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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41416-020-01198-5

Fusobacterium nucleatum confers chemoresistance by modulating autophagy in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

02 Mar 2021-British Journal of Cancer (Nature Publishing Group)-Vol. 124, Iss: 5, pp 963-974
Abstract: Background Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum) is a gut microbe implicated in gastrointestinal tumorigenesis. Predicting the chemotherapeutic response is critical to developing personalised therapeutic strategies for oesophageal cancer patients. The present study investigated the relationship between F. nucleatum and chemotherapeutic resistance in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Methods We examined the relationship between F. nucleatum and chemotherapy response in 120 ESCC resected specimens and 30 pre-treatment biopsy specimens. In vitro studies using ESCC cell lines and co-culture assays further uncovered the mechanism underlying chemotherapeutic resistance. Results ESCC patients with F. nucleatum infection displayed lesser chemotherapeutic response. The infiltration and subsistence of F. nucleatum in the ESCC cells were observed by transmission electron microscopy and laser scanning confocal microscopy. We also observed that F. nucleatum modulates the endogenous LC3 and ATG7 expression, as well as autophagosome formation to induce chemoresistance against 5-FU, CDDP, and Docetaxel. ATG7 knockdown resulted in reversal of F. nucleatum-induced chemoresistance. In addition, immunohistochemical studies confirmed the correlation between F. nucleatum infection and ATG7 expression in 284 ESCC specimens. Conclusions F. nucleatum confers chemoresistance to ESCC cells by modulating autophagy. These findings suggest that targeting F. nucleatum, during chemotherapy, could result in variable therapeutic outcomes for ESCC patients.

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Topics: Fusobacterium nucleatum (62%)
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8 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.TIM.2021.08.007
Bhaskar Kumar1, Bhaskar Kumar2, Stephen Lam1, Stephen Lam2  +6 moreInstitutions (4)
Abstract: The human oesophagus is home to a complex microbial community, the oesophageal microbiome. Despite decades of work, we still have only a poor, low-resolution view of this community, which makes it hard to distinguish hope from hype when it comes to assessing links between the oesophageal microbiome and cancer. Here we review the potential importance of this microbiome and discuss new approaches, including culturomics, metagenomics, and recovery of whole-genome sequences, that bring renewed hope for an in-depth characterisation of this community that could deliver translational impact.

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Topics: Microbiome (58%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/MICROORGANISMS9081764
18 Aug 2021-
Abstract: Esophageal cancer (EC) is an aggressive malignant disease ranking amongst the leading causes of cancer deaths in the world. The two main histologic subtypes, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), have distinct geographic and temporal patterns and risk factor profiles. Despite decades of research, the factors underlying these geo-temporal patterns are still not fully understood. The human microbiome has recently been implicated in various health conditions and disease, and it is possible that the microbiome may play an important role in the etiology of EC. Although studies of the microbiome and EC are still in their early stages, we review our current understanding of the potential links between ESCC, EAC, and bacterial communities in the oral cavity and esophagus. We also provide a summary of the epidemiology of EC and highlight some key challenges and future directions.

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Topics: Oral Microbiome (59%), Microbiome (57%), Human microbiome (54%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41467-021-25202-5
Wei Liu1, Lei Xie1, Yaohui He2, Zhi-Yong Wu3  +20 moreInstitutions (4)
Abstract: Esophageal cancer (EC) is a type of aggressive cancer without clinically relevant molecular subtypes, hindering the development of effective strategies for treatment. To define molecular subtypes of EC, we perform mass spectrometry-based proteomic and phosphoproteomics profiling of EC tumors and adjacent non-tumor tissues, revealing a catalog of proteins and phosphosites that are dysregulated in ECs. The EC cohort is stratified into two molecular subtypes—S1 and S2—based on proteomic analysis, with the S2 subtype characterized by the upregulation of spliceosomal and ribosomal proteins, and being more aggressive. Moreover, we identify a subtype signature composed of ELOA and SCAF4, and construct a subtype diagnostic and prognostic model. Potential drugs are predicted for treating patients of S2 subtype, and three candidate drugs are validated to inhibit EC. Taken together, our proteomic analysis define molecular subtypes of EC, thus providing a potential therapeutic outlook for improving disease outcomes in patients with EC. Proteomics can aid in the identification of molecular subtypes in cancers. Here, the authors perform proteomic profiling of 124 paired oesophageal cancer and adjacent non-tumour tissues and identify two subtypes that are associated with patient survival for therapeutic targeting.

