scispace - formally typeset

Journal ArticleDOI

Fully integrated wearable sensor arrays for multiplexed in situ perspiration analysis

28 Jan 2016-Nature (Nature Publishing Group)-Vol. 529, Iss: 7587, pp 509-514

TL;DR: This work bridges the technological gap between signal transduction, conditioning, processing and wireless transmission in wearable biosensors by merging plastic-based sensors that interface with the skin with silicon integrated circuits consolidated on a flexible circuit board for complex signal processing.
Abstract: Wearable sensor technologies are essential to the realization of personalized medicine through continuously monitoring an individual's state of health. Sampling human sweat, which is rich in physiological information, could enable non-invasive monitoring. Previously reported sweat-based and other non-invasive biosensors either can only monitor a single analyte at a time or lack on-site signal processing circuitry and sensor calibration mechanisms for accurate analysis of the physiological state. Given the complexity of sweat secretion, simultaneous and multiplexed screening of target biomarkers is critical and requires full system integration to ensure the accuracy of measurements. Here we present a mechanically flexible and fully integrated (that is, no external analysis is needed) sensor array for multiplexed in situ perspiration analysis, which simultaneously and selectively measures sweat metabolites (such as glucose and lactate) and electrolytes (such as sodium and potassium ions), as well as the skin temperature (to calibrate the response of the sensors). Our work bridges the technological gap between signal transduction, conditioning (amplification and filtering), processing and wireless transmission in wearable biosensors by merging plastic-based sensors that interface with the skin with silicon integrated circuits consolidated on a flexible circuit board for complex signal processing. This application could not have been realized using either of these technologies alone owing to their respective inherent limitations. The wearable system is used to measure the detailed sweat profile of human subjects engaged in prolonged indoor and outdoor physical activities, and to make a real-time assessment of the physiological state of the subjects. This platform enables a wide range of personalized diagnostic and physiological monitoring applications.
Topics: Sensor array (53%)
Citations
More filters

Journal ArticleDOI
Sihong Wang1, Jie Xu1, Weichen Wang1, Ging-Ji Nathan Wang1  +18 moreInstitutions (3)
19 Feb 2018-Nature
TL;DR: The process offers a general platform for incorporating other intrinsically stretchable polymer materials, enabling the fabrication of next-generation stretchable skin electronic devices, and demonstrates an intrinsicallyStretchable polymer transistor array with an unprecedented device density of 347 transistors per square centimetre.
Abstract: Skin-like electronics that can adhere seamlessly to human skin or within the body are highly desirable for applications such as health monitoring, medical treatment, medical implants and biological studies, and for technologies that include human-machine interfaces, soft robotics and augmented reality. Rendering such electronics soft and stretchable-like human skin-would make them more comfortable to wear, and, through increased contact area, would greatly enhance the fidelity of signals acquired from the skin. Structural engineering of rigid inorganic and organic devices has enabled circuit-level stretchability, but this requires sophisticated fabrication techniques and usually suffers from reduced densities of devices within an array. We reasoned that the desired parameters, such as higher mechanical deformability and robustness, improved skin compatibility and higher device density, could be provided by using intrinsically stretchable polymer materials instead. However, the production of intrinsically stretchable materials and devices is still largely in its infancy: such materials have been reported, but functional, intrinsically stretchable electronics have yet to be demonstrated owing to the lack of a scalable fabrication technology. Here we describe a fabrication process that enables high yield and uniformity from a variety of intrinsically stretchable electronic polymers. We demonstrate an intrinsically stretchable polymer transistor array with an unprecedented device density of 347 transistors per square centimetre. The transistors have an average charge-carrier mobility comparable to that of amorphous silicon, varying only slightly (within one order of magnitude) when subjected to 100 per cent strain for 1,000 cycles, without current-voltage hysteresis. Our transistor arrays thus constitute intrinsically stretchable skin electronics, and include an active matrix for sensory arrays, as well as analogue and digital circuit elements. Our process offers a general platform for incorporating other intrinsically stretchable polymer materials, enabling the fabrication of next-generation stretchable skin electronic devices.

903 citations


Cites methods from "Fully integrated wearable sensor ar..."

