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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/15583058.2019.1661136

Fragility Functions for Tall URM Buildings around Early 20th Century in Lisbon, Part 2: Application to Different Classes of Buildings

04 Mar 2021-International Journal of Architectural Heritage (Informa UK Limited)-Vol. 15, Iss: 3, pp 373-389
Abstract: This article describes the application of the procedure for the derivation of fragility functions presented in the companion article entitled Fragility functions for tall URM buildings around early...

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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S10518-019-00618-Z
Ana Simões1, Rita Bento1, Sergio Lagomarsino2, Serena Cattari2  +1 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: The article addresses the seismic vulnerability assessment of a typology of unreinforced masonry buildings constructed in Lisbon between the nineteenth and the twentieth centuries. The main architectural and structural features of these buildings are presented. This supported the identification of the main uncertainties affecting their seismic performance and the definition of classes of buildings representative of the typology. The seismic assessment includes the generation of fragility curves that combine the in-plane and out-of-plane response following different criteria and methods of analyses. The results put in evidence the seismic vulnerability of this class of buildings. Considering the earthquake-resistant code for Lisbon with a return period of 475 years, about 50% probability of having heavy damage and about 30% probability of collapse were estimated. The structural intervention on these buildings is urgent in order to reduce losses due to future earthquakes. Further studies for the assessment of similar buildings in Lisbon and elsewhere can be developed using the adopted procedure.

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10 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/15583058.2019.1618974
Ana Simões1, Rita Bento1, Sergio Lagomarsino2, Serena Cattari2  +1 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: The article proposes a procedure for the derivation of fragility functions for unreinforced masonry buildings considering the in-plane and out-of-plane response. Different approaches are considered for the generation of the corresponding fragility functions and for the evaluation of the propagation of uncertainties. The contributions for the dispersion of the fragility functions account for the variability in the definition of the capacity, the aleatory uncertainty in the definition of the seismic demand and the aleatory uncertainty in the definition of the modified/floor response spectrum, when the local mechanisms are located in the upper level of the building. In the end, the individual fragility curves are properly combined in order to define a single fragility curve for the class of buildings. As a case study, the procedure is applied to the assessment of one of the most vulnerable unreinforced masonry buildings constructed in the early 20th century in Lisbon, considering a typical prototype ...

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6 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.ENGSTRUCT.2021.113218
Abstract: The paper describes the derivation of fragility curves useful for the seismic risk analyses of existing unreinforced masonry buildings inserted in aggregate. The L-shaped examined aggregate consists of three adjacent structural units that may mutually interact during seismic events. The seismic assessment is focused on the corner unit. The effects of different connection types between the adjacent units on the structural response were investigated. The seismic vulnerability of the masonry aggregate was assessed through nonlinear dynamic analyses (NDA) performed according to the multi-stripes approach. Both the in-plane and out-of-plane mechanisms were analyzed. The in-plane response of the corner unit is assessed through a 3D equivalent frame model of the entire aggregate, while the evaluation of its out-of-plane response makes use of the rigid-block assumption. Although evaluated in a separate way, the NDAs performed on the latter are based on the time histories derived from the global 3D model. The results are then processed in order to derive fragility curves, firstly, of the single failure mechanisms and, then, of the overall combined behavior. To this aim, various performance conditions are examined. For the reference building, the damage limit state is mainly governed by the in-plane behavior, while the collapse limit state by out-of-plane mechanisms. Moreover, the higher the connection level between adjacent structural units, the higher the interaction between in-plane and out-of-plane mechanisms at the collapse limit state.

