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Journal ArticleDOI

Four New Species of Anisotes (Acanthaceae) from Madagascar

18 Oct 2013-Novon (Missouri Botanical Garden)-Vol. 22, Iss: 4, pp 396-408

TL;DR: Four species of Anisotes Nees (Acanthaceae) are described from northern and west-central Madagascar, all of them endemic to the island, and Morphological features previously unknown in the genus are noted for A. hygroscopicus and A. perplexus.
Abstract: Four species of Anisotes Nees (Acanthaceae) are described from northern and west-central Madagascar: A hygroscopicus T F Daniel, Letsara & Martin-Bravo, A perplexus T F Daniel, Letsara & Martin-Bravo, A subcoriaceus T F Daniel, Letsara & Martin-Bravo, and A venosus T F Daniel, Letsara & Martin-Bravo A key to the six species of the genus known from Madagascar, all of them endemic to the island, is provided Morphological features previously unknown in the genus are noted for A hygroscopicus and A venosus (hygroscopic trichomes on seeds), A subcoriaceus (2-colporate, pseudocolpate pollen lacking insulae), and A perplexus (2-pororate pollen) None of these species can be treated with certainty in any of the currently recognized sections of Anisotes Data pertinent to the conservation status of each species are provided
Topics: Anisotes (75%), Genus (52%), Acanthaceae (50%)

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Four New Species of
Anisotes
(Acanthaceae) from Madagascar
Author(s): Thomas F. Daniel Rokiman Letsara Santiago Martín-Bravo
Source: Novon: A Journal for Botanical Nomenclature, 22(4):396-408. 2013.
Published By: Missouri Botanical Garden
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3417/2012054
URL: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.3417/2012054
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Four New Species of Anisotes (Acanthaceae) from Madagascar
Thomas F. Daniel
Department of Botany, California Academy of Sciences, 55 Music Concourse Drive,
Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, California 94118, U.S.A.
Author for correspondence: tdaniel@calacademy.org
Rokiman Letsara
Department of Botany, California Academy of Sciences–Madagascar, Enceinte PBZT,
Tsimbazaza, Antananarivo, Madagascar. rletsara@calacademy.org
Santiago Mart
´
ın-Bravo
Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemical Engineering, Pablo de Olavide University,
ctra. de Utrera Km. 1, 41013, Sevilla, Spain. smarbra@upo.es
ABSTRACT. Four species of Anisotes Nees (Acantha-
Baden (1981a) recognized 19 species of Anisotes
ceae) are described from northern and west-central
from tropical and southern Africa, Madagascar, and
Madagascar: A. hygroscopicus T. F. Daniel, Letsara
tropical Arabia. Baden (1981b, 1984) also treated
& Mart
´
ın-Bravo, A. perplexus T. F. Daniel, Letsara &
three species from tropical eastern and southern
Martın-B
´
ravo, A. subcoriaceus T. F. Daniel, Letsara
Africa in the morphologically similar genus Meta-
& Mart
´
ın-Bravo, and A. venosus T. F. Daniel, Letsara
rungia Baden. One of these was subsequently
& Mart
´
ın-Bravo. A key to the six species of the
discovered to occur in western Africa (Darbyshire et
genus known from Madagascar, all of them endemic
al., 2008). Vollesen (2010) recognized 24 species in
to the island, is provided. Morphological features
Anisotes, those previously treated in both Anisotes and
previously unknown in the genus are noted for A.
Metarungia, the sole species previously treated in
hygroscopicus and A. venosus (hygroscopic trichomes Chlamydostachya Mildbr., and a newly recognized
on seeds), A. subcoriaceus (2-colpor ate, pseudocol- species that had been treated as a subspecies of A.
pate pollen lacking insulae), and A. perplexus (2-
dumosus Milne-Redh. by Baden (1981a). Baden
pororate pollen). None of these species can be
(1981a) recognized six sections of Anisotes based
treated wi th certainty in any of the currently
primarily on differences in inflorescences, bracteolar
recognized sections of Anisotes. Data pertinent to
venation, and pollen sculpturing.
the conservation status of each species are provided.
Two species have been reported from Madagascar,
Key words: Acanthaceae, Anisotes, IUCN Red
Anisotes divaricatus T. F. Daniel, Mbola, Almeda &
List, Madagascar.
Phillipson and A. madagascariensis Benoist (Daniel
et al., 2007), both endemic to coastal or near coastal
Anisotes Nees is included in subfamily Acanthoi-
sandy regions in the dry, spiny forests and thornscrub
deae, tribe Justicieae, where it forms part of a grade
of the southwestern sector of the island nation.
of Old World relatives of Justicia L. (McDade et al.,
Benoist, an expert on Acanthaceae of Madagascar,
2000; Daniel et al., 2007). The genus can be
annotated several specimens among the Malagasy
characterized by the combination of its strongly
collections at P as probable undescribed species of
bilabiate corollas with ascending cochlear aestiva-
Anisotes, but did not publish names for these taxa
tion, relatively short corolla tube (corolla tube:overall
(Daniel et al., 2007). Recent collections augment
corolla length up to 0.56, but usually 0.33 or less),
those known to Benoist and reveal the existence of
rugulate upper lip, and lower lip that is usually
other new species of Anisotes from Madagascar.
recoiled; androecium of two s tamens and no
Additional specimens at P were identified by Benoist
staminodes; and bithecous anthers with thecae mostly
as Anisotes but these appear to represent species of
subequally to unequally inserted. Anisotes is mor-
other genera. Recent collections from Madagascar
phologically similar to Justicia, and may not be
also appear to represent species of Anisotes (e.g.,
distinct from it because each of these characteristics
Letsara et al. 874 at CAS, MO, and TAN), but have
can be found among the ca. 700 currently recognized
insufficient material to characterize fully and thus
species of the latter genus. determine their taxonomic status.
NOVON 22: 396–408. PUBLISHED ON 18 OCTOBER 2013. doi: 10.3417/2012054

