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Journal ArticleDOI

Frequency domain equalization for single-carrier broadband wireless systems

01 Apr 2002-IEEE Communications Magazine (IEEE)-Vol. 40, Iss: 4, pp 58-66

TL;DR: This article surveys frequency domain equalization (FDE) applied to single-carrier (SC) modulation solutions and discusses similarities and differences of SC and OFDM systems and coexistence possibilities, and presents examples of SC-FDE performance capabilities.

AbstractBroadband wireless access systems deployed in residential and business environments are likely to face hostile radio propagation environments, with multipath delay spread extending over tens or hundreds of bit intervals. Orthogonal frequency-division multiplex (OFDM) is a recognized multicarrier solution to combat the effects of such multipath conditions. This article surveys frequency domain equalization (FDE) applied to single-carrier (SC) modulation solutions. SC radio modems with frequency domain equalization have similar performance, efficiency, and low signal processing complexity advantages as OFDM, and in addition are less sensitive than OFDM to RF impairments such as power amplifier nonlinearities. We discuss similarities and differences of SC and OFDM systems and coexistence possibilities, and present examples of SC-FDE performance capabilities.

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Among the possible subcarrier mapping approaches, it is found that localizedFDMA (LFDMA) with channel-dependent scheduling (CDS) results in higher throughput than interleaved FDMA (JFDMA), however, the PARR performance of IFDMA is better than that of LFDMA.
Abstract: Single carrier frequency division multiple access (SC FDMA), a modified form of orthogonal FDMA (OFDMA), is a promising technique for high data rate uplink communications in future cellular systems. SC-FDMA has similar throughput performance and essentially the same overall complexity as OFDMA. A principal advantage of SC-FDMA is the peak-to-average power ratio (PARR), which is lower than that of OFDMA. SC FDMA is currently a strong candidate for the uplink multiple access scheme in the long term evolution of cellular systems under consideration by the third generation partnership project (3GPP). In this paper, we give an overview of SC-FDMA. We also analyze the effects of subcarrier mapping on throughput and PARR. Among the possible subcarrier mapping approaches, we find that localized FDMA (LFDMA) with channel-dependent scheduling (CDS) results in higher throughput than interleaved FDMA (JFDMA). However, the PARR performance of IFDMA is better than that of LFDMA. As in other communications systems there are complex tradeoffs between design parameters and performance in an SC-FDMA system

1,282 citations


Cites background from "Frequency domain equalization for s..."

  • ...Additional disadvantages of OFDMA compared to SCFDMA are the strong sensitivity to carrier frequency offset and strong sensitivity to nonlinear distortion in the power amplifier due to the high PAPR, both properties of the multicarrier nature of OFDMA [8], [9]....

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Book
14 Nov 2003
Abstract: From the Publisher: Frequency spectrum is a limited and valuable resource for wireless communications. A good example can be observed among network operators in Europe for the prices to pay for UMTS-frequency bands. Therefore, the first goal when designing future wireless communication systems (e.g. 4G - fourth generation) has to be the increase in spectral efficiency. The development in digital communications in the past years has enabled efficient modulation and coding techniques for robust and spectral efficient data, speech, audio and video transmission. These are the multi-carrier modulation (e.g. OFDM) and the spread spectrum technique (e.g. DS-CDMA), where OFDM was chosen for broadcast applications (DVB, DAB) as well as for broadband wireless indoor standards (ETSI HIPERLAN-II, IEEE-802.11) and the DS-CDMA was selected in mobile communications (IS-95, third generation mobile radio systems world wide, UMTS/IMT 2000). Since 1993 various combinations of multi-carrier (MC) modulation and the spread spectrum (SS) technique have been introduced and the field of MC-SS communications has become an independent and important research topic with increasing activities. New application fields have been proposed such as high rate cellular mobile, high rate wireless indoor and LMDS. It has been shown that MC-SS offers the high spectral efficiency, robustness and flexibility that is required for the next generation systems. Meanwhile, different alternative hybrid schemes such as OFDM/OFDMA, MC-TDMA, etc. have been deeply analysed and adopted in different international standards (ETSI-BRAN, IEEE-802 & MMAC). Multi-Carrier & Spread-Spectrum: Analysis of Hybrid Air Interfaces draws together all ofthe above mentioned hybrid schemes therefore providing a greatly needed resource for system engineers, telecommunication designers and researchers in order to enable them to develop, build and deploy several schemes based on MC-transmission for the next generation systems (which will be an integration of broadband multimedia services covering both 4G mobile and fixed wireless systems). Offers a complete treatment of multi-carrier, spread-spectrum (SS) and time division multiplexing (TDM) techniquesProvides an in-depth insight into hybrid multiple access techniques based on multi-carrier (MC) transmissionPresents numerous hybrid multiple access and air interface architectures including OFDM/CDMA, MC-CDMA, MC-DS-CDMA and MT-CDMACovers new techniques such as space-time coding and software radio Telecommunications engineers, hardware & software system designers and researchers as well as students, lecturers and technicians will all find this an invaluable addition to their bookshelf.