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Topics: Seismic risk (56%), Unreinforced masonry building (55%), Masonry (55%) ... show more

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JOBE.2021.103344
Abstract: According to the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (2015–2030), disasters have demonstrated that the recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction phase, which needs to be prepared ahead of a disaster, is a critical opportunity to “Build Back Better”, integrating disaster risk reduction into development measures. In this respect, a significant number of structures, that constitute several European urban nuclei, belong to old constructive typologies, which were designed and built without any consideration for the seismic hazard. One of the most used typologies exhibiting this shortcoming is unreinforced masonry (URM). Therefore, an important step towards increasing resilience of European cities is to deeply understand the seismic behavior of this frequent typology. In order to do so properly, detailed probabilistic nonlinear building models should be developed. However, including the uncertainties associated with this typology is challenging due to the heterogeneity of the different manufacturing techniques, executed under primitive industrial standards, and to the construction techniques, which are dependent on regional uses and criteria in a pre-code scenario. The object of this research is twofold. First, a detailed quantification of the uncertainties related to the mechanical properties of this construction material is conducted. Then, the influence of this variability on the seismic performance of a representative building model of the Eixample district in Barcelona, Spain, is analysed. This building typology represents 72% of the building stock in this district with an average age of 90 years, which means that the construction practice, at that time, was only regulated by early council guidelines that are considered pre-code rules. Specifically, the probabilistic approach is illustrated with a case study performed on an existing seven-story (high-rise) URM. A detailed numerical model of this structure has been developed and randomized taking into account the variability of the material properties. Accordingly, 1000 models were generated and analysed by considering as input different sets of material random variables. The compressive strength, Young modulus, shear modulus and shear strength are chosen and modelled to encompass the material uncertainties. The seismic response of each variant (i.e. selected set of mechanical properties) is obtained through a simplified non-linear static procedure aiming to compare and categorize the influence of the probabilistic input on the seismic performance of the building. Results are presented in terms of correlations between damage parameters and material properties. The analysis carried out shows that the variability in the material properties generates significant uncertainties in the seismic response of URM buildings, leading to over or underestimate expected damage when compared with results based on approaches that do not consider the probabilistic nature of the problem.

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Topics: Seismic hazard (54%), Unreinforced masonry building (52%), Probabilistic logic (52%) ... show more

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S10518-021-01199-6
Abstract: Unreinforced masonry buildings undergoing seismic actions often exhibit local failure mechanisms which represent a serious life-safety hazard, as recent strong earthquakes have shown. Compared to new buildings, older unreinforced masonry buildings are more vulnerable, not only because they have been designed without or with limited seismic loading requirements, but also because horizontal structures and connections amid the walls are not always effective. Also, Out-Of-Plane (OOP) mechanisms can be caused by significant slenderness of the walls even if connections are effective. The purpose of this paper is to derive typological fragility functions for unreinforced masonry walls considering OOP local failure mechanisms. In the case of slender walls with good material properties, the OOP response can be modeled with reference to an assembly of rigid bodies undergoing rocking motion. In particular, depending on its configuration, a wall is assumed either as a single rigid body undergoing simple one-sided rocking or a system of two coupled rigid bodies rocking along their common edge. A set of 44 ground motions from earthquake events occurred from 1972 to 2017 in Italy is used in this study. The likelihood of collapse is calculated via Multiple Stripe Analysis (MSA) from a given wall undergoing a specific ground motion. Then, the single fragility functions are suitably combined to define a typological fragility function for a class of buildings. The procedure is applied to a historical aggregate in the city center of Ferrara (Italy) as a case study. The fragility functions developed in this research can be a helpful tool for assessing seismic damage and economic losses in unreinforced masonry buildings on a regional scale.

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References
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19 results found


