scispace - formally typeset
SciSpace - Your AI assistant to discover and understand research papers | Product Hunt

Journal ArticleDOI

Functional Myc-Max heterodimer is required for activation-induced apoptosis in T cell hybridomas.

01 Dec 1994-Journal of Experimental Medicine (Rockefeller University Press)-Vol. 180, Iss: 6, pp 2413-2418

TL;DR: It is shown that coexpression of a reciprocally mutant Myc protein capable of forming functional heterodimers with the mutant Max can compensate for the dominant negative activity and restore activation-induced apoptosis.

AbstractT cell hybridomas respond to activation signals by undergoing apoptotic cell death, and this is likely to represent comparable events related to tolerance induction in immature and mature T cells in vivo. Previous studies using antisense oligonucleotides implicated the c-Myc protein in the phenomenon of activation-induced apoptosis. This role for c-Myc in apoptosis is now confirmed in studies using a dominant negative form of its heterodimeric binding partner, Max, which we show here inhibits activation-induced apoptosis. Further, coexpression of a reciprocally mutant Myc protein capable of forming functional heterodimers with the mutant Max can compensate for the dominant negative activity and restore activation-induced apoptosis. These results imply that Myc promotes activation-induced apoptosis by obligatory heterodimerization with Max, and therefore, by regulating gene transcription.

Topics: Programmed cell death (55%), T cell (54%), Transcription factor (53%), Tolerance induction (53%), Apoptosis (52%)

...read more

Content maybe subject to copyright    Report

Citations
More filters

Journal ArticleDOI
02 Feb 1995-Nature
TL;DR: This work shows that the Fas/CD95 receptor, which can transduce a potent apoptotic signal when ligated, is rapidly expressed following activation of T-cell hybridomas, as is its functional, membrane-bound ligand8.
Abstract: A number of murine T-cell hybridomas undergo apoptosis within a few hours of activation by specific antigens, mitogens, antibodies against the T-cell antigen receptor, or a combination of phorbol ester and calcium ionophore. This phenomenon has been extensively studied as a model for clonal deletion in the immune system, in which potentially autoreactive T cells eliminate themselves by apoptosis after activation, either in the thymus or in the periphery. Here we show that the Fas/CD95 receptor, which can transduce a potent apoptotic signal when ligand, is rapidly expressed following activation of T-cell hybridomas, as is its functional, membrane-bound ligand. Interference with the ensuing Fas/Fas-ligand interaction inhibits activation-induced apoptosis. Because T-cell receptor ligation can induce apoptosis in a single T hybridoma cell, we suggest that the Fas/Fas-ligand interaction can induce cell death in a cell-autonomous manner.

1,317 citations


Book ChapterDOI
TL;DR: This chapter focuses on c-Myc's role as a transcription factor in the regulation of cell growth, apoptosis, and transformation and suggests that the most exciting recent findings suggest that the Myc network not only includes proto-oncoproteins but, with the Mad family proteins, also potential tumor suppressors.
Abstract: Publisher Summary This chapter focuses on the proteins of the Myc network that are essential regulators of cell growth and differentiation. The identification of the Myc partner, Max, in 1991 and the subsequent realization that this protein is the essential dimeric partner for all known c-Myc functions was a major boost to the field and led to a number of very interesting observations and findings. The chapter focuses on c-Myc's role as a transcription factor in the regulation of cell growth, apoptosis, and transformation. The most exciting recent findings suggest that the Myc network not only includes proto-oncoproteins (c-, N-, and L-Myc) but, with the Mad family proteins, also potential tumor suppressors. This together with the fact that Myc proteins as well as Max are essential, as deduced from homozygous disruption of the genes in mice, places the Myc network in a central position in the regulation of cell growth and homeostasis. Genes that have been generated by the duplication of and divergence from an ancestral gene(s) are grouped into families. The myc family of protooncogenes has most likely arisen through such duplications. It currently consists of three well-characterized members; c-myc, N-myc, and L-myc. Two additional genes, B-myc and S-myc, have been identified only in rodents. The c-, N-, and L-myc genes share similar genomic organization and the corresponding proteins contain several regions of high sequence homology. The identification of the Myc dimerization partner Max has significantly advanced our understanding of the molecular function of c-Myc.

