01 Jul 1997-IDS Bulletin (Institute of Development Studies)-Vol. 28, Iss: 3
Abstract: Summaries This article examines the contradictory implications of rising rural incomes – generated through export crop production – for women in a rural community of south‐eastern Iran. It uses two different, but related, ways of capturing how women have fared in the context of these socioeconomic changes. First, defining well‐being in terms of lsquo;functionings’, it looks at the gender‐differentiated patterns of deprivation expressed in terms of infant and child mortality. It then explores issues of ‘vulnerability’ which are highlighted in women's own accounts of well‐being; vulnerability refers to the bundles of risk from the deterioration in women's independent entitlements and from the changes in conjugal relations that are hemming women in and making them more dependent on male incomes. By juxtaposing these two accounts the article concludes that while conventional well‐being indicators (measured directly on the individual) are more conducive to obtaining a gender‐differentiated picture of deprivation than are household‐based measures (as in the poverty line approach), they are nevertheless limited in the extent to which they can capture different aspects of gender discrimination. These neglected dimensions of gender discrimination may be precisely the ones that get exacerbated when rising cash flows are directed into male hands.
Abstract: Drawing on survey and ethnographic data, this article presents empirical evidence regarding the impact of work participation on poor women's lives in urban Bangladesh. Working for pay is common among poor, married women in Dhaka and working women commonly make an important contribution to household income. There is evidence that working women are more likely to manage money, shop for household provisions and move about outside the home than non-working women. Working women also appear better able to accumulate personal assets and take steps to secure their own well-being. Despite such signs of challenge to ‘traditional’ gender identity, social and economic structures continue to be heavily weighted against women, limiting the impact of employment on other dimensions of their lives. In the acutely insecure urban setting, women (and men) are found to pursue multiple strategies aimed at both securing ‘centrality’ within their families, as well as protecting personal interests should familial entitlements prove unreliable.
Abstract: This article contributes towards unpacking the relationships between gender, poverty and inequality at several interrelated levels. It explores the concept of poverty as a useful starting point not only for understanding how gender fits into it, but also for understanding why gender is not reducible to poverty. It provides a brief history of how poverty came to be analysed from a gender perspective, and how such a perspective advances our understanding of poverty and inequality. The article follows this with a critical analysis of important gendered and non-gendered approaches developed to measure poverty, and outlines their contributions to advancing the art of monitoring and evaluating gendered poverty. Using research conducted predominantly in South Asia, it demonstrates how the richness of academic scholarship and discourses on gender and poverty contrast sharply not only with the narrow range of strategies employed for poverty alleviation, but also the limited array of methods and tools designed to m...
Cites background from "From Rags to Riches"
...Razavi (1997) also found the notion of vulnerability to be quite useful to highlight issues of risk and security perceived by women in rural communities in south-eastern Iran, where increasing levels of family opulence improved women’s survival chances and reduced their work burden, but also…...
Abstract: Summary This paper examines recent debates in development discourse and their implications for analyses of gender and hunger. It recognizes the insights that postist approaches offer, but finds that they too have dangers. It concludes that traditional perspectives and the categories these employ require revision rather than rejection.
Abstract: Women’s Economic Empowerment (WEE) based approaches to social justice have attracted increasing attention among scholars and development-based organisations as a means of improving women’s access to economic resources and increasing women’s empowerment. A growing literature discusses the degree to which women’s economic empowerment initiatives have been successful. Most of these studies have tended to rely on the use of economic proxies that capture the level of income earned by women. Based on qualitative information collected in five rural districts of Rwanda between July 2016 and January 2017, this paper explores how existing gender relations at the household level in rural Rwanda stimulate, promote/impede robust participation in WEE initiatives and explores the strategies used by rural women involved in WEE to challenge power relations at the household level. The research used a social justice and transformative approach, employing an interpretivist methodology and qualitative methods. Overall 126 women and 48 men participated in the research. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the information collected and three main themes were identified: cultural norms, expectations and women’s participation; women’s voice and agency from their engagement in economic activities; and the different generations of women who use different coping mechanisms and strategies to deal with adverse gender power relations. The research shows that if WEE initiatives are to reach their full potential, they must address cultural and structural norms that underpin gender inequality at the household and community levels. Thus WEE initiatives, as well as providing economic opportunities for women (and also men) must also address social justice issues that are harmful and affect women’s participation in such initiatives and should support a transformative environment with respect to gender power relationships in rural households and communities.