Open accessBook
01 Jan 1995-
Abstract: I. SINGLE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEMS. 1. Equations of Motion, Problem Statement, and Solution Methods. Simple Structures. Single-Degree-of-Freedom System. Force-Displacement Relation. Damping Force. Equation of Motion: External Force. Mass-Spring-Damper System. Equation of Motion: Earthquake Excitation. Problem Statement and Element Forces. Combining Static and Dynamic Responses. Methods of Solution of the Differential Equation. Study of SDF Systems: Organization. Appendix 1: Stiffness Coefficients for a Flexural Element. 2. Free Vibration. Undamped Free Vibration. Viscously Damped Free Vibration. Energy in Free Vibration. Coulomb-Damped Free Vibration. 3. Response to Harmonic and Periodic Excitations. Viscously Damped Systems: Basic Results. Harmonic Vibration of Undamped Systems. Harmonic Vibration with Viscous Damping. Viscously Damped Systems: Applications. Response to Vibration Generator. Natural Frequency and Damping from Harmonic Tests. Force Transmission and Vibration Isolation. Response to Ground Motion and Vibration Isolation. Vibration-Measuring Instruments. Energy Dissipated in Viscous Damping. Equivalent Viscous Damping. Systems with Nonviscous Damping. Harmonic Vibration with Rate-Independent Damping. Harmonic Vibration with Coulomb Friction. Response to Periodic Excitation. Fourier Series Representation. Response to Periodic Force. Appendix 3: Four-Way Logarithmic Graph Paper. 4. Response to Arbitrary, Step, and Pulse Excitations.Response to Arbitrarily Time-Varying Forces. Response to Unit Impulse. Response to Arbitrary Force. Response to Step and Ramp Forces. Step Force. Ramp or Linearly Increasing Force. Step Force with Finite Rise Time. Response to Pulse Excitations. Solution Methods. Rectangular Pulse Force. Half-Cycle Sine Pulse Force. Symmetrical Triangular Pulse Force. Effects of Pulse Shape and Approximate Analysis for Short Pulses. Effects of Viscous Damping. Response to Ground Motion. 5. Numerical Evaluation of Dynamic Response. Time-Stepping Methods. Methods Based on Interpolation of Excitation. Central Difference Method. Newmark's Method. Stability and Computational Error. Analysis of Nonlinear Response: Central Difference Method. Analysis of Nonlinear Response: Newmark's Method. 6. Earthquake Response of Linear Systems. Earthquake Excitation. Equation of Motion. Response Quantities. Response History. Response Spectrum Concept. Deformation, Pseudo-Velocity, and Pseudo-Acceleration Response Spectra. Peak Structural Response from the Response Spectrum. Response Spectrum Characteristics. Elastic Design Spectrum. Comparison of Design ad Response Spectra. Distinction between Design and Response Spectra. Velocity and Acceleration Response Spectra. Appendix 6: El Centro, 1940 Ground Motion. 7. Earthquake Response of Inelastic Systems. Force-Deformation Relations. Normalized Yield Strength, Yield Strength Reduction Factor, and Ductility Factor. Equation of Motion and Controlling Parameters. Effects of Yielding. Response Spectrum for Yield Deformation and Yield Strength. Yield Strength and Deformation from the Response Spectrum. Yield Strength-Ductility Relation. Relative Effects of Yielding and Damping. Dissipated Energy. Energy Dissipation Devices. Inelastic Design Spectrum. Applications of the Design Spectrum. Comparison of Design and Response Spectra. 8. Generalized Single-Degree-of-Freedom Systems. Generalized SDF Systems. Rigid-Body Assemblages. Systems with Distributed Mass and Elasticity. Lumped-Mass System: Shear Building. Natural Vibration Frequency by Rayleigh's Method. Selection of Shape Function. Appendix 8: Inertia Forces for Rigid Bodies. II. MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEMS. 9. Equations of Motion, Problem Statement, and Solution Methods. Simple System: Two-Story Shear Building. General Approach for Linear Systems. Static Condensation. Planar or Symmetric-Plan Systems: Ground Motion. Unsymmetric-Plan Building: Ground Motion. Symmetric-Plan Buildings: Torsional Excitation. Multiple Support Excitation. Inelastic Systems. Problem Statement. Element Forces. Methods for Solving the Equations of Motion: Overview. 