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Topics: Proteomic Profiling (58%), Phosphoproteomics (51%), Proteomics (50%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/DOTE/DOAB076
Abstract: Background The role of esophageal microbiota in esophageal cancer treatment is gaining renewed interest, largely driven by novel DNA-based microbiota analysis techniques. The aim of this systematic review is to provide an overview of current literature on the possible association between esophageal microbiota and outcome of esophageal cancer treatment, including tumor response to (neo)adjuvant chemo(radio)therapy, short-term surgery-related complications, and long-term oncological outcome. Methods A systematic review of literature was performed, bibliographic databases were searched and relevant articles were selected by two independent researchers. The Newcastle-Ottawa scale was used to estimate the quality of included studies. Results The search yielded 1303 articles, after selection and cross-referencing, five articles were included for qualitative synthesis and four studies were considered of good quality. Two articles addressed tumor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and described a correlation between high intratumoral Fusobacterium nucleatum levels and a poor response. One study assessed surgery-related complications, in which no direct association between esophageal microbiota and occurrence of complications was observed. Three studies described a correlation between shortened survival and high levels of intratumoral F. nucleatum, a low abundance of Proteobacteria and high abundances of Prevotella and Streptococcus species. Conclusions Current evidence points towards an association between esophageal microbiota and outcome of esophageal cancer treatment and justifies further research. Whether screening of the individual esophageal microbiota can be used to identify and select patients with a predisposition for adverse outcome needs to be further investigated. This could lead to the development of microbiota-based interventions to optimize esophageal microbiota composition, thereby improving outcome of patients with esophageal cancer.

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Topics: Esophageal cancer (52%)

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41416-021-01583-8
Abstract: Biliary tract cancers, including intra- and extra-hepatic cholangiocarcinoma as well as gallbladder cancer, are associated with poor prognosis and the majority of patients present with advanced-stage, non-resectable disease at diagnosis. Biliary tract cancer may develop through an accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations and can be influenced by microbial exposure. Furthermore, the liver and biliary tract are exposed to the gastrointestinal microbiome through the gut-liver axis. The availability of next-generation sequencing technology has led to an increase in studies investigating the relationship between microbiota and human disease. In particular, the interplay between the microbiome, the tumour micro-environment and response to systemic therapy is a prospering area of interest. Given the poor outcomes for patients with biliary tract cancer, this emerging field of research, through which new biomarkers may be identified, offers potential as a tool for early diagnosis, prognostication or even as a future therapeutic target. This review summarises the available evidence on the microbiome environment in patients with biliary tract cancer, including a discussion around confounding factors, implications for therapy and proposed future directions.

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44 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3322/CAAC.21387
Abstract: Each year, the American Cancer Society estimates the numbers of new cancer cases and deaths that will occur in the United States in the current year and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, and survival. Incidence data were collected by the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program; the National Program of Cancer Registries; and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries. Mortality data were collected by the National Center for Health Statistics. In 2017, 1,688,780 new cancer cases and 600,920 cancer deaths are projected to occur in the United States. For all sites combined, the cancer incidence rate is 20% higher in men than in women, while the cancer death rate is 40% higher. However, sex disparities vary by cancer type. For example, thyroid cancer incidence rates are 3-fold higher in women than in men (21 vs 7 per 100,000 population), despite equivalent death rates (0.5 per 100,000 population), largely reflecting sex differences in the "epidemic of diagnosis." Over the past decade of available data, the overall cancer incidence rate (2004-2013) was stable in women and declined by approximately 2% annually in men, while the cancer death rate (2005-2014) declined by about 1.5% annually in both men and women. From 1991 to 2014, the overall cancer death rate dropped 25%, translating to approximately 2,143,200 fewer cancer deaths than would have been expected if death rates had remained at their peak. Although the cancer death rate was 15% higher in blacks than in whites in 2014, increasing access to care as a result of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act may expedite the narrowing racial gap; from 2010 to 2015, the proportion of blacks who were uninsured halved, from 21% to 11%, as it did for Hispanics (31% to 16%). Gains in coverage for traditionally underserved Americans will facilitate the broader application of existing cancer control knowledge across every segment of the population. CA Cancer J Clin 2017;67:7-30. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

