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Journal Article

Fourier-transform method of fringe-pattern analysis for computer-based topography and interferometry

01 Jan 1998-SPIE milestone series (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers)-Vol. 144, pp 466-470
TL;DR: In this article, a fast Fourier transform method of topography and interferometry is proposed to discriminate between elevation and depression of the object or wave-front form, which has not been possible by the fringe-contour generation techniques.
Abstract: A fast-Fourier-transform method of topography and interferometry is proposed. By computer processing of a noncontour type of fringe pattern, automatic discrimination is achieved between elevation and depression of the object or wave-front form, which has not been possible by the fringe-contour-generation techniques. The method has advantages over moire topography and conventional fringe-contour interferometry in both accuracy and sensitivity. Unlike fringe-scanning techniques, the method is easy to apply because it uses no moving components.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A new computer-based technique for automatic 3-D shape measurement is proposed and verified by experiments that has a much higher sensitivity than the conventional moire technique and is capable of fully automatic distinction between a depression and an elevation on the object surface.
Abstract: A new computer-based technique for automatic 3-D shape measurement is proposed and verified by experiments. In contrast to the moire contouring technique, a grating pattern projected onto the object surface is Fourier-transformed and processed in its spatial frequency domain as well as in its space-signal domain. This technique has a much higher sensitivity than the conventional moire technique and is capable of fully automatic distinction between a depression and an elevation on the object surface. There is no requirement for assigning fringe orders and interpolating data in the regions between contour fringes. The technique is free from errors caused by spurious moire fringes generated by the higher harmonic components of the grating pattern.

1,863 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a method for measuring and mapping displacement fields and strain fields from high-resolution electron microscope (HREM) images is developed based upon centring a small aperture around a strong reflection in the Fourier transform of an HREM lattice image and performing an inverse Fourier transformation.

1,828 citations

Book ChapterDOI
TL;DR: The phase modulation in an interferometer can be induced by moving a mirror, tilting a glass plate, moving a grating, rotating a half-wave plate or analyzer, using an acoustooptic or electro-optic modulator, or using a Zeeman laser as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: Publisher Summary This chapter describes the phase-measurement interferometry techniques. For all techniques, a temporal phase modulation is introduced to perform the measurement. By measuring the interferogram intensity as the phase is shifted, the phase of the wavefront can be determined with the aid of electronics or a computer. Phase modulation in an interferometer can be induced by moving a mirror, tilting a glass plate, moving a grating, rotating a half-wave plate or analyzer, using an acousto-optic or electro-optic modulator, or using a Zeeman laser. Phase-measurement techniques using analytical means to determine phase all have some common denominators. There are different equations for calculating the phase of a wavefront from interference fringe intensity measurements. The precision of a phase-measuring interferometer system can be determined by taking two measurements, subtracting them, and looking at the root-meansquare of the difference wavefront. The chapter discusses the simulation results. The elimination of the errors that reduce the measurement accuracy depends on the type of measurement being performed. Phase-measurement interferometry (PMI) can be applied to any two-beam interferometer, including holographic interferometers. Applications can be divided into: surface figure, surface roughness, and metrology.

1,340 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a self-referencing interferometric technique for measuring the amplitude and phase of ultrashort optical pulses is presented, which uses a collinear geometry that requires no moving components.
Abstract: We present a novel, self-referencing interferometric technique for measuring the amplitude and the phase of ultrashort optical pulses The apparatus uses a collinear geometry that requires no moving components The phase-retrieval procedure is noniterative and rapid and uses only two one-dimensional Fourier transforms We apply the technique to characterize ultrashort pulses from a mode-locked Ti:sapphire oscillator

1,183 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Off-axis holograms recorded with a CCD camera are numerically reconstructed with a calculation of scalar diffraction in the Fresnel approximation and the zero order of diffraction and the twin image are digitally eliminated by means of filtering their associated spatial frequencies in the computed Fourier transform of the hologram.
Abstract: Off-axis holograms recorded with a CCD camera are numerically reconstructed with a calculation of scalar diffraction in the Fresnel approximation. We show that the zero order of diffraction and the twin image can be digitally eliminated by means of filtering their associated spatial frequencies in the computed Fourier transform of the hologram. We show that this operation enhances the contrast of the reconstructed images and reduces the noise produced by parasitic reflections reaching the hologram plane with an incidence angle other than that of the object wave.

