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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/13658816.2020.1811868

From 2SFCA to i2SFCA: integration, derivation and validation

04 Mar 2021-International Journal of Geographical Information Science (Informa UK Limited)-Vol. 35, Iss: 3, pp 628-638
Abstract: Uneven distributions of population and service providers lead to geographic disparity in access for residents and varying workload for staff in facilities. The former can be captured by spatial acc...

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Topics: Service provider (59%), Workload (56%), Population (55%)
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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/IJGI10080532
Abstract: Spatial accessibility provides significant policy implications, describing the spatial disparity of access and supporting the decision-making process for placing additional infrastructure at adequate locations. Several previous reviews have covered spatial accessibility literature, focusing on empirical findings, distance decay functions, and threshold travel times. However, researchers have underexamined how spatial accessibility studies benefitted from the recently enhanced availability of dynamic variables, such as various travel times via different transportation modes and the finer temporal granularity of geospatial data in these studies. Therefore, in our review, we investigated methodological advancements in place-based accessibility measures and scrutinized two recent trends in spatial accessibility studies: multimodal spatial accessibility and temporal changes in spatial accessibility. Based on the critical review, we propose two research agendas: improving the accuracy of measurements with dynamic variable implementation and furnishing policy implications granted from the enhanced accuracy. These agendas particularly call for the action of geographers on the full implementation of dynamic variables and the strong linkage between accessibility and policymaking.

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Topics: Geospatial analysis (54%)

2 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/JAMIA/OCAB149
Abstract: The COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) pandemic has expanded telehealth utilization in unprecedented ways and has important implications for measuring geographic access to healthcare services. Established measures of geographic access to care have focused on the spatial impedance of patients in seeking health care that pertains to specific transportation modes and do not account for the underlying broadband network that supports telemedicine and e-health. To be able to measure the impact of telehealth on healthcare access, we created a pilot augmentation of existing methods to incorporate measures of broadband accessibility to measure geographic access to telehealth. A reliable measure of telehealth accessibility is important to enable policy analysts to assess whether the increasing prevalence of telehealth may help alleviate the disparities in healthcare access in rural areas and for disadvantaged populations, or exacerbate the existing gaps as they experience "double burdens."

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Topics: Telehealth (61%), Telemedicine (56%), Health care (51%) ... read more

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/SU132313100
26 Nov 2021-Sustainability
Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted urban life and created spatial and social inequalities in cities. The impacts of lifting full lockdown restrictions once fast-spreading and community-acquired infection waves were under control are still not fully understood. This study aims to explore spatial inequality reinforced in the intervals between the waves of infection during the COVID-19 pandemic. Enclave-reinforced inequality resulting from enclave-based lockdown policies in Chinese cities was investigated through an analysis of the impacts of university campus enclave closures on the accessibility and crowdedness of urban green spaces. Using a modified two-step floating catchment area (2SFCA) and inversed 2SFCA (i2SFCA) method, accessibility and crowdedness were calculated and compared under two different scenarios. Additionally, the Lorenz curve, Gini coefficient, and Theil index were used to measure and compare intra-city global and local inequalities under each scenario. The results indicate that the lockdown of university campus enclaves decreased the supply of urban green spaces. Campus closures not only exacerbated the unequal distribution of urban green space, but also reduced the inequality of crowdedness in urban parks due to increased crowdedness in parks near the closed enclaves. Moreover, both accessibility and crowdedness worsened when the calculations were weighted for population size and the total supply of green space. Enclave-based lockdown in cities reinforced spatial inequality, and it is highly complex and has multidimensional impacts on urban inequalities and environmental injustice which should be considered by urban planners and decision-makers hoping to create healthy, inclusive, resilient, and sustainable cities in the “new normal” of the COVID-19 pandemic.

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Topics: Spatial inequality (52%), Theil index (51%)

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.TBS.2021.05.003
Changzhen Wang1, Fahui Wang1, Tracy Onega2Institutions (2)
Abstract: Purpose Spatial behavior of patients in utilizing health care reflects their travel burden or mobility, accessibility for medical service, and subsequently outcomes from treatment. This paper derives the best-fitting distance decay function to capture the spatial behaviors of cancer patients in the Northeast region of the U.S., and examines and explains the spatial variability of such behaviors across sub-regions. Principal results (1) 46.8%, 85.5%, and 99.6% of cancer care received was within a driving time of 30, 60, and 180 min, respectively. (2) The exponential distance decay function is the best in capturing the travel behavior of cancer patients in the region and across most sub-regions. (3) The friction coefficient in the distance decay function is negatively correlated with the mean travel time. (4) The best-fitting function forms are associated with network structures. (5) The variation of the friction coefficient across sub-regions is related to factors such as urbanicity, economic development level, and market competition intensity. Major conclusions The distance decay function offers an analytic metric to capture a full spectrum of travel behavior, and thus a more comprehensive measure than average travel time. Examining the geographic variation of travel behavior needs a reliable analysis unit such as organically defined “cancer service areas,” which capture relevant health care market structure and thus are more meaningful than commonly-used geopolitical or census area units.

