# Fuzzy logic based temperature control of thermoelectric cooler (TEC) for single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) application

Abstract: Single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) is a temperature sensitive device. Even a slight variation of temperature can cause unstable performance in quantum efficiency, responsitivity and dark counts. Due to these reasons, unstable temperature could cause overall poor performance of SPAD. It is common for thermoelectric cooler (TEC) to be used as cooling of photodetectors. SPAD was mounted onto the TEC where it needs to be maintained at a constant low temperature under variation of ambient temperature. The system is simulated using Fuzzy Logic Toolbox in MATLAB Simulink. Simulated using P-type fuzzy logic with the set point temperature of −20°C and ambient temperature of 16°C, produce a result of −19.44°C. The P-type fuzzy logic control design has shown a good overall performance where the steady state error is ±0.56°C, which is equivalent to ±2.8% and the settling time for the output simulation, ts, is 35.91s.

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4 citations

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79 citations

### "Fuzzy logic based temperature contr..." refers background or methods in this paper

...2 22 2 ),(),(),( I Ax txTI Ax txTk t txTC ρτγ + ∂ ∂− ∂ ∂= ∂ ∂ (5) C is the average specific heat of the TEC, γ is the average consistency of the TEC, τ is the Thomson coefficient and ρ is the resistance ratio of the TEC....

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...Cooling using TEC consists of an attached cooling load component on the cold side of the TEC, and a heatsink attached on the hot side of the TEC....

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...(26), the transfer function of output cold side temperature to input current to a TEC, modeled from an experiment by [10]: 00855.05964.0 00854.00646.04061.6 )(~ )(~)( 2 ++ +−== ss s sI sTsG LI (32) Fig....

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...For temperature control application, the SPAD, TEC, heatsink, fan and thermocouple requires special design of mounting as in Fig....

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...When there is a temperature difference between the hot side and cold sides of TEC, a voltage is generated called the Seeback Voltage [2]....

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22 citations

### "Fuzzy logic based temperature contr..." refers methods in this paper

...Due to complex and nonlinear mathematical model of TEC, researchers use fuzzy logic, self-adaptive PID and NN-PID to simulate the controller system....

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14 citations

### "Fuzzy logic based temperature contr..." refers methods in this paper

...According to a research done using fuzzy logic [5], with the linearization mathematical model showed that the cold-end temperature can be maintained at the fixed value within ±0.0045˚C irrespective of the variation of the cooling load and the ambient temperature....

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13 citations

### "Fuzzy logic based temperature contr..." refers background in this paper

...1 shows a TEC consist of p-type and n-type semiconductor, usually made of bismuth-telluride material [8]....

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...Meanwhile, the electrons from n-type of the higher energy level go to the lower energy level in the p-type through the interconnecting conductor, thus releasing heat on the hot side [8]....

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...The transfer function of a TEC is highly nonlinear [8-10]....

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...The energy balance gives an equation of [8][9][10]:...

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...Peltier effect is the phenomenon whereby the passage of an electrical current through a junction consisting of two dissimilar semiconductors resulting in a cooling effect [8]....

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12 citations

### Additional excerpts

...Meanwhile, a research using adaptive NN-PID [6] for temperature control of thermoelectric cooler results in response time of 10˚C in 70s with satisfying dynamic and steady performance....

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