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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.EURPOLYMJ.2020.110248

Functionalized polylysine biomaterials for advanced medical applications: A review

05 Mar 2021-European Polymer Journal (Pergamon)-Vol. 146, pp 110248
Abstract: Advancements in the biomedical sector are dominating due to evolutions in healthcare functions such as targeted drug and gene delivery, bio-adhesives for tissue transplantation, bio-fibers based wound dressing, and protein immobilization. Among the various polymeric materials, the polylysine is a special type of naturally occurring homo-polyamide e-poly-L-lysine (PLL) showcasing significant results for numerous biomedical applications. Analysis of polylysine based biomaterials or hydrogels have been reported to exhibit promising performance due to properties such as water solubility, consumability, biocompatibility, no toxicity, and stimuli-responsive (pH, temperature, enzyme) characteristics of the material. PLL based targeted drug delivery systems have massive importance because of increased efficacy and decrement in toxicity level during the interactions with human body functions. It is crucial to facilitate higher loading efficiency of drugs, and effective targeting of drug molecules at the desired site. Polylysine is an excellent biocompatible carrier, utilized as selective functionalization material or nanoparticle along with silica nanoparticles or mesostructured silica, and triblock polymer formation. The emergence of polylysine hydrogel as a bio-adhesive has broad impact due to its excellent binding strength compared to conventional bioadhesive (fibril glue) in the market; it subdues adverse effects such as bleeding diatheses, weak adhesion, and risk of infection due to biological origin. It is applicable in the sector of tissue repairing, wound healing, and sports injuries by eliminating traditional time-consuming techniques such as end-to-end suture to reduce the possibility of foreign material involvement and incomplete nerve sealing. The primary cationic amine group of polylysine reacts with targeted tissue and mucus layer closely by undergoing ionic interaction, exhibiting improved tissue adhesive properties. Additionally, electrospun polylysine nano-fibers have evolved as a material for protein immobilization, immobilizing antigens/antibodies, vaccine preparation, and wound dressings. PLL functionalized electrospun materials exhibited enhanced antibacterial properties by reducing the number of tumor cells.

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Topics: Polylysine (57%), Targeted drug delivery (53%), Biocompatibility (52%) ... read more
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10 results found


Open access
01 May 2011-
Abstract: This paper demonstrates the generation of systemically deliverable layer-by-layer (LbL) nanoparticles for cancer applications. LbL-based nanoparticles designed to navigate the body and deliver therapeutics in a programmable fashion are promising new and alternative systems for drug delivery, but there have been very few demonstrations of their systemic delivery in vivo due to a lack of knowledge in building LbL nanofilms that mimic traditional nanoparticle design to optimize delivery. The key to the successful application of these nanocarriers in vivo requires a systematic analysis of the influence of film architecture and adsorbed polyelectrolyte outer layer on their pharmacokinetics, which has thus far not been examined for this new approach to nanoparticle delivery. Herein, we have taken the first steps in stabilizing and controlling the systemic distribution of multilayer nanoparticles. Our findings highlight the unique character of LbL systems; the electrostatically assembled nanoparticles gain incre...

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Topics: Drug delivery (53%), Nanocarriers (51%)

147 Citations


Open accessJournal Article
Abstract: Two RAFT agents, suitable for inducing living radical polymerization in water, have been synthesized. Both RAFT agents were shown to be effective over the temperature range 25-70 °C. One RAFT agent was functionalized with a pyridyl disulfide group. RAFT efficacy was demonstrated for the polymerizations of N-isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAAM) and poly(ethylene oxide)-acrylate (PEG-A) in both water and acetonitrile. The kinetic data indicates that the pyridyl disulfide functionality is largely benign in free radical polymerizations, remaining intact for subsequent reaction with thiol groups. This result was confirmed by studying conventional radical polymerizations in the presence of hydroxyethyl pyridyl disulfide. The utility of the pyridyl disulfide functionality at the terminus of the polymers was demonstrated by synthesizing polymer-BSA conjugates.

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Topics: Radical polymerization (57%), Raft (54%)

101 Citations


Open accessJournal Article
Abstract: Utilization of polymers as biomaterials has greatly impacted the advancement of modern medicine. Specifically, polymeric biomaterials that are biodegradable provide the significant advantage of being able to be broken down and removed after they have served their function. Applications are wide ranging with degradable polymers being used clinically as surgical sutures and implants. To fit functional demand, materials with desired physical, chemical, biological, biomechanical, and degradation properties must be selected. Fortunately, a wide range of natural and synthetic degradable polymers has been investigated for biomedical applications with novel materials constantly being developed to meet new challenges. This review summarizes the most recent advances in the field over the past 4 years, specifically highlighting new and interesting discoveries in tissue engineering and drug delivery applications.