  • ...Then, the CONPHINE semiconductor film was deposited on top by spin-coating of 29-DPP-SVS-(1)/SEBS-H1221 solution (10 mg ml−1 in chlorobenzene, with a weight ratio of 3:7) at 1,000 r....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Although wearable biosensors hold promise, a better understanding of the correlations between analyte concentrations in the blood and noninvasive biofluids is needed to improve reliability.
Abstract: Wearable biosensors are garnering substantial interest due to their potential to provide continuous, real-time physiological information via dynamic, noninvasive measurements of biochemical markers in biofluids, such as sweat, tears, saliva and interstitial fluid. Recent developments have focused on electrochemical and optical biosensors, together with advances in the noninvasive monitoring of biomarkers including metabolites, bacteria and hormones. A combination of multiplexed biosensing, microfluidic sampling and transport systems have been integrated, miniaturized and combined with flexible materials for improved wearability and ease of operation. Although wearable biosensors hold promise, a better understanding of the correlations between analyte concentrations in the blood and noninvasive biofluids is needed to improve reliability. An expanded set of on-body bioaffinity assays and more sensing strategies are needed to make more biomarkers accessible to monitoring. Large-cohort validation studies of wearable biosensor performance will be needed to underpin clinical acceptance. Accurate and reliable real-time sensing of physiological information using wearable biosensor technologies would have a broad impact on our daily lives.

780 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
25 Sep 2017-ACS Nano
TL;DR: The term "lab-on-skin" is introduced to describe a set of electronic devices that have physical properties, such as thickness, thermal mass, elastic modulus, and water-vapor permeability, which resemble those of the skin, which provide accurate, non-invasive, long-term, and continuous health monitoring.
Abstract: Skin is the largest organ of the human body, and it offers a diagnostic interface rich with vital biological signals from the inner organs, blood vessels, muscles, and dermis/epidermis. Soft, flexible, and stretchable electronic devices provide a novel platform to interface with soft tissues for robotic feedback and control, regenerative medicine, and continuous health monitoring. Here, we introduce the term “lab-on-skin” to describe a set of electronic devices that have physical properties, such as thickness, thermal mass, elastic modulus, and water-vapor permeability, which resemble those of the skin. These devices can conformally laminate on the epidermis to mitigate motion artifacts and mismatches in mechanical properties created by conventional, rigid electronics while simultaneously providing accurate, non-invasive, long-term, and continuous health monitoring. Recent progress in the design and fabrication of soft sensors with more advanced capabilities and enhanced reliability suggest an impending t...

778 citations


Cites background from "Fully integrated wearable sensor ar..."

  • ...information useful to monitor activity in athletes during sporting events (Figure 9b).(42) The...

    [...]

  • ...mechanics,(16) wound-healing,(40) electrophysiology,(19,24,41) and various biomarkers in sweat.(42)...

    [...]

  • ...conductive board (FPCB).(42,206-208) This solution, sometimes also referred as “hard-soft”...

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
Qilin Hua1, Junlu Sun1, Haitao Liu1, Rongrong Bao1  +5 moreInstitutions (2)
TL;DR: A skin-inspired highly stretchable and conformable matrix network (SCMN) that successfully expands the e-skin sensing functionality including but not limited to temperature, in-plane strain, humidity, light, magnetic field, pressure, and proximity is presented.
Abstract: Mechanosensation electronics (or Electronic skin, e-skin) consists of mechanically flexible and stretchable sensor networks that can detect and quantify various stimuli to mimic the human somatosensory system, with the sensations of touch, heat/cold, and pain in skin through various sensory receptors and neural pathways. Here we present a skin-inspired highly stretchable and conformable matrix network (SCMN) that successfully expands the e-skin sensing functionality including but not limited to temperature, in-plane strain, humidity, light, magnetic field, pressure, and proximity. The actualized specific expandable sensor units integrated on a structured polyimide network, potentially in three-dimensional (3D) integration scheme, can also fulfill simultaneous multi-stimulus sensing and achieve an adjustable sensing range and large-area expandability. We further construct a personalized intelligent prosthesis and demonstrate its use in real-time spatial pressure mapping and temperature estimation. Looking forward, this SCMN has broader applications in humanoid robotics, new prosthetics, human-machine interfaces, and health-monitoring technologies.

