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# Fuzzy logic, neural networks, and soft computing

01 Aug 1996-pp 775-782

TL;DR: A simple case in point is the problem of parking a car as discussed by the authors, where the final position of the car is not specified exactly, and if it were specified to within, say, a few millimeters and a fraction of a degree, it would take hours or days of maneuvering and precise measurements of distance and angular position.

Abstract: The past few years have witnessed a rapid growth of interest in a cluster of modes of modeling and computation which may be described collectively as soft computing. The distinguishing characteristic of soft computing is that its primary aims are to achieve tractability, robustness, low cost, and high MIQ (machine intelligence quotient) through an exploitation of the tolerance for imprecision and uncertainty. Thus, in soft computing what is usually sought is an approximate solution to a precisely formulated problem or, more typically, an approximate solution to an imprecisely formulated problem. A simple case in point is the problem of parking a car. Generally, humans can park a car rather easily because the final position of the car is not specified exactly. If it were specified to within, say, a few millimeters and a fraction of a degree, it would take hours or days of maneuvering and precise measurements of distance and angular position to solve the problem. What this simple example points to is the fact that, in general, high precision carries a high cost. The challenge, then, is to exploit the tolerance for imprecision by devising methods of computation which lead to an acceptable solution at low cost. By its nature, soft computing is much closer to human reasoning than the traditional modes of computation. At this juncture, the major components of soft computing are fuzzy logic (FL), neural network theory (NN), and probabilistic reasoning techniques (PR), including genetic algorithms, chaos theory, and part of learning theory. Increasingly, these techniques are used in combination to achieve significant improvement in performance and adaptability. Among the important application areas for soft computing are control systems, expert systems, data compression techniques, image processing, and decision support systems. It may be argued that it is soft computing, rather than the traditional hard computing, that should be viewed as the foundation for artificial intelligence. In the years ahead, this may well become a widely held position.

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TL;DR: M Modes of information granulation (IG) in which the granules are crisp (c-granular) play important roles in a wide variety of methods, approaches and techniques, but this does not reflect the fact that in almost all of human reasoning and concept formation thegranules are fuzzy (f- Granular).

2,624 citations

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TL;DR: What are the common features in the different approaches, the choices that have to be made and what considerations are relevant for a successful system-identification application of these techniques are described, from a user's perspective.

2,031 citations

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01 May 2007TL;DR: A survey on gesture recognition with particular emphasis on hand gestures and facial expressions is provided, and applications involving hidden Markov models, particle filtering and condensation, finite-state machines, optical flow, skin color, and connectionist models are discussed in detail.

Abstract: Gesture recognition pertains to recognizing meaningful expressions of motion by a human, involving the hands, arms, face, head, and/or body. It is of utmost importance in designing an intelligent and efficient human-computer interface. The applications of gesture recognition are manifold, ranging from sign language through medical rehabilitation to virtual reality. In this paper, we provide a survey on gesture recognition with particular emphasis on hand gestures and facial expressions. Applications involving hidden Markov models, particle filtering and condensation, finite-state machines, optical flow, skin color, and connectionist models are discussed in detail. Existing challenges and future research possibilities are also highlighted

1,797 citations

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TL;DR: The computational theory of perceptions (CTP) as mentioned in this paper is a methodology for reasoning and computing with perceptions rather than measurements, where words play the role of labels of perceptions and, more generally, perceptions are expressed as propositions in a natural language.

Abstract: Discusses a methodology for reasoning and computing with perceptions rather than measurements. An outline of such a methodology-referred to as a computational theory of perceptions is presented in this paper. The computational theory of perceptions, or CTP for short, is based on the methodology of CW. In CTP, words play the role of labels of perceptions and, more generally, perceptions are expressed as propositions in a natural language. CW-based techniques are employed to translate propositions expressed in a natural language into what is called the Generalized Constraint Language (GCL). In this language, the meaning of a proposition is expressed as a generalized constraint, N is R, where N is the constrained variable, R is the constraining relation and isr is a variable copula in which r is a variable whose value defines the way in which R constrains S. Among the basic types of constraints are: possibilistic, veristic, probabilistic, random set, Pawlak set, fuzzy graph and usuality. The wide variety of constraints in GCL makes GCL a much more expressive language than the language of predicate logic. In CW, the initial and terminal data sets, IDS and TDS, are assumed to consist of propositions expressed in a natural language. These propositions are translated, respectively, into antecedent and consequent constraints. Consequent constraints are derived from antecedent constraints through the use of rules of constraint propagation. The principal constraint propagation rule is the generalized extension principle. The derived constraints are retranslated into a natural language, yielding the terminal data set (TDS). The rules of constraint propagation in CW coincide with the rules of inference in fuzzy logic. A basic problem in CW is that of explicitation of N, R, and r in a generalized constraint, X is R, which represents the meaning of a proposition, p, in a natural language.

1,453 citations

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01 Jan 2008TL;DR: The general public becomes rapidly jaded with such ‘bold predictions’ that fail to live up to their original hype, and which ultimately render the zealots’ promises as counter-productive.