Volume 22, Number 4 Daniel et al. 397
2013 Anisotes (Acanthaceae) from Madagascar
Herein we describe four new species from northern
antrorse eglandular trichomes 0.05–0.1 mm
and west-central Madagascar that conform to Anisotes
long; growing on sandy flats and dunes . .
........................... A. madagascariensis
based on the diagnostic characteristics noted above.
2b. Leaf blades broadly obovate to subcircular to
Each of these species exhibits a feature that has not
obcordate to obdeltate to oblate, 5–14 3 4.5–
been documented previously in the genus: A.
14.3 mm wide, 0.7–1.3 times as long as or
hygroscopicus T. F. Daniel, Letsara & Mart
´
ın-Bravo
longer than wide, emarginate to truncate at
apex; calyx 1.3–2.7 mm, margin of lobes
and A. venosus T. F. Daniel, Letsara & Mart
´
ın-Bravo
eciliate to sparsely ciliate; corolla with the
have hygroscopic trichomes on the seeds, A.
internal surface not conspicuously lighter in
subcoriaceus T. F. Daniel, Letsara & Mart
´
ın-Bravo
color than the external surface, the corolla
has 2-colporate pollen lacking insulae, and A.
tube:overall corolla length .46–0.56,
corolla tube 14–20 mm, upper
¼ 0
lip (11–)14–
perplexus T. F. Daniel, Letsara & Mart
´
ın-Bravo has
18 mm, lacking a pale margin distally, lower
2-pororate pollen. Each of these character states,
lip recurved to reflexed (not spirally coiled),
unique and presumably apomorphic in Anisotes,is
11–19 mm, lobes 8–12 mm; stamens 15–
discussed relative to their occurrence elsewhere
18.5 mm; capsule 6 scurfy but lacking
noticeable eglandular trichomes; growing on
among related taxa of Justic ieae. Palynolog ical
rocky limestone flats
............. A. divaricatus
diversity and infrageneric affinities of these species
1b. Leaves 27–203 mm, membranous to subcoria-
are discussed relative to the classification of Baden
ceous; proximal pair or pairs of bracts usually
(1981a).
sterile and smaller than fertile pairs, fertile
Because each of the new species currently is
bracts ovate to elliptic to oblate to subcircular to
obovate, 4.5–17 3 2.3–12 mm; bracteoles
known from few localities in a relatively small region
present; calyx 6.7–11 mm; corolla externally
of Madagascar, available information useful toward
pubescent 6 throughout, often including glan-
assessing the conservation status of each, based on
dular trichomes, lobes of lower lip 0.5–4 mm
IUCN Red List categories, criteria, and guidelines
long; plants of northern and west-central Mada-
gascar (Antsiranana, Mahajanga).
(IUCN, 2001, 2011), is summarized. ArcMap v. 10.0
3a. Y oung stems pubescent with antrorsely
(ESRI, 2010) was used to plot the studied popula-
appressed eglandular trichomes; fertile por-
tions and to estimate the extent of occurrence (EOO)
tion of spike 45–90 mm, rachis usually at
and area of occupancy (AOO; grid size 4 km
2
) of each
least partially visible; abaxial surface of
bracts with veins (except midvein) not or
species. Information necessary for a complete
only barely evident; bracteoles 6 elliptic to
conservation assessment was insufficient to evaluate
obovate-elliptic; corolla externally pubes-
some of the criteria and subcriteria required by the
cent with eglandular trichomes only; thecae
IUCN to qualify species under the different catego-
lacking basal appendages; pollen 2-poro-
rate; plants occurring between 1100 and
ries of threat. Although all four species must be
2000 m in humid forest
........... A. perplexus
classified as ‘‘Data Deficient’’ at the present time, it
3b. Young stems glabrous or pubescent with
is likely that some of them will eventually deserve
retrorse eglandular trichomes; fertile portion
protection under the IUCN guidelines.
of spike 10–30 mm, rachis not visible;
abaxial surface of bracts with several orders
K
EY TO
of venation conspicuous; bracteoles linear to
S
PECIES OF ANISOTES IN MADAGASCAR
lanceolate to oblanceolate; corolla externally
1a. Leaves 5–45 mm, coriaceous to subsucculent;
pubescent with glandular and eglandular
bracts all fertile, triangular to broadly triangular,
trichomes; one or both thecae with basal
1–2 mm 3 0.8–2.2 mm; bracteoles absent; calyx
appendages; pollen 2- or 3-colporate; plants
1.3–3.5 mm; corolla externally glabrous or nearly
occurring between 100 and 600 m in dry
so (occasionally with a few eglandular trichomes
forest.
proximally), lobes of lower lip 8–14 mm; plants
4a. Young stems pubescent with retrorse
of southwestern and southern Madagascar (To-
trichomes; leaf blades broadly ovate to
liara).
cordate, truncate to cordate at base,
2a. Leaf blades broadly ovate to broadly elliptic
1.2–1.9 times longer than wide, surfac-
to elliptic to ovate-elliptic, 14–45 3 10–38
es pubescent; bracts 2.3–3 mm wide
mm, 1.1–2.7 times longer than wide, round-
.......................... A. hygroscopicus
ed (to emarginate) at apex; calyx 2–3.5 mm,
4b. Young stems glabrous; leaf blades linear
margin of lobes 6 densely ciliate; corolla
to elliptic, attenuate to cuneate to
with the internal surface conspicuously
rounded to subauriculate at base, 2.8–
lighter in color than the external surface,
10.3 times longer than wide, surfaces
the corolla tube:overall corolla leng th ¼
glabrous; bracts 4.5–12 mm wide.
0.23–0.38, corolla tube 9–15 mm, upper
5a. Leaves petiolate, petioles to 19 mm
lip 20–35 mm and distally whitish to pinkish
long, blades elliptic, 2.8–3.8 times
along the margin, lower lip spirally coiled,
longer than wide, attenuate at base;
18–28 mm, lobes 12–14 mm; stamens 26–33
bracts green, sometimes tinged with
mm; capsule pubescent with flexuose to
maroon, subcoriaceous, apex round-