948 citations

References
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A new computer-based technique for automatic 3-D shape measurement is proposed and verified by experiments that has a much higher sensitivity than the conventional moire technique and is capable of fully automatic distinction between a depression and an elevation on the object surface.
Abstract: A new computer-based technique for automatic 3-D shape measurement is proposed and verified by experiments. In contrast to the moire contouring technique, a grating pattern projected onto the object surface is Fourier-transformed and processed in its spatial frequency domain as well as in its space-signal domain. This technique has a much higher sensitivity than the conventional moire technique and is capable of fully automatic distinction between a depression and an elevation on the object surface. There is no requirement for assigning fringe orders and interpolating data in the regions between contour fringes. The technique is free from errors caused by spurious moire fringes generated by the higher harmonic components of the grating pattern.

1,863 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a method for measuring and mapping displacement fields and strain fields from high-resolution electron microscope (HREM) images is developed based upon centring a small aperture around a strong reflection in the Fourier transform of an HREM lattice image and performing an inverse Fourier transformation.

1,828 citations

Book ChapterDOI
TL;DR: The phase modulation in an interferometer can be induced by moving a mirror, tilting a glass plate, moving a grating, rotating a half-wave plate or analyzer, using an acoustooptic or electro-optic modulator, or using a Zeeman laser as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: Publisher Summary This chapter describes the phase-measurement interferometry techniques. For all techniques, a temporal phase modulation is introduced to perform the measurement. By measuring the interferogram intensity as the phase is shifted, the phase of the wavefront can be determined with the aid of electronics or a computer. Phase modulation in an interferometer can be induced by moving a mirror, tilting a glass plate, moving a grating, rotating a half-wave plate or analyzer, using an acousto-optic or electro-optic modulator, or using a Zeeman laser. Phase-measurement techniques using analytical means to determine phase all have some common denominators. There are different equations for calculating the phase of a wavefront from interference fringe intensity measurements. The precision of a phase-measuring interferometer system can be determined by taking two measurements, subtracting them, and looking at the root-meansquare of the difference wavefront. The chapter discusses the simulation results. The elimination of the errors that reduce the measurement accuracy depends on the type of measurement being performed. Phase-measurement interferometry (PMI) can be applied to any two-beam interferometer, including holographic interferometers. Applications can be divided into: surface figure, surface roughness, and metrology.

1,340 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a self-referencing interferometric technique for measuring the amplitude and phase of ultrashort optical pulses is presented, which uses a collinear geometry that requires no moving components.
Abstract: We present a novel, self-referencing interferometric technique for measuring the amplitude and the phase of ultrashort optical pulses The apparatus uses a collinear geometry that requires no moving components The phase-retrieval procedure is noniterative and rapid and uses only two one-dimensional Fourier transforms We apply the technique to characterize ultrashort pulses from a mode-locked Ti:sapphire oscillator

1,183 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Off-axis holograms recorded with a CCD camera are numerically reconstructed with a calculation of scalar diffraction in the Fresnel approximation and the zero order of diffraction and the twin image are digitally eliminated by means of filtering their associated spatial frequencies in the computed Fourier transform of the hologram.
Abstract: Off-axis holograms recorded with a CCD camera are numerically reconstructed with a calculation of scalar diffraction in the Fresnel approximation. We show that the zero order of diffraction and the twin image can be digitally eliminated by means of filtering their associated spatial frequencies in the computed Fourier transform of the hologram. We show that this operation enhances the contrast of the reconstructed images and reduces the noise produced by parasitic reflections reaching the hologram plane with an incidence angle other than that of the object wave.

948 citations