10. Free Vibration. Natural Vibration Frequencies and Modes. Systems without Damping. Natural Vibration Frequencies and Modes. Modal and Spectral Matrices. Orthogonality of Modes. Interpretation of Modal Orthogonality. Normalization of Modes. Modal Expansion of Displacements. Free Vibration Response. Solution of Free Vibration Equations: Undamped Systems. Free Vibration of Systems with Damping. Solution of Free Vibration Equations: Classically Damped Systems. Computation of Vibration Properties. Solution Methods for the Eigenvalue Problem. Rayleigh's Quotient. Inverse Vector Iteration Method. Vector Iteration with Shifts: Preferred Procedure. Transformation of kA A = ...w2mA A to the Standard Form. 11. Damping in Structures.Experimental Data and Recommended Modal Damping Ratios. Vibration Properties of Millikan Library Building. Estimating Modal Damping Ratios. Construction of Damping Matrix. Damping Matrix. Classical Damping Matrix. Nonclassical Damping Matrix. 12. Dynamic Analysis and Response of Linear Systems.Two-Degree-of-Freedom Systems. Analysis of Two-DOF Systems without Damping. Vibration Absorber or Tuned Mass Damper. Modal Analysis. Modal Equations for Undamped Systems. Modal Equations for Damped Systems. Displacement Response. Element Forces. Modal Analysis: Summary. Modal Response Contributions. Modal Expansion of Excitation Vector p (t) = s p(T). Modal Analysis for p (t) = s p(T). Modal Contribution Factors. Modal Responses and Required Number of Modes. Special Analysis Procedures. Static Correction Method. Mode Acceleration Superposition Method. Analysis of Nonclassically Damped Systems. 13. Earthquake Analysis of Linear Systems.Response History Analysis. Modal Analysis. Multistory Buildings with Symmetric Plan. Multistory Buildings with Unsymmetric Plan. Torsional Response of Symmetric-Plan Buildings. Response Analysis for Multiple Support Excitation. Structural Idealization and Earthquake Response. Response Spectrum Analysis. Peak Response from Earthquake Response Spectrum. Multistory Buildings with Symmetric Plan. Multistory Buildings with Unsymmetric Plan. 14. Reduction of Degrees of Freedom. Kinematic Constraints. Mass Lumping in Selected DOFs. Rayleigh-Ritz Method. Selection of Ritz Vectors. Dynamic Analysis Using Ritz Vectors. 15. Numerical Evaluation of Dynamic Response. Time-Stepping Methods. Analysis of Linear Systems with Nonclassical Damping. Analysis of Nonlinear Systems. 16. Systems with Distributed Mass and Elasticity. Equation of Undamped Motion: Applied Forces. Equation of Undamped Motion: Support Excitation. Natural Vibration Frequencies and Modes. Modal Orthogonality. Modal Analysis of Forced Dynamic Response. Earthquake Response History Analysis. Earthquake Response Spectrum Analysis. Difficulty in Analyzing Practical Systems. 17. Introduction to the Finite Element Method.Rayleigh-Ritz Method. Formulation Using Conservation of Energy. Formulation Using Virtual Work. Disadvantages of Rayleigh-Ritz Method. Finite Element Method. Finite Element Approximation. Analysis Procedure. Element Degrees of Freedom and Interpolation Function. Element Stiffness Matrix. Element Mass Matrix. Element (Applied) Force Vector. Comparison of Finite Element and Exact Solutions. Dynamic Analysis of Structural Continua. III. EARTHQUAKE RESPONSE AND DESIGN OF MULTISTORY BUILDINGS. 18. Earthquake Response of Linearly Elastic Buildings. Systems Analyzed, Design Spectrum, and Response Quantities. Influence of T 1 and r on Response. Modal Contribution Factors. Influence of T 1 on Higher-Mode Response. Influence of r on Higher-Mode Response. Heightwise Variation of Higher-Mode Response. How Many Modes to Include. 19. Earthquake Response of Inelastic Buildings. Allowable Ductility and Ductility Demand. Buildings with "Weak" or "Soft" First Story. Buildings Designed for Code Force Distribution. Limited Scope. Appendix 19: Properties of Multistory Buildings. 20. Earthquake Dynamics of Base-Isolated Buildings. Isolation Systems. Base-Isolated One-Story Buildings. Effectiveness of Base Isolation. Base-Isolated Multistory Buildings. Applications of Base Isolation. 21. Structural Dynamics in Building Codes. Building Codes and Structural Dynamics. International Building Code (United States), 2000. National Building Code of Canada, 1995. Mexico Federal District Code, 1993. Eurocode 8. Structural Dynamics in Building Codes. Evaluation of Building Codes. Base Shear. Story Shears and Equivalent Static Forces. Overturning Moments. Concluding Remarks. Appendix A: Frequency Domain Method of Response Analysis.Appendix B: Notation.Appendix C: Answers to Selected Problems.Index.

