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Journal ArticleDOI

Frequency filtering in disordered granular chains

28 Jun 2014-Acta Mechanica (Springer)-Vol. 225, Iss: 8, pp 2385-2407

AbstractThe study of disorder-induced frequency filtering is presented for one-dimensional systems composed of random, pre-stressed masses interacting through both linear and nonlinear (Hertzian) repulsive forces. An ensemble of such systems is driven at a specified frequency, and the spectral content of the propagated disturbance is examined as a function of distance from the source. It is shown that the transmitted signal contains only low-frequency components, and the attenuation is dependent on the magnitude of disorder, the input frequency, and the contact model. It is found that increased disorder leads to a narrower bandwidth of transmitted frequencies at a given distance from the source and that lower input frequencies exhibit less sensitivity to the arrangement of the masses. Comparison of the nonlinear and linear contact models reveals qualitatively similar filtering behavior; however, it is observed that the nonlinear chain produces transmission spectrums with a greater density at the lowest frequencies. In addition, it is shown that random masses sampled from normal, uniform, and binary distributions produce quantitatively indistinguishable filtering behavior, suggesting that knowledge of only the distribution’s first two moments is sufficient to characterize the bulk signal transmission behavior. Finally, we examine the wave number evolution of random chains constrained to move between fixed end-particles and present a transfer matrix theory in wave number space, and an argument for the observed filtering based on the spatial localization of the higher-frequency normal modes.

Topics: Normal mode (56%), Wavenumber (51%), Nonlinear system (51%)

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: In this study experimental data on a model soil in a cubical cell are compared with both discrete element (DEM) simulations and continuum analyses. The experiments and simulations used point source transmitters and receivers to evaluate the shear and compression wave velocities of the samples, from which some of the elastic moduli can be deduced. Complex responses to perturbations generated by the bender/extender piezoceramic elements in the experiments were compared to those found by the controlled movement of the particles in the DEM simulations. The generally satisfactory agreement between experimental observations and DEM simulations can be seen as a validation and support the use of DEM to investigate the influence of grain interaction on wave propagation. Frequency domain analyses that considered filtering of the higher frequency components of the inserted signal, the ratio of the input and received signals in the frequency domain and sample resonance provided useful insight into the system response. Frequency domain analysis and analytical continuum solutions for cube vibration show that the testing configuration excited some, but not all, of the system’s resonant frequencies. The particle scale data available from DEM enabled analysis of the energy dissipation during propagation of the wave. Frequency domain analysis at the particle scale revealed that the higher frequency content reduces with increasing distance from the point of excitation.

35 citations


Cites background from "Frequency filtering in disordered g..."

  • ...This confirms that frequency filtering occurs as a function of the wave travelling through a granular system as noted by [49,50] and others....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work studies the spreading of initially localized excitations in one-dimensional disordered granular crystals to investigate localization phenomena in strongly nonlinear systems, which it is demonstrated to differ fundamentally from localization in linear and weakly non linear systems.
Abstract: We study the spreading of initially localized excitations in one-dimensional disordered granular crystals. We thereby investigate localization phenomena in strongly nonlinear systems, which we demonstrate to differ fundamentally from localization in linear and weakly nonlinear systems. We conduct a thorough comparison of wave dynamics in chains with three different types of disorder-an uncorrelated (Anderson-like) disorder and two types of correlated disorders (which are produced by random dimer arrangements)-and for two types of initial conditions (displacement excitations and velocity excitations). We find for strongly precompressed (i.e., weakly nonlinear) chains that the dynamics depend strongly on the type of initial condition. In particular, for displacement excitations, the long-time asymptotic behavior of the second moment m(2) of the energy has oscillations that depend on the type of disorder, with a complex trend that differs markedly from a power law and which is particularly evident for an Anderson-like disorder. By contrast, for velocity excitations, we find that a standard scaling m(2)∼t(γ) (for some constant γ) applies for all three types of disorder. For weakly precompressed (i.e., strongly nonlinear) chains, m(2) and the inverse participation ratio P(-1) satisfy scaling relations m(2)∼t(γ) and P(-1)∼t(-η), and the dynamics is superdiffusive for all of the cases that we consider. Additionally, when precompression is strong, the inverse participation ratio decreases slowly (with η<0.1) for all three types of disorder, and the dynamics leads to a partial localization around the core and the leading edge of a propagating wave packet. For an Anderson-like disorder, displacement perturbations lead to localization of energy primarily in the core, and velocity perturbations cause the energy to be divided between the core and the leading edge. This localization phenomenon does not occur in the sonic-vacuum regime, which yields the surprising result that the energy is no longer contained in strongly nonlinear waves but instead is spread across many sites. In this regime, the exponents are very similar (roughly γ≈1.7 and η≈1) for all three types of disorder and for both types of initial conditions.

