigate annihilating dark matter and deviations from standard recombination, finding no evidence for new physics. The Planck results for base LCDM are in agreement with BAO data and with the JLA SNe sample. However the amplitude of the fluctuations is found to be higher than inferred from rich cluster counts and weak gravitational lensing. Apart from these tensions, the base LCDM cosmology provides an excellent description of the Planck CMB observations and many other astrophysical data sets.

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Topics: Planck temperature (67%), Planck (60%), Cosmic microwave background (60%) ... show more

9,349 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/J.1365-2966.2005.09655.X
Volker Springel1Institutions (1)
Abstract: We discuss the cosmological simulation code GADGET-2, a new massively parallel TreeSPH code, capable of following a collisionless fluid with the N-body method, and an ideal gas by means of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH). Our implementation of SPH manifestly conserves energy and entropy in regions free of dissipation, while allowing for fully adaptive smoothing lengths. Gravitational forces are computed with a hierarchical multipole expansion, which can optionally be applied in the form of a TreePM algorithm, where only short-range forces are computed with the ‘tree’ method while long-range forces are determined with Fourier techniques. Time integration is based on a quasi-symplectic scheme where long-range and short-range forces can be integrated with different time-steps. Individual and adaptive short-range time-steps may also be employed. The domain decomposition used in the parallelization algorithm is based on a space-filling curve, resulting in high flexibility and tree force errors that do not depend on the way the domains are cut. The code is efficient in terms of memory consumption and required communication bandwidth. It has been used to compute the first cosmological N-body simulation with more than 10 10 dark matter particles, reaching a homogeneous spatial dynamic range of 10 5 per dimension in a three-dimensional box. It has also been used to carry out very large cosmological SPH simulations that account for radiative cooling and star formation, reaching total particle numbers of more than 250 million. We present the algorithms used by the code and discuss their accuracy and performance using a number of test problems. GADGET-2 is publicly released to the research community. Ke yw ords: methods: numerical ‐ galaxies: interactions ‐ dark matter.

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Topics: N-body simulation (55%), Smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (54%), Matter power spectrum (51%) ... show more

6,033 Citations


Open accessBook
19 Apr 1993-
Abstract: During the last twenty years, dramatic improvements in methods of observing astrophysical phenomena from the ground and in space have added to our knowledge of what the universe is like now and what it was like in the past, going back to the hot big bang. In this overview of today's physical cosmology, P.J.E. Peebles shows how observation has combined with theoretical elements to establish the subject as a mature science, while he also discusses the most notable recent attempts to understand the origin and structure of the universe. A successor to Peebles's classic volume Physical Cosmology (Princeton, 1971), the book is a comprehensive overview addressed not only to students but also to scientists active in fields outside cosmology. The first chapter of the work presents the elements of physical cosmology, including the history of the discovery of the expanding universe. The second, on the cosmological tests that measure the geometry of spacetime, discusses general relativity theory as the basis for the tests, and then surveys the broad variety of ways the tests can be applied with the new generations of telescopes and detectors. The third chapter deals with the origin of galaxies and the large-scale structure of the universe, and reviews ideas about how the evolution of the universe might be traced back to very early epochs when structure originated. Each section of these chapters begins with an introduction that can be understood with no special knowledge beyond undergraduate physics, and then progresses to more specialized topics. P.J.E. Peebles is Albert Einstein Professor of Science at Princeton University. He is a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the Royal Society.

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Topics: Physical cosmology (59%), Metric expansion of space (56%), Cosmology (54%) ... show more

3,397 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/MNRAS/262.3.627
Cedric G. Lacey1, Shaun Cole2Institutions (2)
Abstract: We present an analytical description of the merging of virialized haloes which is applicable to any hierarchical model in which structure grows via gravitational instability. The formulae are an extension of the Press-Schechter model. The dependence of the merger rate on halo mass, epoch, the spectrum of initial density fluctuations and the density parameter Ω0 is explicitly quantified. We calculate the distribution of halo formation times and survival times. We also describe a Monte Carlo method for constructing representative histories of merger events leading to formation of haloes of a prescribed mass. Applying these results to the age distribution of rich clusters of galaxies, we infer that a high value of the density parameter (Ω0 ≳ 0.5) is required to reproduce the substantial fraction of rich clusters that exhibit significant substructure, if such substructure only persists for a time 0.2t0 after a merger, where t0 is the present age of the universe. We also investigate the rate of infall of satellite galaxies into galactic discs, by combining our Monte Carlo technique for halo mergers with an estimate of the time required for dynamical friction to erode the orbits of the baryonic cores of the accreted galaxies. We find that, even for Ω0 = 1, the infall rate is low (provided that the satellite orbits are not too eccentric), and that we would expect only a modest fraction of stellar discs to be thickened or disrupted by this process.

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Topics: Galactic halo (60%), Satellite galaxy (57%), Galaxy formation and evolution (57%) ... show more

2,063 Citations


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