770 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review addresses the phenomenon of activation‐induced cell death (AICD) in T lymphocytes, in which activation through the T‐cell receptor results in apoptosis.
Abstract: A properly functioning immune system is dependent on programmed cell death at virtually every stage of lymphocyte development and activity. This review addresses the phenomenon of activation-induced cell death (AICD) in T lymphocytes, in which activation through the T-cell receptor results in apoptosis. AICD can occur in a cell-autonomous manner and is influenced by the nature of the initial T-cell activation events. It plays essential roles in both central and peripheral deletion events involved in tolerance and homeostasis, although it is likely that different forms of AICD proceed via different mechanisms. For example, while AICD in peripheral T cells is often caused by the induction of expression of the death ligand, Fas ligand (CD95 ligand, FasL), it does not appear to be involved in AICD in thymocytes. This and other mechanisms of AICD are discussed. One emerging model that may complement other forms of AICD involves the inducible expression of FasL by nonlymphoid tissues in response to activated T lymphocytes. Induction of nonlymphoid FasL in this manner may serve as a sensing mechanism for immune cell infiltration, which contributes to peripheral deletion.

578 citations


Cites background from "Functional Myc-Max heterodimer is r..."

  • ...dimer (91), and it followed that this role might be via transcriptional regulation of FasL....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that cleavage of α-fodrin (non-erythroid spectrin) accompanies apoptosis, induced by activation via the CD3/T cell receptor complex in a murine T cell hybridoma, ligation of the Fas molecule on a human T cell lymphoma line and other Fas-expressing cells, or treatment of cells with staurosporine, dexamethasone, or synthetic ceramide.
Abstract: Several recent studies have implicated proteases as important triggers of apoptosis. Thus far, substrates that are cleaved during apoptosis have been elusive. In this report we demonstrate that cleavage of alpha-fodrin (non-erythroid spectrin) accompanies apoptosis, induced by activation via the CD3/T cell receptor complex in a murine T cell hybridoma, ligation of the Fas (CD95) molecule on a human T cell lymphoma line and other Fas-expressing cells, or treatment of cells with staurosporine, dexamethasone, or synthetic ceramide. Furthermore, inhibition of activation-induced apoptosis by pretreatment of T hybridoma cells with antisense oligonucleotides directed against c-myc also inhibited fodrin proteolysis, confirming that this cleavage process is tightly coupled to apoptosis. Fodrin cleavage during apoptosis may have implications for the membrane blebbing seen during this process.

532 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
14 Nov 1997-Science
TL;DR: Findings link two apoptotic pathways previously thought to be independent and establish the dependency of Myc on CD95 signaling for its killing activity and suppress c-myc-induced apoptosis by also acting downstream of CD95.
Abstract: Induction of apoptosis by oncogenes like c-myc may be important in restraining the emergence of neoplasia. However, the mechanism by which c-myc induces apoptosis is unknown. CD95 (also termed Fas or APO-1) is a cell surface transmembrane receptor of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family that activates an intrinsic apoptotic suicide program in cells upon binding either its ligand CD95L or antibody. c-myc-induced apoptosis was shown to require interaction on the cell surface between CD95 and its ligand. c-Myc acts downstream of the CD95 receptor by sensitizing cells to the CD95 death signal. Moreover, IGF-I signaling and Bcl-2 suppress c-myc-induced apoptosis by also acting downstream of CD95. These findings link two apoptotic pathways previously thought to be independent and establish the dependency of Myc on CD95 signaling for its killing activity.

390 citations


References
More filters

Journal Article
TL;DR: This highly reproducible, quantitative assay for T cell growth factor (TCGF), based upon the tritiated-thymidine incorporation of continuous murine tumor-specific cytotoxic T cell lines (CTLL), has revealed that T lymphocytes are required for its production.
Abstract: Several soluble factors have recently been associated with the proliferation and differentiation of thymus-derived lymphocytes. One of these factors present in medium conditioned by T cell mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes has the ability to promote the long-term culture of normal and antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells. We report a method to test for this proliferative stimulus in the form of a sensitive microassay based upon the tritiated thymidine incorporation of continuous murine tumorspecific cytotoxic T cell lines (CTLL). The microassay requires microliter quantities of sample fluid and is amenable to quantitative analysis. This highly reproducible, quantitative assay for T cell growth factor (TCGF) has allowed investigation as to the kinetics of TCGF generation and has revealed that T lymphocytes are required for its production. Further investigation has supported the notion that this nonspecies-specific factor is actively removed from tissue culture medium by the proliferation of either T cell mitogen-activated lymphocytes or CTLL.