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Topics: Modern medicine (52%)

74 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.EURPOLYMJ.2021.110789
Abstract: During the early nineteens, enhanced concern towards “biodegradable materials” and “green chemistry,” along with the significant advancements in nanotechnology, coerce scientists and scholars to ferret out an alternative biomaterial. Prolonged rummage to the alternate biomaterial leads to the discovery of nanoparticles from cellulose as cellulose nanocrystal composites. Various cellulosic sources yield nano cellulosic derivatives after various pretreatment and extraction procedures, including acid hydrolysis, micro grinding, cryocrushing, electron spinning, and centrifugal spinning. Agricultural resources like cotton, wheat, garlic, ramie, switchgrass, and curaua for cellulose nanocrystal composites extraction of varying properties; hence are applicable for distinct functions. Extraction from agricultural resources adds more profit and advancement in the agricultural sector. Pure cellulose nanocrystal composite possesses a mechanical strength of 7000 MPa, a young modulus of 100–140 GPa, and 250–500 m2/g surface area. The vulnerability of cellulose nanocrystal composites towards moisture due to alcoholic group nullifies by the modification and grafting processes which yield functionalized cellulose nanocrystal composites. Functionalized cellulose nanocrystal composites find applications in various fields, including biomedicine, catalysis, electronics, and laboratories. The review summarises the extraction procedure of cellulose nanocrystal composites from agricultural resources and functionalization methodologies, facilitating cellulose nanocrystal composite's prospective implementation.

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Topics: Cellulose (56%), Nanocrystal (55%)

1 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/25740881.2021.1930048
15 Jun 2021-
Abstract: The structures and components pressed into marine service are exposed to high stresses and impact forces such as wind, wave, and tidal energy. Additionally, they encounter aggressive environmental ...

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Topics: Tidal power (53%)

1 Citations


References
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211 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/ANIE.200902672
23 Aug 2010-Angewandte Chemie
Abstract: Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) is the most used polymer and also the gold standard for stealth polymers in the emerging field of polymer-based drug delivery. The properties that account for the overwhelming use of PEG in biomedical applications are outlined in this Review. The first approved PEGylated products have already been on the market for 20 years. A vast amount of clinical experience has since been gained with this polymer--not only benefits, but possible side effects and complications have also been found. The areas that might need consideration and more intensive and careful examination can be divided into the following categories: hypersensitivity, unexpected changes in pharmacokinetic behavior, toxic side products, and an antagonism arising from the easy degradation of the polymer under mechanical stress as a result of its ether structure and its non-biodegradability, as well as the resulting possible accumulation in the body. These possible side effects will be discussed in this Review and alternative polymers will be evaluated.

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2,412 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/POLB.22259
Abstract: Utilization of polymers as biomaterials has greatly impacted the advancement of modern medicine. Specifically, polymeric biomaterials that are biodegradable provide the significant advantage of being able to be broken down and removed after they have served their function. Applications are wide ranging with degradable polymers being used clinically as surgical sutures and implants. In order to fit functional demand, materials with desired physical, chemical, biological, biomechanical and degradation properties must be selected. Fortunately, a wide range of natural and synthetic degradable polymers has been investigated for biomedical applications with novel materials constantly being developed to meet new challenges. This review summarizes the most recent advances in the field over the past 4 years, specifically highlighting new and interesting discoveries in tissue engineering and drug delivery applications.

... read more

Topics: Modern medicine (52%)

1,430 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0169-409X(02)00226-0
Abstract: The utility of polymeric micelles formed through the multimolecular assembly of block copolymer was comprehensively described as novel core-shell typed colloidal carriers for drug and gene targeting. Particularly, novel approaches for the formation of functionalized poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) layers as hydrophilic outer shell were focused to attain receptor-mediated drug and gene delivery through PEG-conjugated ligands with a minimal non-specific interaction with other proteins. Surface organization of block copolymer micelles with cross-linking core was also described from a standpoint of the preparation of a new functional surface-coating with a unique macromolecular architecture. The micelle-attached surface and the thin hydrogel layer made by layered micelles exhibited nonfouling properties and worked as the reservoir for hydrophobic reagents. Furthermore, the potential utility of multimolecular assembly derived from heterobifunctional PEGs and block copolymers were explored to systematically modify the properties of metal and semiconductor nanostructures by controlling their structure and their surface properties, making them extremely attractive for use in biological and biomedical applications.

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Topics: Drug carrier (53%), Micelle (50%)

1,384 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1039/B915149B
Abstract: In recent years several review articles and books have been published on the use of porphyrin-based compounds in photodynamic therapy (PDT). This critical review is focused on (i) the basic concept of PDT, (ii) advantages of long-wavelength absorbing photosensitizers (PS), (iii) a brief discussion on recent advances in developing PDT agents, and (iv) the various synthetic strategies designed at the Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, for developing highly effective long-wavelength PDT agents and their utility in constructing the conjugates with tumor-imaging and therapeutic potential (Theranostics). The clinical status of certain selected PDT agents is also summarized (205 references).

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1,364 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/CM011039L
Abdelhamid Sayari1, Safia Hamoudi1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The area of periodic mesoporous materials prepared by cooperative assembly in the presence of amphiphile molecules underwent dramatic growth. Among the silica-based materials, many types may be reg...

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Topics: Mesoporous silica (69%), Mesoporous material (64%), Hybrid material (51%) ... read more

784 Citations