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Topics: Distance decay (60%), Travel behavior (59%)

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/13658816.2021.1986831
Jie Lin1, Gordon Cromley2Institutions (2)
Abstract: This study examines the narrative(s) that surround the development of the Two-Step Floating Catchment Area (2SFCA) family of GIS-based accessibility statistics. It identifies what has been omitted ...

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Topics: Narrative inquiry (63%), Narrative (59%), Catchment area (56%)
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9 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/J.1538-4632.1998.TB00396.X
Abstract: Conventional integral measures of accessibility, although valuable as indicators of place accessibility, have several limitations when used to evaluate individual accessibility. Two alternatives for overcoming some of the difficulties involved are explored in this study. One is to adapt these measures for evaluating individual accessibility using a disaggregate, nonzonal approach. The other is to develop different types of measures based on an alternative conceptual framework. To pursue the former alternative, this study specifies and examines eighteen gravity-type and cumulative-opportunity accessibility measures using a point-based spatial framework. For the latter option, twelve space-time accessibility measures are developed based on the construct of a prism-constrained feasible opportunity set. This paper compares the relationships and spatial patterns of these thirty measures using network-based GIS procedures. Travel diary data collected in Columbus, Ohio, and a digital data set of 10,727 selected land parcels are used for all computation. Results of this study indicate that space-time and integral indices are distinctive types of accessibility measures which reflect different dimensions of the accessibility experience of individuals. Since space-time measures are more capable of capturing interpersonal differences, especially the effect of space-time constraints, they are more “gender sensitive” and helpful for unraveling gender/ethnic differences in accessibility. An important methodological implication is that whether accessibility is observed to be important or different between individuals depends heavily on whether the measure used is capable of revealing the kind of differences the analyst intends to observe.

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894 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1068/B29120
Wenjun Luo1, Fujian Wang1Institutions (1)
Abstract: This article synthesizes two GIS-based accessibility measures into one framework, and applies the methods to examining spatial accessibility to primary healthcare in the Chicago 10-county region. The floating catchment area method defines the service area of physicians by a threshold travel time while accounting for the availability of physicians by their surrounded demands. The gravity-based method considers a nearby physician more accessible than a remote one and discounts a physician's availability by a gravity-based potential. The former is a special case of the latter. Based on the 2000 Census and primary care physician data, this research assesses the variation of spatial accessibility to primary care in the Chicago region, and analyzes the sensitivity of results by experimenting with ranges of threshold travel times in the floating catchment area method and travel friction coefficients in the gravity model. The methods may be used to help the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and state Health Departments improve health professional shortage areas designation.

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Topics: Health care (57%), Catchment area (55%), Primary care physician (51%) ... read more

861 Citations


Open accessPosted Content
01 Jan 1963-Land Economics
Abstract: A FUNDAMENTAL prerequisite in determining the potential market demand for the products or services of a prospective retail firm or of agglomerations of prospective retail firms, within an urban area, is a geographical delineation of the region containing the probable customers for such goods. Such a region is called a retail trade area. A thorough knowledge of the characteristics and limits of a trade area is essen-

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Topics: Urban agglomeration (54%)

521 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/00045608.2012.657146
Fahui Wang1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Despite spending more than any other nation on medical care per person, the United States ranks behind other industrialized nations in key health performance measures. A main cause is the deep disp...

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Topics: Health care (68%), Health policy (64%), International health (63%) ... read more

329 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/1476-072X-11-50
Matthew Richard McGrail1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The two step floating catchment area (2SFCA) method has emerged in the last decade as a key measure of spatial accessibility, particularly in its application to primary health care access. Many recent ‘improvements’ to the original 2SFCA method have been developed, which generally either account for distance-decay within a catchment or enable the usage of variable catchment sizes. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of various proposed methods within these two improvement groups. Moreover, its assessment focuses on how well these improvements operate within and between rural and metropolitan populations over large geographical regions. Demonstrating these improvements to the whole state of Victoria, Australia, this paper presents the first comparison between continuous and zonal (step) decay functions and specifically their effect within both rural and metropolitan populations. Especially in metropolitan populations, the application of either type of distance-decay function is shown to be problematic by itself. Its inclusion necessitates the addition of a variable catchment size function which can enable the 2SFCA method to dynamically define more appropriate catchments which align with actual health service supply and utilisation. This study assesses recent ‘improvements’ to the 2SFCA when applied over large geographic regions of both large and small populations. Its findings demonstrate the necessary combination of both a distance-decay function and variable catchment size function in order for the 2SFCA to appropriately measure healthcare access across all geographical regions.

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Topics: Catchment area (61%)

207 Citations


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20215