601 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Ahyeon Koh1, Daeshik Kang2, Daeshik Kang1, Yeguang Xue3  +21 moreInstitutions (7)
TL;DR: A flexible microfluidic device that adheres to human skin that collects and analyzes sweat during exercise and could be used during athletic or military training and adapted to test other bodily fluids such as tears or saliva is developed.
Abstract: Capabilities in health monitoring enabled by capture and quantitative chemical analysis of sweat could complement, or potentially obviate the need for, approaches based on sporadic assessment of blood samples. Established sweat monitoring technologies use simple fabric swatches and are limited to basic analysis in controlled laboratory or hospital settings. We present a collection of materials and device designs for soft, flexible, and stretchable microfluidic systems, including embodiments that integrate wireless communication electronics, which can intimately and robustly bond to the surface of the skin without chemical and mechanical irritation. This integration defines access points for a small set of sweat glands such that perspiration spontaneously initiates routing of sweat through a microfluidic network and set of reservoirs. Embedded chemical analyses respond in colorimetric fashion to markers such as chloride and hydronium ions, glucose, and lactate. Wireless interfaces to digital image capture hardware serve as a means for quantitation. Human studies demonstrated the functionality of this microfluidic device during fitness cycling in a controlled environment and during long-distance bicycle racing in arid, outdoor conditions. The results include quantitative values for sweat rate, total sweat loss, pH, and concentration of chloride and lactate.

598 citations


References
More filters

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Transparent, conducting spray-deposited films of single-walled carbon nanotubes are reported that can be rendered stretchable by applying strain along each axis, and then releasing this strain.
Abstract: Transparent films of carbon nanotubes can accommodate strains of up to 150% and demonstrate conductivities as high as 2,200 S cm−1 in the stretched state.

2,507 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
25 Jul 2013-Nature
Abstract: Electronic devices have advanced from their heavy, bulky origins to become smart, mobile appliances. Nevertheless, they remain rigid, which precludes their intimate integration into everyday life. Flexible, textile and stretchable electronics are emerging research areas and may yield mainstream technologies. Rollable and unbreakable backplanes with amorphous silicon field-effect transistors on steel substrates only 3 μm thick have been demonstrated. On polymer substrates, bending radii of 0.1 mm have been achieved in flexible electronic devices. Concurrently, the need for compliant electronics that can not only be flexed but also conform to three-dimensional shapes has emerged. Approaches include the transfer of ultrathin polyimide layers encapsulating silicon CMOS circuits onto pre-stretched elastomers, the use of conductive elastomers integrated with organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) on polyimide islands, and fabrication of OFETs and gold interconnects on elastic substrates to realize pressure, temperature and optical sensors. Here we present a platform that makes electronics both virtually unbreakable and imperceptible. Fabricated directly on ultrathin (1 μm) polymer foils, our electronic circuits are light (3 g m(-2)) and ultraflexible and conform to their ambient, dynamic environment. Organic transistors with an ultra-dense oxide gate dielectric a few nanometres thick formed at room temperature enable sophisticated large-area electronic foils with unprecedented mechanical and environmental stability: they withstand repeated bending to radii of 5 μm and less, can be crumpled like paper, accommodate stretching up to 230% on prestrained elastomers, and can be operated at high temperatures and in aqueous environments. Because manufacturing costs of organic electronics are potentially low, imperceptible electronic foils may be as common in the future as plastic wrap is today. Applications include matrix-addressed tactile sensor foils for health care and monitoring, thin-film heaters, temperature and infrared sensors, displays, and organic solar cells.

1,766 citations


"Fully integrated wearable sensor ar..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Differential amplifier (6) Voltage buffer (8)...

    [...]

  • ...Phone user interface Differential amplifier (6) Voltage buffer (5)...

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
Shyamal Patel1, Shyamal Patel2, Hyung-Kyu Park3, Paolo Bonato1  +4 moreInstitutions (5)
Abstract: The aim of this review paper is to summarize recent developments in the field of wearable sensors and systems that are relevant to the field of rehabilitation. The growing body of work focused on the application of wearable technology to monitor older adults and subjects with chronic conditions in the home and community settings justifies the emphasis of this review paper on summarizing clinical applications of wearable technology currently undergoing assessment rather than describing the development of new wearable sensors and systems. A short description of key enabling technologies (i.e. sensor technology, communication technology, and data analysis techniques) that have allowed researchers to implement wearable systems is followed by a detailed description of major areas of application of wearable technology. Applications described in this review paper include those that focus on health and wellness, safety, home rehabilitation, assessment of treatment efficacy, and early detection of disorders. The integration of wearable and ambient sensors is discussed in the context of achieving home monitoring of older adults and subjects with chronic conditions. Future work required to advance the field toward clinical deployment of wearable sensors and systems is discussed.