871 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper addresses basic OFDM and related modulations, as well as techniques to improve the performance of OFDM for wireless communications, including channel estimation and signal detection, time- and frequency-offset estimation and correction, peak-to-average power ratio reduction, and multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) techniques.
Abstract: Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) effectively mitigates intersymbol interference (ISI) caused by the delay spread of wireless channels. Therefore, it has been used in many wireless systems and adopted by various standards. In this paper, we present a comprehensive survey on OFDM for wireless communications. We address basic OFDM and related modulations, as well as techniques to improve the performance of OFDM for wireless communications, including channel estimation and signal detection, time- and frequency-offset estimation and correction, peak-to-average power ratio reduction, and multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) techniques. We also describe the applications of OFDM in current systems and standards.

815 citations


Cites background from "Frequency domain equalization for s..."

  • ...SC-FDE in [141] also has a blockwise transmission format and incorporates the CP for the same purpose....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The flexible nature of GFDM makes this waveform a suitable candidate for future 5G networks, and its main characteristics are analyzed.
Abstract: Cellular systems of the fourth generation (4G) have been optimized to provide high data rates and reliable coverage to mobile users. Cellular systems of the next generation will face more diverse application requirements: the demand for higher data rates exceeds 4G capabilities; battery-driven communication sensors need ultra-low power consumption; and control applications require very short response times. We envision a unified physical layer waveform, referred to as generalized frequency division multiplexing (GFDM), to address these requirements. In this paper, we analyze the main characteristics of the proposed waveform and highlight relevant features. After introducing the principles of GFDM, this paper contributes to the following areas: 1) the means for engineering the waveform's spectral properties; 2) analytical analysis of symbol error performance over different channel models; 3) concepts for MIMO-GFDM to achieve diversity; 4) preamble-based synchronization that preserves the excellent spectral properties of the waveform; 5) bit error rate performance for channel coded GFDM transmission using iterative receivers; 6) relevant application scenarios and suitable GFDM parameterizations; and 7) GFDM proof-of-concept and implementation aspects of the prototype using hardware platforms available today. In summary, the flexible nature of GFDM makes this waveform a suitable candidate for future 5G networks.

711 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
26 Apr 2009
TL;DR: GFDM enables frequency and time domain multi-user scheduling comparable to OFDM and provides an efficient alternative for white space aggregation even in heavily fragmented spectrum regions.
Abstract: This paper presents the GFDM system, a generalized digital multi-carrier transceiver concept. GFDM is based on traditional filter bank multi-branch multi- carrier concepts which are now implemented digitally. Our GFDM approach exhibits some attractive features which are of particular importance for scenarios exhibiting high degrees of spectrum fragmentation. Spectrum fragmentation is a typical technical challenge of digital dividend use cases, exploiting spectrum white spaces in the TV UHF bands which are located in close proximity to allocated spectrum. Specifically, the GFDM features are a lower PAPR compared to OFDM, a ultra-low out-of- band radiation due adjustable Tx-filtering and last but not least a block-based transmission using cyclic prefix insertion and efficient FFT-based equalization. GFDM enables frequency and time domain multi-user scheduling comparable to OFDM and provides an efficient alternative for white space aggregation even in heavily fragmented spectrum regions.

473 citations


Cites methods from "Frequency domain equalization for s..."