Abstract: The Artificial Intelligence field continues to be plagued by what can only be described as ‘bold promises for the future syndrome’, often perpetrated by researchers who should know better. While impartial assessment can point to concrete contributions over the past 50 years (such as automated theorem proving, games strategies, the LISP and Prolog high-level computer languages, Automatic Speech Recognition, Natural Language Processing, mobile robot path planning, unmanned vehicles, humanoid robots, data mining, and more), the more cynical argue that AI has witnessed more than its fair share of ‘unmitigated disasters’ during this time – see, for example [3,58,107,125,186]. The general public becomes rapidly jaded with such ‘bold predictions’ that fail to live up to their original hype, and which ultimately render the zealots’ promises as counter-productive.

846 citations

##### References

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01 Jan 1985TL;DR: A mathematical tool to build a fuzzy model of a system where fuzzy implications and reasoning are used is presented and two applications of the method to industrial processes are discussed: a water cleaning process and a converter in a steel-making process.

Abstract: A mathematical tool to build a fuzzy model of a system where fuzzy implications and reasoning are used is presented. The premise of an implication is the description of fuzzy subspace of inputs and its consequence is a linear input-output relation. The method of identification of a system using its input-output data is then shown. Two applications of the method to industrial processes are also discussed: a water cleaning process and a converter in a steel-making process.

18,803 citations

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TL;DR: Much of what constitutes the core of scientific knowledge may be regarded as a reservoir of concepts and techniques which can be drawn upon to construct mathematical models of various types of systems and thereby yield quantitative information concerning their behavior.

12,530 citations

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01 Jan 1973TL;DR: By relying on the use of linguistic variables and fuzzy algorithms, the approach provides an approximate and yet effective means of describing the behavior of systems which are too complex or too ill-defined to admit of precise mathematical analysis.

Abstract: The approach described in this paper represents a substantive departure from the conventional quantitative techniques of system analysis. It has three main distinguishing features: 1) use of so-called ``linguistic'' variables in place of or in addition to numerical variables; 2) characterization of simple relations between variables by fuzzy conditional statements; and 3) characterization of complex relations by fuzzy algorithms. A linguistic variable is defined as a variable whose values are sentences in a natural or artificial language. Thus, if tall, not tall, very tall, very very tall, etc. are values of height, then height is a linguistic variable. Fuzzy conditional statements are expressions of the form IF A THEN B, where A and B have fuzzy meaning, e.g., IF x is small THEN y is large, where small and large are viewed as labels of fuzzy sets. A fuzzy algorithm is an ordered sequence of instructions which may contain fuzzy assignment and conditional statements, e.g., x = very small, IF x is small THEN Y is large. The execution of such instructions is governed by the compositional rule of inference and the rule of the preponderant alternative. By relying on the use of linguistic variables and fuzzy algorithms, the approach provides an approximate and yet effective means of describing the behavior of systems which are too complex or too ill-defined to admit of precise mathematical analysis.

8,547 citations

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01 Jan 1991

TL;DR: This book is a detailed, logically-developed treatment that covers the theory and uses of collective computational networks, including associative memory, feed forward networks, and unsupervised learning.

Abstract: From the Publisher:
This book is a comprehensive introduction to the neural network models currently under intensive study for computational applications. It is a detailed, logically-developed treatment that covers the theory and uses of collective computational networks, including associative memory, feed forward networks, and unsupervised learning. It also provides coverage of neural network applications in a variety of problems of both theoretical and practical interest.

7,518 citations

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01 Jan 1970TL;DR: A reverse-flow technique is described for the solution of a functional equation arising in connection with a decision process in which the termination time is defined implicitly by the condition that the process stops when the system under control enters a specified set of states in its state space.

Abstract: By decision-making in a fuzzy environment is meant a decision process in which the goals and/or the constraints, but not necessarily the system under control, are fuzzy in nature. This means that the goals and/or the constraints constitute classes of alternatives whose boundaries are not sharply defined.
An example of a fuzzy constraint is: “The cost of A should not be substantially higher than α,” where α is a specified constant. Similarly, an example of a fuzzy goal is: “x should be in the vicinity of x0,” where x0 is a constant. The italicized words are the sources of fuzziness in these examples.
Fuzzy goals and fuzzy constraints can be defined precisely as fuzzy sets in the space of alternatives. A fuzzy decision, then, may be viewed as an intersection of the given goals and constraints. A maximizing decision is defined as a point in the space of alternatives at which the membership function of a fuzzy decision attains its maximum value.
The use of these concepts is illustrated by examples involving multistage decision processes in which the system under control is either deterministic or stochastic. By using dynamic programming, the determination of a maximizing decision is reduced to the solution of a system of functional equations. A reverse-flow technique is described for the solution of a functional equation arising in connection with a decision process in which the termination time is defined implicitly by the condition that the process stops when the system under control enters a specified set of states in its state space.

6,919 citations