3,096 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
03 Apr 1992-Cell
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that deregulated c-myc expression induces apoptosis in cells growth arrested by a variety of means and at various points in the cell cycle.
Abstract: Although Rat-1 fibroblasts expressing c-myc constitutively are unable to arrest growth in low serum, their numbers do not increase in culture because of substantial cell death. We show this cell death to be dependent upon expression of c-myc protein and to occur by apoptosis. Regions of the c-myc protein required for induction of apoptosis overlap with regions necessary for cotransformation, autoregulation, and inhibition of differentiation, suggesting that the apoptotic function of c-myc protein is related to its other functions. Moreover, cells with higher levels of c-myc protein are more prone to cell death upon serum deprivation. Finally, we demonstrate that deregulated c-myc expression induces apoptosis in cells growth arrested by a variety of means and at various points in the cell cycle.

3,020 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The present review describes several methods to characterize and differentiate between two different mechanisms of cell death, apoptosis and necrosis, applied to studies of apoptosis triggered in the human leukemic HL-60 cell line by DNA topoisomerase I or II inhibitors, and in rat thymocytes by either topoisomersase inhibitors or prednisolone.
Abstract: The present review describes several methods to characterize and differentiate between two different mechanisms of cell death, apoptosis and necrosis. Most of these methods were applied to studies of apoptosis triggered in the human leukemic HL-60 cell line by DNA topoisomerase I or II inhibitors, and in rat thymocytes by either topoisomerase inhibitors or prednisolone. In most cases, apoptosis was selective to cells in a particular phase of the cell cycle: only S-phase HL-60 cells and G0 thymocytes were mainly affected. Necrosis was induced by excessively high concentrations of these drugs. The following cell features were found useful to characterize the mode of cell death: a) Activation of an endonuclease in apoptocic cells resulted in extraction of the low molecular weight DNA following cell permeabilization, which, in turn, led to their decreased stainability with DNA-specific fluorochromes. Measurements of DNA content made it possible to identify apoptotic cells and to recognize the cell cycle phase specificity of the apoptotic process. b) Plasma membrane integrity, which is lost in necrotic but not apoptotic cells, was probed by the exclusion of propidium iodide (PI). The combination of PI followed by Hoechst 33342 proved to be an excellent probe to distinguish live, necrotic, early- and late-apoptotic cells. c) Mitochondrial transmembrane potential, assayed by retention of rhodamine 123 was preserved in apoptotic but not necrotic cells. d) The ATP-dependent lysosomal proton pump, tested by the supravital uptake of acridine orange (AO) was also preserved in apoptotic but not necrotic cells. e) Bivariate analysis of cells stained for DNA and protein revealed markedly diminished protein content in apoptotic cells, most likely due to activation of endogenous proteases. Necrotic cells, having leaky membranes, had minimal protein content. f) Staining of RNA allowed for the discrimination of G0 from G1 cells and thus made it possible to reveal that apoptosis was selective to G0 thymocytes. g) The decrease in forward light scatter, paralleled either by no change (HL-60 cells) or an increase (thymocytes) of right angle scatter, were early changes during apoptosis. h) The sensitivity of DNA in situ to denaturation, was increased in apoptotic and necrotic cells. This feature, probed by staining with AO at low pH, provided a sensitive and early assay to discriminate between live, apoptotic and necrotic cells, and to evaluate the cell cycle phase specificity of these processes. i) The in situ nick translation assay employing labeled triphosphonucleotides can be used to reveal DNA strand breaks, to detect the very early stages of apoptosis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

1,921 citations


PatentDOI
09 Sep 1992-Science
Abstract: Nucleic acid molecules capable of hybridizing under stringent conditions to the nucleotide sequence residing between positions 1 and 453 of the max cDNAs shown in Figure 2, or to the nucleotide sequence reisiding between positions 148 and 810 of the mad cDNAs shown in Figure 14. The Max polypeptide when associated with the Myc or Mad polypeptide is capable of binding to nucleotide sequences containing CACGTG.

1,602 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Results identify T3-epsilon as a cell surface protein involved in the transduction of activation signals and can both activate and inhibit T-cell function.
Abstract: A monoclonal antibody (145-2C11) specific for the murine T3 complex was derived by immunizing Armenian hamsters with a murine cytolytic T-cell clone. The antibody is specific for a 25-kDa protein component (T3-epsilon) of the antigen-specific T-cell receptor. It reacts with all mature T cells and can both activate and inhibit T-cell function. These results identify T3-epsilon as a cell surface protein involved in the transduction of activation signals.

1,502 citations