398 Novon
ed, entire or 2-fid or with a V-
story of straight to flexuose eglandular trichomes to 0.3
shaped split; corolla pale cream-
mm long; bracts green, sometimes tinged with purple
yellow to yellow-green; pollen 2-
(especially distally), subcoriaceous, imbricate, 6 4-
colporate; plants of northern Mada-
gascar (Antsiranana) . . . . A. subcoriaceus
ranked (2 adjacent rows fertile, thus spikes 6 secund),
5b. Leaves sessile to subsessile, petioles
elliptic to obovate, 5–6 3 2.3–3 mm, rounded to acute
to 0.5 mm long, blades linear to
at apex, abaxial surface glandular puberulent and
linear-elliptic, 6.3–10.3 times longer
sparsely pubescent with overstory of straight to
than wide, rounded to cuneate to
subauriculate at base; bracts light
flexuose eglandular trichomes 0.2–0.5 mm long,
colored, papery, apex acute- to
conspicuously veined with 5 to 7 veins subparallel to
acuminate- apiculate ( to ca udate);
midvein, margin densely ciliate with straight to
corolla pink (to whitish); pollen 3-
flexuose eglandular trichomes to 0.8 mm long;
colporate; plants of west-central
Madagascar (Mahajanga)
.... A. venosus
proximal pair (or pairs) of bracts usually sterile and
sometimes smaller than distal bracts; bracteoles linear
to oblanceolate, 3.7–5.5 3 1–1.5 mm, abaxial surface
1. Anisotes hygroscopicus T. F. Daniel, Letsara &
pubescent like bracts, prominently 3- to 5-veined with
Mart
´
ın-Bravo, sp. nov. TYPE: Madagascar.
veins subparallel, margin ciliate like bracts. Calyx
Antsiranana: E sector of Ankarana Nat. Park,
6.7–8.5 mm, tube approximately equal to lobes in
0.4 km (air) NW of village of Mahamasina (at
length (0.8–1 times as long as lobes), lobes lance-
entryway to park along RN-6), 12858.0349S,
ovate, 3–4.5 3 1–2 mm, abaxially pubescent like
49808.1129E, 110 m, 16 July 2011 (fl., fr.), T.
bracts, margin hyaline (whitish) and ciliate; corolla
Daniel, R. Letsara, H. Ranarivelo & J. Raza-
greenish yellow, 30–40 mm, externally glandular
natsoa 11842 (holotype, CAS; isotypes, BR, G,
puberulent and with an overstory of erect to retrorse
K, MO, NY, P, RSA, TAN, US). Figures 1E–H,
eglandular trichomes to 0.1 mm long, tube proximally
2B–D.
cylindric, 6 expanded distally, 7–12 mm, 0.19–0.3
times as long as corolla, 2–2.5 mm diam. near
Diagnosis. Anisotes hygroscopicus T. F. Daniel, Letsara
midpoint, upper lip 22–32 mm, internally rugulate,
& Martın-Bravo
´
differs from all other species of the genus
apically entire, lower lip recoiled, 20–24 mm, lobes
by the combination of leaf blades membranous, broadly
ovate to cordate, 52–135 3 32–102 mm, 1.2–1.9 times
2.3–4 3 0.8–1.5 mm; stamens 24–34 mm, inserted