34 citations


Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 1972

32 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: While bender element testing is now well-established as a laboratory technique to determine soil stiffness, a robust technique to interpret the data remains elusive. A discrete element method (DEM) model of a face-centred cubic packing of uniform spheres was created to simulate bender element tests to investigate this test from a fundamental perspective. During the DEM simulations transmitter and receiver signals were recorded, analogous to the data available in laboratory tests, and these macro-scale data were supplemented with particle scale measurements (forces, stresses and displacements). A range of approaches previously applied in experimental and numerical studies were used to analyse the resulting data in both the time and frequency domains. The shortcomings in these approaches are clear from the differences in the resultant shear stiffness values and the frequency-dependent nature of the values. The particle-scale data enabled visualization of the passage of the wave through the sample, and it was found not to be possible to precisely link the arrival of the shear wave at the receiver and any of the previously proposed characteristic points along the signal recorded at the receiver. The most reliable determination of the shear wave velocity was obtained by applying a two-dimensional fast Fourier transform (2D FFT) to the data describing the velocity of the particles lying between the transmitter and receiver elements. Use of the DEM model and this 2D FFT approach facilitated the sensitivity of the system response to small variations in the interparticle force–displacement law (the contact model) to be established.

31 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: . Disorder of size (polydispersity) and mass of discrete elements or particles in randomly structured media (e.g., granular matter such as soil) has numerous effects on the materials' sound propagation characteristics. The influence of disorder on energy and momentum transport, the sound wave speed and its low-pass frequency-filtering characteristics is the subject of this study. The goal is understanding the connection between the particle-microscale disorder and dynamics and the system-macroscale wave propagation, which can be applied to nondestructive testing, seismic exploration of buried objects (oil, mineral, etc.) or to study the internal structure of the Earth. To isolate the longitudinal P-wave mode from shear and rotational modes, a one-dimensional system of equally sized elements or particles is used to study the effect of mass disorder alone via (direct and/or ensemble averaged) real time signals, signals in Fourier space, energy and dispersion curves. Increase in mass disorder (where disorder has been defined such that it is independent of the shape of the probability distribution of masses) decreases the sound wave speed along a granular chain. Energies associated with the eigenmodes can be used to obtain better quality dispersion relations for disordered chains; these dispersion relations confirm the decrease in pass frequency and wave speed with increasing disorder acting opposite to the wave acceleration close to the source.

20 citations


Cites background or methods from "Frequency filtering in disordered g..."

  • ...A similar model was used in Marketos and O’Sullivan (2013), Lawney and Luding (2014) and Otsubo et al. (2017)....

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  • ...If a Hertzian repulsive interaction force is taken into consideration between particles (Landau and Lifshitz (1970), Lawney and Luding (2014)) κ̃(i,j) = Ỹ(i,j) [ r̃ir̃j r̃i + r̃j ]1/2 , (B1) where5 Ỹ −1(i,j) = 3 4 (1− ν2i Ẽi + 1− ν2j Ẽj ) ....

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  • ...…therein).35 Even though very simplistic, a polydisperse granular chain can have two kinds of disorder, mass disorder and stiffness disorder (Lawney and Luding (2014)), the mass disorder has much stronger contribution towards disorder than stiffness because mass ∝ radius3 whereas, stiffness…...

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  • ...…(ξ = 0.1), it is observed that the displacement wave packets are perfectly superposed affirming what was concluded in Lawney and Luding (2013) & Lawney and Luding (2014) that the shape of the distribution has no effect on the propagating pulse if the first two moments of the distribution are…...

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  • ...The analytical expression for the dispersion relation in an ordered chain of particles or elements with linear contact forces are given by (Brillouin, 1946; Tournat et al., 2004; Lawney and Luding, 2014) ω̃2 = 4 κ̃o M̃1 sin2 ( k̃d̃ 2 ) , (38)...

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