1,578 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Wenzhuo Wu1, Lei Wang2, Yilei Li2, Fan Zhang2  +8 moreInstitutions (2)
23 Oct 2014-Nature
TL;DR: It is shown that cyclic stretching and releasing of thin MoS2 flakes with an odd number of atomic layers produces oscillating piezoelectric voltage and current outputs, whereas no output is observed for flakes with even number of layers, which may enable the development of applications in powering nanodevices, adaptive bioprobes and tunable/stretchable electronics/optoelectronics.
Abstract: The two-dimensional semiconducting material molybdenum disulphide shows strong piezoelectricity in its single-layered form, suggesting possible applications in nanoscale electromechanical devices for sensing and energy harvesting. Two-dimensional semiconducting materials are the focus of much research effort thanks to their unusual and potentially useful physical properties. Wenzhou Wu and colleagues now confirm theoretical expectations that one such material — molybdenum disulphide — exhibits strong piezoelectricity in its single-layered form. Such a coupling of mechanical and electrical properties suggests possible applications in nanoscale electromechanical devices for sensing and energy harvesting. The piezoelectric characteristics of nanowires, thin films and bulk crystals have been closely studied for potential applications in sensors, transducers, energy conversion and electronics1,2,3. With their high crystallinity and ability to withstand enormous strain4,5,6, two-dimensional materials are of great interest as high-performance piezoelectric materials. Monolayer MoS2 is predicted to be strongly piezoelectric, an effect that disappears in the bulk owing to the opposite orientations of adjacent atomic layers7,8. Here we report the first experimental study of the piezoelectric properties of two-dimensional MoS2 and show that cyclic stretching and releasing of thin MoS2 flakes with an odd number of atomic layers produces oscillating piezoelectric voltage and current outputs, whereas no output is observed for flakes with an even number of layers. A single monolayer flake strained by 0.53% generates a peak output of 15 mV and 20 pA, corresponding to a power density of 2 mW m−2 and a 5.08% mechanical-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency. In agreement with theoretical predictions, the output increases with decreasing thickness and reverses sign when the strain direction is rotated by 90°. Transport measurements show a strong piezotronic effect in single-layer MoS2, but not in bilayer and bulk MoS2. The coupling between piezoelectricity and semiconducting properties in two-dimensional nanomaterials may enable the development of applications in powering nanodevices, adaptive bioprobes and tunable/stretchable electronics/optoelectronics.

1,324 citations


"Fully integrated wearable sensor ar..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...Low-pass filter (2) Low-pass filter (4) Voltage divider...

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
07 Mar 2008-Sensors
Abstract: Quantification of biological or biochemical processes are of utmost importance for medical, biological and biotechnological applications. However, converting the biological information to an easily processed electronic signal is challenging due to the complexity of connecting an electronic device directly to a biological environment. Electrochemical biosensors provide an attractive means to analyze the content of a biological sample due to the direct conversion of a biological event to an electronic signal. Over the past decades several sensing concepts and related devices have been developed. In this review, the most common traditional techniques, such as cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, chronopotentiometry, impedance spectroscopy, and various field-effect transistor based methods are presented along with selected promising novel approaches, such as nanowire or magnetic nanoparticle-based biosensing. Additional measurement techniques, which have been shown useful in combination with electrochemical detection, are also summarized, such as the electrochemical versions of surface plasmon resonance, optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy, ellipsometry, quartz crystal microbalance, and scanning probe microscopy. The signal transduction and the general performance of electrochemical sensors are often determined by the surface architectures that connect the sensing element to the biological sample at the nanometer scale. The most common surface modification techniques, the various electrochemical transduction mechanisms, and the choice of the recognition receptor molecules all influence the ultimate sensitivity of the sensor. New nanotechnology-based approaches, such as the use of engineered ion-channels in lipid bilayers, the encapsulation of enzymes into vesicles, polymersomes, or polyelectrolyte capsules provide additional possibilities for signal amplification. In particular, this review highlights the importance of the precise control over the delicate interplay between surface nano-architectures, surface functionalization and the chosen sensor transducer principle, as well as the usefulness of complementary characterization tools to interpret and to optimize the sensor response.

1,188 citations


Performance
Metrics
No. of citations received by the Paper in previous years
YearCitations
202217
2021574
2020530
2019475
2018386
2017280