longer than wide; bracts subcoriaceous, 5–6 3 2.3–3 mm;
near apex of corolla tube, exserted from tube but not or
corollas greenish yellow, 30–40 mm, externally pubescent
only slightly (by up to 5 mm) exceeding upper lip,
with both glandular and eglandular trichomes; pollen 3-
filaments whitish, glabrous, thecae greenish, unequally
colporate, 6-pseudocolpate; capsules 9–10 mm, glabrous;
seeds pubescent with hygroscopic trichomes.
inserted (overlapping by 1.2–1.5 mm), glabrous, equal
to unequal in size, distal theca 2.5–3.2 mm, sometimes
Erect to spreading branched shrubs to 1.5 m tall;
longer than proximal theca, lacking basal appendage
older stems dark brown-purple; younger stems often 6
or with an inconspicuous appendage to 0.1 mm,
zigzag, subterete to subquadrate, pubescent with
proximal theca 2.3–3.1 mm, including a prominent
retrorse eglandular trichomes 0.2–0.5 mm long,
basal appendage 0.4–0.7 mm; pollen 3-colporate, 6-
trichomes 6 evenly disposed, sometimes becoming
pseudocolpate; style 33–39 mm, glabrous (at least
concentrated in 2 lines on more mature internodes and
distal half), stigma inconspicuous, lobes (if present)
sometimes restricted to 2 lines on older stems. Leaves
not evident. Capsule 9–10 mm, glabrous, stipe 3.5–4
petiolate, petioles to 95 mm long, blades membranous,
mm, head 5–6 mm; seeds 4 per capsule, discoid, 1.3–
broadly ovate to cordate, 52–135 3 32–102 mm, 1.2–
2 3 1.2–1.8 mm, densely pubescent, trichomes
1.9 times longer than wide, truncate to cordate at base,
eglandular, hygroscopic (appressed and uncinate when
acuminate at apex, surfaces pubescent (especially
dry, erect and straight when moistened), 0.1–0.2 mm.
along major veins) with straight to flexuose eglandular
trichomes, venation prominent, secondary veins 5 to 6
Distribution and habitat. Anisotes hygroscopicus
per side. Spikes axillary, mostly opposite at leaf nodes,
is endemic to northern Madagascar (Antsiranana; Fig.
1 to 3 per axil (sometimes with a vegetative branch in
3). Plants occur in subdeciduous (dry to somewhat
axil as well), densely bracteate, pedunculate, pedun-
mesic) forests (western dry forest, fide Moat & Smith,
cles 5–12 mm, evenly and 6 densely pubescent with
2007) on limestone at elevations between 110 and
flexuose to retrorse eglandular trichomes to 0.5 mm
275 m.
long, fertile portion of spike subcylindric, 11–20 mm
(excluding corollas), rachis not visible, puberulent with
IUCN Red List category. Anisotes hygroscopicus is
glandular and subglandular trichomes ,0.05 mm long
known from three collections (subpopulations) with
(glandular puberulent) and pubescent with an over- an EOO of ca. 178 km
2
and an AOO of 12 km
2
. The