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Topics: Response spectrum (66%), Modal testing (63%), Modal analysis (62%) ... show more

4,683 Citations



Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.ENGSTRUCT.2013.08.002
Abstract: The seismic analysis of masonry buildings requires reliable nonlinear models as effective tools for both design of new buildings and assessment and retrofitting of existing ones. Performance based assessment is now mainly oriented to the use of nonlinear analysis methods, thus their capability to simulate the nonlinear response is crucial, in particular in case of masonry buildings. Among the different modelling strategies proposed in literature, the equivalent frame approach seems particularly attractive since it allows the analysis of complete 3D buildings with a reasonable computational effort, suitable also for practice engineering aims. Moreover, it is also expressly recommended in several national and international codes. Within this context, the paper presents the solutions adopted for the implementation of the equivalent frame model in the TREMURI program for the nonlinear seismic analysis of masonry buildings.

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Topics: Masonry (59%), Seismic analysis (53%)

373 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/EJOC.201200111
Abstract: We report the synthesis and physical study of a series of 1,1- dicyano-4-[4-(diethylamino)phenyl]buta-1,3-dienes in which the number and position of additional CN substituents along the 1,1-dicyanobuta-1,3-dienyl fragment is systematically varied. While X-ray analysis provided unambiguous infor- mation about molecular geometries in the crystal, UV/Vis and electrochemical measurements, by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and rotating disk voltammetry (RDV), revealed that in- troduction of additional cyano groups in the C2- and C4-posi- tions most affected the optical properties of these molecules in solution, in terms of intramolecular charge-transfer ab- Introduction π-Conjugated donor–acceptor (D–A) chromophores have been investigated for quite some time,[1,2] but have re- cently attracted renewed interests for potential applications in the fabrication of opto-electronic materials.[2–4] The en- ergy and intensity of their characteristic intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT) transitions depend on the strength of the electron donor and acceptor moieties and the nature of the π-conjugated spacer.[5–8] While the nature of the donor, acceptor, and π-conjugated spacer have been systematically varied,[9] the number and positioning of the push/pull sub- stituents along the π-conjugated spacer backbone has only been addressed in a few cases.[10] Our group has observed strong electro-optical effects associated with the increasing number of cyano groups in push–pull chromophores;[10e,11] [a] Laboratorium fur Organische Chemie, ETH Zurich, Honggerberg, HCI, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland Fax: +41-44-632-1109 E-mail: diederich@org.chem.ethz.ch [b] Laboratoire d’Electrochimie et de Chimie Physique du Corps Solide UMR 7177, CNRS, Universite de Strasbourg, 4, rue Blaise Pascal, CS 90032, 67081 Strasbourg Cedex, France [c] Advanced Technology Institute and Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Stag Hill, Guildford GU2 7XH, Surrey, United Kingdom [d] Department of Physics and Center for Optical Technologies, Lehigh University, 415 Lewis Lab, 16 Memorial Dr. East, Bethlehem, PA 18015, USA Supporting information for this article is available on the WWW under http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejoc.201200111. sorption energy and intensity. A comparison with structurally related chromophores indicates that the shift of the anilino donor from position 2/3 to 4 along the butadiene scaffold re- sults in a remarkable bathochromic shift of the ICT absorp- tion maxima, mainly due to the higher planarity in the pres- ent series. These findings are further corroborated by density functional theory calculations. Preliminary nonlinear optical (NLO) measurements confirm the promise of the new push- pull chromophores as third-order nonlinear-optical molecular materials.

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211 Citations


MonographDOI: 10.1002/9780470061336
26 Jan 2007-

73 Citations