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Topics: Cancer Death Rate (74%), Mortality rate (63%), Cancer (59%) ... show more

12,284 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3322/CAAC.21208
Abstract: Each year, the American Cancer Society estimates the numbers of new cancer cases and deaths that will occur in the United States in the current year and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, and survival. Incidence data were collected by the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries and mortality data were collected by the National Center for Health Statistics. A total of 1,665,540 new cancer cases and 585,720 cancer deaths are projected to occur in the United States in 2014. During the most recent 5 years for which there are data (2006-2010), delay-adjusted cancer incidence rates declined slightly in men (by 0.6% per year) and were stable in women, while cancer death rates decreased by 1.8% per year in men and by 1.4% per year in women. The combined cancer death rate (deaths per 100,000 population) has been continuously declining for 2 decades, from a peak of 215.1 in 1991 to 171.8 in 2010. This 20% decline translates to the avoidance of approximately 1,340,400 cancer deaths (952,700 among men and 387,700 among women) during this time period. The magnitude of the decline in cancer death rates from 1991 to 2010 varies substantially by age, race, and sex, ranging from no decline among white women aged 80 years and older to a 55% decline among black men aged 40 years to 49 years. Notably, black men experienced the largest drop within every 10-year age group. Further progress can be accelerated by applying existing cancer control knowledge across all segments of the population.

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Topics: Cancer Death Rate (65%), Population (54%)

10,396 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1245/S10434-010-0985-4
Abstract: The American Joint Committee on Cancer and the International Union for Cancer Control update the tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) cancer staging system periodically. The most recent revision is the 7th edition, effective for cancers diagnosed on or after January 1, 2010. This editorial summarizes the background of the current revision and outlines the major issues revised. Most notable are the marked increase in the use of international datasets for more highly evidenced-based changes in staging, and the enhanced use of nonanatomic prognostic factors in defining the stage grouping. The future of cancer staging lies in the use of enhanced registry data standards to support personalization of cancer care through cancer outcome prediction models and nomograms.

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Topics: Cancer staging (58%), Cancer (53%)

6,329 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.AAN3706
Bertrand Routy1, Bertrand Routy2, Bertrand Routy3, Lisa Derosa1  +73 moreInstitutions (10)
05 Jan 2018-Science
Abstract: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 axis induce sustained clinical responses in a sizable minority of cancer patients. We found that primary resistance to ICIs can be attributed to abnormal gut microbiome composition. Antibiotics inhibited the clinical benefit of ICIs in patients with advanced cancer. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from cancer patients who responded to ICIs into germ-free or antibiotic-treated mice ameliorated the antitumor effects of PD-1 blockade, whereas FMT from nonresponding patients failed to do so. Metagenomics of patient stool samples at diagnosis revealed correlations between clinical responses to ICIs and the relative abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila Oral supplementation with A. muciniphila after FMT with nonresponder feces restored the efficacy of PD-1 blockade in an interleukin-12-dependent manner by increasing the recruitment of CCR9+CXCR3+CD4+ T lymphocytes into mouse tumor beds.

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Topics: Akkermansia muciniphila (57%)

2,077 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.AAC4255
27 Nov 2015-Science
Abstract: T cell infiltration of solid tumors is associated with favorable patient outcomes, yet the mechanisms underlying variable immune responses between individuals are not well understood. One possible modulator could be the intestinal microbiota. We compared melanoma growth in mice harboring distinct commensal microbiota and observed differences in spontaneous antitumor immunity, which were eliminated upon cohousing or after fecal transfer. Sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA identified Bifidobacterium as associated with the antitumor effects. Oral administration of Bifidobacterium alone improved tumor control to the same degree as programmed cell death protein 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1)–specific antibody therapy (checkpoint blockade), and combination treatment nearly abolished tumor outgrowth. Augmented dendritic cell function leading to enhanced CD8+ T cell priming and accumulation in the tumor microenvironment mediated the effect. Our data suggest that manipulating the microbiota may modulate cancer immunotherapy.

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Topics: Tumor microenvironment (54%), Immune system (54%), Cancer immunotherapy (53%) ... show more

1,785 Citations