number of locations (1–3) could not be determined qualify the species as Endangered (EN) based on
because of the lack of information available about criteria B1 and B2, but this is currently not possible
threats to the subpopulations (IUCN, 2001). The because information concerning subcriteria b and c is
geographic range and the number of locations not available. These subcriteria refer to a verifiable
(maximum of 3) are well below the threshold to continuing decline (subcriterion b) or extreme
Figure 1. Anisotes subcoriaceus T. F. Daniel, Letsara & Mart
´
ın-Bravo and A. hygroscopicus T. F. Daniel, Letsara & Mart
´
ın-
Bravo. A–D. Anisotes subcoriaceus (Daniel et al. 11878, CAS). —A. Node with axillary spikes, floral buds, and a flower.
—B. Bract. —C. Bracteole. —D. Calyx. E–H. Anisotes hygroscopicus (Daniel et al. 11842, CAS). —E. Node with axillary spikes,
floral buds, and a flower. —F. Bract. —G. Distal portion of stamen showing thecae with basal appendages. —H. Capsule with
immature seeds.
Volume 22, Number 4 Daniel et al. 399
2013 Anisotes (Acanthaceae) from Madagascar

Figures (5)
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
24 Aug 2016-Kew Bulletin
TL;DR: The new species Podorungia gesnerioides Onjalalaina & I. Darbysh is described and illustrated and its affinities to the other species in the genus are discussed, and a brief review of current progress on the taxonomy of the Acanthaceae of Madagascar is provided.
Abstract: The new species Podorungia gesnerioides Onjalalaina & I. Darbysh. is described and illustrated and its affinities to the other species in the genus are discussed. It is the only species in Podorungia with an open dichasial inflorescence. This new species is assessed as globally "Endangered" following the Categories and Criteria of IUCN, because of threats to its lowland forest habitat. The generic delimitation of the Malagasy genera in the tribe Barlerieae is discussed and the similarities of the five endemic genera to the tropical African genus Crabbea are noted. A key to the genera of Barlerieae in Madagascar is provided, based on the key in Benoist’s Flore de Madagascar et des Comores account of the Acanthaceae. In addition, a brief review of current progress on the taxonomy of the Acanthaceae of Madagascar is provided.

6 citations


Cites background from "Four New Species of Anisotes (Acant..."

  • ...In addition, a number of new species have been described and taxonomic issues resolved in several genera including Anisotes Nees (Daniel et al. 2007, 2013), Barleria (Darbyshire et al. 2014), Mendoncia Vell. ex Vand....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
Thomas F. Daniel1Institutions (1)
01 Jul 2014-Candollea
TL;DR: A new species and a new combination in Anisotes Nees are proposed for the acanthaceous flora of the Comoros Archipelago and a preliminary list of Acanthaceae in the Islands is published.
Abstract: DANIEL, T. F. (2014). Taxonomy of Anisotes Nees (Acanthaceae: Justicieae) in the Comoros Archipelago and a preliminary list of Acanthaceae in the Islands. Candollea 69: 45–54. In English, English and French abstracts. A new species and a new combination in Anisotes Nees are proposed for the acanthaceous flora of the Comoros Archipelago. The new species, Anisotes mayottensis T. F. Daniel, is known only from Mayotte, and can be distinguished from its Comoran congener by its unequally five-lobed (4+1) or equally four-lobed calyx; longer corolla, stamens, and thecae; and fouraperturate pollen. Anisotes comorensis (Lindau) T. F. Daniel, based on Himantochilus comorensis Lindau, is proposed for a species endemic to Grande Comore. A lectotype is designated for Himantochilus comorensis. Both species are described, mapped, and distinguished by a key; Anisotes mayottensis is also illustrated. All Acanthaceae known from the archipelago are listed in a table.

