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Journal ArticleDOI

Fully Printed Disposable IoT Soil Moisture Sensors for Precision Agriculture

TL;DR: It is obvious that fully printed sensor elements based on cheap and environmentally friendly carbon layers printed on the wood substrate can compete with conventionally made sensors based on copper.
Abstract: Digitization of industrial processes using new technologies (IoT—Internet of Things, IoE—Internet of Everything), including the agriculture industry, are globally gaining growing interest. The precise management of production inputs is essential for many agricultural companies because limited or expensive sources of water and nutrients could make sustainable production difficult. For these reasons, precise data from fields, plants, and greenhouses have become more important for decision making and for the proper dosage of water and nutrients. On the market are a variety of sensors for monitoring environmental parameters within a precise agricultural area. However, the high price, data storage/transfer functionality are limiting so cost-effective products capable to transfer data directly to farmers via wireless IoT networks are required. Within a given scope, low-price sensor elements with an appropriate level of sensor response are required. In the presented paper, we have developed fully printed sensor elements and a dedicated measuring/communicating unit for IoT monitoring of soil moisture. Various fabrication printing techniques and a variety of materials were used. From the performed study, it is obvious that fully printed sensor elements based on cheap and environmentally friendly carbon layers printed on the wood substrate can compete with conventionally made sensors based on copper.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , the authors proposed novel techniques in AI technique based soft sensor integrated with remote sensing model using deep learning architectures, the input has been pre-processed to recognize the missing value, data cleaning and noise removal from the image which is collected from the agricultural land.

70 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the potential applications of printed sensors in smart farming are reviewed, including measurement of chemicals, soil monitoring, and microclimate monitoring in greenhouses, as well as the limitations and potentials of printing sensors for farming applications.
Abstract: Smart farming is the integration of advanced technologies such as sensors, wireless communication, Internet of Things (IoT), artificial intelligence (AI), and robots, with traditional farming practices. The goal is to increase the yield and quality of the crops or other agricultural products, as well as to reduce the cost and improve efficiency. Sensors play a critical role in smart farming as they provide the most important information related to varied aspects of agriculture, namely soil conditions, plant growth, and environmental conditions. With the emergence of printed electronics technologies, printed sensors have gained much attention in recent years. Printed sensors are fabricated through the additive manufacturing and are extremely versatile. They can be made on any solid substrate and be conformable, flexible, stretchable, low-cost, and/or bio-degradable. These unique features have made the printed sensors attractive for a variety of applications. This article aims to review the potential applications of printed sensors in smart farming. First, the state of the art of printed sensor fabrication is presented with a discussion on their advantages and disadvantages. Then, the measurement and monitoring applications of printed sensors in the key aspects of smart farming, are reviewed, including measurement of chemicals, soil monitoring, and microclimate monitoring in greenhouses. The article also pinpoints the limitations and potentials of printed sensors for farming applications. This article will benefit the researchers and practitioners in the field to advance the printed sensor technologies to mitigate the current issues in smart farming.

24 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The competence of future human extension agents lies in reskilling as a “knowledge broker” of relationships and expertise, as s/he cannot have all multidisciplinary knowledge.
Abstract: PurposeThe emerging technologies of the Fourth Industrial Revolution are transforming various industries, including agriculture. Unaware, young male and female farmers leave the agriculture profession as they perform unsustainable practices. Precision agriculture using the Internet of Things (IoT) is a solution to sustainable agriculture. Extension professionals are at the heart of disseminating agricultural advisory agricultural services in India. The discourse on the IoT is entering the space of extension advisory services (EASs) and social sciences. Thus, the present paper seeks to review the application of IoT in Indian agriculture, its challenges and its effect on EASs. The conceptual framework is drawn from disruptive and surveillance capitalist theories.Design/methodology/approachOnline literature review was conducted on electronic e-book Ebsco, Google scholar, PubMed, Jane, j gate, research4life, springer journal and Mendeley databases for full-text repositories, textbook, thesis, web articles, newspaper articles, reports, blogs for the year 1990 to May 2021 using keywords “IoT application in agriculture,” “emerging technologies in agriculture,” “challenges in IoT application,” “extension advisory services sources of information,” “big data and extension advisory, “IoT and extension advisory in India.” Only publications in the English language were included.FindingsIoT aids progressive farmers and small farmers alike. Drones, robotics, precision irrigation, livestock tracking and crop disease surveillance are examples of IoT applications in agriculture. Only large corporations and governments access IoT, and for them, big data storage is an issue. Privacy and security concerns demand upgrades in IoT systems. Solutions to the convergence of IoT with the cloud will leverage agricultural EASs, resulting in fast computing, precise and proactive up-to-date problem solving. Hence, the need for communication between firms and clients has ceased. Thus, the jobs of extension agents are replaced.Research limitations/implicationsThe competence of future human extension agents lies in reskilling as a “knowledge broker” of relationships and expertise, as s/he cannot have all multidisciplinary knowledge.Originality/valueAlthough IoT applications in agriculture are available from a technological standpoint, there remains an awareness gap regarding the impact of IoT applications in agricultural EASs. This study will aid in a better comprehension of IoT applications from current and prospective EASs.