  • ...A lower PAPR and simple equalization is achieved when using a cyclic prefix in conventional single carrier systems, leading to the SCCP (single carrier with cyclic prefix) system concept [6] as applied in LTE uplinks [7]....

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References
More filters
Book
01 Jan 1986
Abstract: Background and Overview. 1. Stochastic Processes and Models. 2. Wiener Filters. 3. Linear Prediction. 4. Method of Steepest Descent. 5. Least-Mean-Square Adaptive Filters. 6. Normalized Least-Mean-Square Adaptive Filters. 7. Transform-Domain and Sub-Band Adaptive Filters. 8. Method of Least Squares. 9. Recursive Least-Square Adaptive Filters. 10. Kalman Filters as the Unifying Bases for RLS Filters. 11. Square-Root Adaptive Filters. 12. Order-Recursive Adaptive Filters. 13. Finite-Precision Effects. 14. Tracking of Time-Varying Systems. 15. Adaptive Filters Using Infinite-Duration Impulse Response Structures. 16. Blind Deconvolution. 17. Back-Propagation Learning. Epilogue. Appendix A. Complex Variables. Appendix B. Differentiation with Respect to a Vector. Appendix C. Method of Lagrange Multipliers. Appendix D. Estimation Theory. Appendix E. Eigenanalysis. Appendix F. Rotations and Reflections. Appendix G. Complex Wishart Distribution. Glossary. Abbreviations. Principal Symbols. Bibliography. Index.

16,058 citations


"Frequency domain equalization for s..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...Adaptation can be done with LMS (least mean square), RLS, or least squares minimization (LS) techniques, analogous to adaptation of time domain equalizers [Hay96], [Cla98]....

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  • ...Overlap-save or overlap-add signal processing techniques could also be used to avoid the extra overhead of the cyclic prefix [Fer85], [Hay96]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Jr. L.J. Cimini1
TL;DR: The analysis and simulation of a technique for combating the effects of multipath propagation and cochannel interference on a narrow-band digital mobile channel using the discrete Fourier transform to orthogonally frequency multiplex many narrow subchannels, each signaling at a very low rate, into one high-rate channel is discussed.
Abstract: This paper discusses the analysis and simulation of a technique for combating the effects of multipath propagation and cochannel interference on a narrow-band digital mobile channel. This system uses the discrete Fourier transform to orthogonally frequency multiplex many narrow subchannels, each signaling at a very low rate, into one high-rate channel. When this technique is used with pilot-based correction, the effects of flat Rayleigh fading can be reduced significantly. An improvement in signal-to-interference ratio of 6 dB can be obtained over the bursty Rayleigh channel. In addition, with each subchannel signaling at a low rate, this technique can provide added protection against delay spread. To enhance the behavior of the technique in a heavily frequency-selective environment, interpolated pilots are used. A frequency offset reference scheme is employed for the pilots to improve protection against cochannel interference.

2,573 citations


"Frequency domain equalization for s..." refers background in this paper

  • ...OFDM transmits multiple modulated subcarriers in parallel [ 1 ]....

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  • ...Several variations of orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) have been proposed as effective anti-multipath techniques, primarily because of the favorable trade-off they offer between performance in severe multipath and signal processing complexity [ 1 ]....

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Book
Simon Haykin1
01 Mar 1991

2,427 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this contribution the transmission of M-PSK and M-QAM modulated orthogonal frequency division multiplexed (OFDM) signals over an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel is considered and the degradation of the bit error rate is evaluated.
Abstract: In this contribution the transmission of M-PSK and M-QAM modulated orthogonal frequency division multiplexed (OFDM) signals over an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel is considered. The degradation of the bit error rate (BER), caused by the presence of carrier frequency offset and carrier phase noise is analytically evaluated. It is shown that for a given BER degradation, the values of the frequency offset and the linewidth of the carrier generator that are allowed for OFDM are orders of magnitude smaller than for single carrier systems carrying the same bit rate. >

1,796 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
D. Chu1
TL;DR: This correspondence describes the construction of complex codes of the form exp i \alpha_k whose discrete circular autocorrelations are zero for all nonzero lags.
Abstract: This correspondence describes the construction of complex codes of the form exp i \alpha_k whose discrete circular autocorrelations are zero for all nonzero lags. There is no restriction on code lengths.

1,530 citations