1 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jan 1988-Kew Bulletin
TL;DR: Characters ofinflorescence, androecium, pollen and seeds proved particularly helpful in describing the 16 sections and 7 subsections of the genus Justicia.
Abstract: Summary. The genus Justicia L. is surveyed using general morphological techniques, and a broad definition of the genus is adopted. Characters ofinflorescence, androecium, pollen and seeds proved particularly helpful in describing the 16 sections and 7 subsections. The 295 species used in the study are listed and 69 new specific names are published under Justicia.

117 citations


"Four New Species of Anisotes (Acant..." refers background in this paper

  • ..., but they are rare among Justicieae (e.g., acuminate-caudate acropetally; corollas yellow with lower Justicia tenella (Nees) T. Anderson; Daniel & lip darker yellow, 35–45 mm, externally pubescent with eglandular trichomes; pollen 2-pororate; capsules 8.5–13Figueiredo, 2009)....

    [...]

  • ...Delimitation and infra-generic somewhat camptodrome-reticulate veined bracts (vs. classification of Justicia (Acanthaceae)....

    [...]

  • ...The epithet derives from the per- bracts subcoriaceous, 4.5–10.5 3 4.5–8 mm; corollas pale plexing pollen of this species, which among Acan- cream-yellow to yellow-green and with maroon markings, 31–41 mm, externally pubescent with both glandular andthaceae is otherwise known only in tribes Justicieae: eglandular trichomes; and pollen 2-colporate and 4- Isoglossinae and Whitfieldieae. pseudocolpate....

    [...]

  • ...Recent collections from Madagascar phologically similar to Justicia, and may not be also appear to represent species of Anisotes (e.g., distinct from it because each of these characteristics Letsara et al. 874 at CAS, MO, and TAN), but have can be found among the ca. 700 currently recognized insufficient material to characterize fully and thus species of the latter genus. determine their taxonomic status....

    [...]

  • ...Leaves petiolate, known only among Justicieae: Isoglossinae (Kiel et petioles to 19 mm, blades subcoriaceous, elliptic, al., 2006) and Whitfieldieae (Manktelow et al., 2001)....

    [...]




Journal ArticleDOI
01 Aug 2006-Taxon
TL;DR: Phylogenetic relationships of Isoglossinae were studied with a taxon sample including all but one genus putatively placed in the lineage and a dataset composed of DNA sequences from three genic regions, finding very little variation among these taxa.
Abstract: Phylogenetic relationships of Isoglossinae (Acanthaceae: Justicieae) were studied with a taxon sample including all but one genus putatively placed in the lineage and a dataset composed of DNA sequences from three genic regions (nrITS, cp trnS/G, trnT/L). Two members each of the lineages of Justicieae previously shown to be phylogenetically adjacent to Isoglossinae were included to test monophyly of Isoglossinae. The Malagasy genera Forcipella and Populina were excluded from Isoglossinae by our analysis. The former was placed outside of Justicieae. The latter was placed with plants representing the Tetramerium lineage of Justicieae. Our results do not provide strong support for placement of Ptyssiglottis with Isoglossinae but also cannot refute this placement. Core Isoglossinae (i.e., members of Old World Conocalyx, Isoglossa, Brachystephanus and New World Kalbreyeriella, Stenostephanus s.1., Razisea) are monophyletic; these plants share "Gurtelpollen", hypothesized to be a morphological synapomorphy for the group. Malagasy Conocalyx is part of the clade that includes all sampled species of lsoglossa and does not seem distinct from the latter genus. Sister to Isoglossa (including Conocalyx) is a lineage including all sampled species of Brachystephanus plus all New World Isoglossinae. Plants belonging to this last clade share monothecous stamens as a morphological synapomorphy. Our data do not support but cannot refute reciprocal monophyly of Brachystephanus and New World Isoglossinae. There is, in fact, very little variation among these taxa such that the problem is lack of resolution rather than support for relationships that conflict with current taxonomy. NW plants in particular are richly diverse in morphology and it is remarkable that this diversification is not reflected in variation in these three DNA regions.

34 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Mar 2001-Systematic Botany
TL;DR: Relationships of the enigmatic genera Whitfieldia, Chlamydacanthus, and Lankesteria (Acanthaceae) were examined using molecular sequence data for two chloroplast loci for these and a sample of taxa representing all major lineages within the family and a number of morphological synapomorphies for Whitfieldieae were proposed.
Abstract: Relationships of the enigmatic genera Whitfieldia, Chlamydacanthus, and Lankesteria (Acanthaceae) were examined using molecular sequence data for two chloroplast loci (ndhF gene, trnL-trnF spacer and intron) for these and a sample of taxa representing

31 citations


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