11 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Nov 2022-Sensors
TL;DR: In this paper , the authors proposed a novel approach to sensor selection for saffron cultivation in an IoT-based environment, where a detailed hardware-based framework, the growth cycle of the crop, along with all the sensors, and the block layout used for SAFFRON cultivation in a hydroponic medium are provided.
Abstract: The world population is on the rise, which demands higher food production. The reduction in the amount of land under cultivation due to urbanization makes this more challenging. The solution to this problem lies in the artificial cultivation of crops. IoT and sensors play an important role in optimizing the artificial cultivation of crops. The selection of sensors is important in order to ensure a better quality and yield in an automated artificial environment. There are many challenges involved in selecting sensors due to the highly competitive market. This paper provides a novel approach to sensor selection for saffron cultivation in an IoT-based environment. The crop used in this study is saffron due to the reason that much less research has been conducted on its hydroponic cultivation using sensors and its huge economic impact. A detailed hardware-based framework, the growth cycle of the crop, along with all the sensors, and the block layout used for saffron cultivation in a hydroponic medium are provided. The important parameters for a hydroponic medium, such as the concentration of nutrients and flow rate required, are discussed in detail. This paper is the first of its kind to explain the sensor configurations, performance metrics, and sensor-based saffron cultivation model. The paper discusses different metrics related to the selection, use and role of sensors in different IoT-based saffron cultivation practices. A smart hydroponic setup for saffron cultivation is proposed. The results of the model are evaluated using the AquaCrop simulator. The simulator is used to evaluate the value of performance metrics such as the yield, harvest index, water productivity, and biomass. The values obtained provide better results as compared to natural cultivation.

11 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , the authors compared the technical properties and investigated the practical applications of five different wireless communication protocols that are commonly used in IoT applications: ZigBee, Wi-Fi, Sigfox, NB-IoT, and LoRaWAN.
Abstract: IoT based smart agriculture systems are important for efficient usage of lands, water, and energy resources. Wireless communication protocols constitute a critical part of smart agriculture systems because the fields, in general, cover a large area requiring system components to be placed at distant locations. There are various communication protocols with different features that can be utilized in smart agriculture applications. When designing a smart agriculture system, it is required to carefully consider the features of possible protocols to make a suitable and optimal selection. Therefore, this review paper aims to underline the specifications of the wireless communication protocols that are widely used in smart agriculture applications. Furthermore, application-specific requirements, which may be useful during the design stage of the smart agriculture systems, are highlighted. To accomplish these aims, this paper compares the technical properties and investigates the practical applications of five different wireless communication protocols that are commonly used in IoT applications: ZigBee, Wi-Fi, Sigfox, NB-IoT, and LoRaWAN. In particular, the inconsistencies in the technical properties of these protocols reported in different resources have been highlighted and the reason for this situation has been discussed. Considering the features offered by the protocols and the requirements of smart agriculture applications, the appropriateness of a particular protocol to a particular smart agriculture application is examined. In addition, issues about cost, communication quality, and hardware of the five protocols have been mentioned. The trending technologies with high potential for the future applications of smart agriculture have been introduced. In this context, the relation of the technologies like aerial systems, cellular communication, and big data analytics with wireless have been specified. Finally, the leading protocol and the smart agriculture application area have been highlighted through observing the year-based distribution of the recent publications. It has been shown that usage of LoRaWAN protocol has become more widespread in recent years.

7 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The fundamental building blocks of an FHE system, printed sensors and circuits, thinned silicon ICs, printed antennas, printed energy harvesting and storage modules, and printed displays, are discussed and the recent progress, fabrication, application, and challenges, and an outlook, related to FHE are presented.
Abstract: The performance and integration density of silicon integrated circuits (ICs) have progressed at an unprecedented pace in the past 60 years. While silicon ICs thrive at low-power high-performance computing, creating flexible and large-area electronics using silicon remains a challenge. On the other hand, flexible and printed electronics use intrinsically flexible materials and printing techniques to manufacture compliant and large-area electronics. Nonetheless, flexible electronics are not as efficient as silicon ICs for computation and signal communication. Flexible hybrid electronics (FHE) leverages the strengths of these two dissimilar technologies. It uses flexible and printed electronics where flexibility and scalability are required, i.e., for sensing and actuating, and silicon ICs for computation and communication purposes. Combining flexible electronics and silicon ICs yields a very powerful and versatile technology with a vast range of applications. Here, the fundamental building blocks of an FHE system, printed sensors and circuits, thinned silicon ICs, printed antennas, printed energy harvesting and storage modules, and printed displays, are discussed. Emerging application areas of FHE in wearable health, structural health, industrial, environmental, and agricultural sensing are reviewed. Overall, the recent progress, fabrication, application, and challenges, and an outlook, related to FHE are presented.

396 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article evaluates contributions made by various researchers and academicians over the past few years in the field of IoT to equip novel researchers of this domain to assess the current standings of IoT and to improve upon them with more inspiring and innovative ideas.

384 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A critical review of all the established and emerging soil moisture measurement techniques with respect to their merits and demerits is presented in this article, where the authors highlight the importance of various innovations based on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) and nano-sensors emerging in this context.

358 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results from the review were compiled into an IoT architecture that represents a wide range of current solutions in agro-industrial and environmental fields that are motivated by the need to identify application areas, trends, architectures and open challenges in these two fields.

336 citations