# Gain enhancement methods for printed circuit antennas

01 Nov 1984-Vol. 85, pp 21517

TL;DR: In this article, a substrate-superstrate printed antenna geometry which allows for large antenna gain is presented, asymptotic formulas for gain, beamwidth, and bandwidth are given, and the bandwidth limitation of the method is discussed.

Abstract: Resonance conditions for a substrate-superstrate printed antenna geometry which allow for large antenna gain are presented. Asymptotic formulas for gain, beamwidth, and bandwidth are given, and the bandwidth limitation of the method is discussed. The method is extended to produce narrow patterns about the horizon, and directive patterns at two different angles.

##### Citations

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TL;DR: This paper gives a basic review and a summary of recent developments for leaky-wave antennas (LWAs), a guiding structure that supports wave propagation along the length of the structure, with the wave radiating or “leaking” continuously along the structure.

Abstract: This paper gives a basic review and a summary of recent developments for leaky-wave antennas (LWAs). An LWA uses a guiding structure that supports wave propagation along the length of the structure, with the wave radiating or “leaking” continuously along the structure. Such antennas may be uniform, quasi-uniform, or periodic. After reviewing the basic physics and operating principles, a summary of some recent advances for these types of structures is given. Recent advances include structures that can scan to endfire, structures that can scan through broadside, structures that are conformal to surfaces, and structures that incorporate power recycling or include active elements. Some of these novel structures are inspired by recent advances in the metamaterials area.

988 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a ray analysis is employed in order to give physical insight into the performance of AMCs and derive design guidelines, and the bandwidth and center frequency of AMC surfaces are investigated using full-wave analysis and the qualitative predictions of the ray model are validated.

Abstract: Planar periodic metallic arrays behave as artificial magnetic conductor (AMC) surfaces when placed on a grounded dielectric substrate and they introduce a zero degrees reflection phase shift to incident waves. In this paper the AMC operation of single-layer arrays without vias is studied using a resonant cavity model and a new application to high-gain printed antennas is presented. A ray analysis is employed in order to give physical insight into the performance of AMCs and derive design guidelines. The bandwidth and center frequency of AMC surfaces are investigated using full-wave analysis and the qualitative predictions of the ray model are validated. Planar AMC surfaces are used for the first time as the ground plane in a high-gain microstrip patch antenna with a partially reflective surface as superstrate. A significant reduction of the antenna profile is achieved. A ray theory approach is employed in order to describe the functioning of the antenna and to predict the existence of quarter wavelength resonant cavities.

907 citations

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[...]

TL;DR: In this paper, an introduction history classification of leaky wave antennas is presented, along with a detailed discussion of the physics of Leaky Waves Radiation properties of one-dimensional and two-dimensional Leaky wave antenna.

Abstract: This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction History Classification of Leaky‐Wave Antennas Physics of Leaky Waves Radiation Properties of One‐Dimensional Leaky‐Wave Antennas Radiation Properties of Two‐Dimensional Leaky‐Wave Antennas Conclusions Acknowledgment References

792 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors proposed a reactive impedance surface (RIS) as a substrate for planar antennas that can miniaturize the size and significantly enhance both the bandwidth and the radiation characteristics of an antenna.

Abstract: The concept of a novel reactive impedance surface (RIS) as a substrate for planar antennas, that can miniaturize the size and significantly enhance both the bandwidth and the radiation characteristics of an antenna is introduced. Using the exact image formulation for the fields of elementary sources above impedance surfaces, it is shown that a purely reactive impedance plane with a specific surface reactance can minimize the interaction between the elementary source and its image in the RIS substrate. An RIS can be tuned anywhere between perfectly electric and magnetic conductor (PEC and PMC) surfaces offering a property to achieve the optimal bandwidth and miniaturization factor. It is demonstrated that RIS can provide performance superior to PMC when used as substrate for antennas. The RIS substrate is designed utilizing two-dimensional periodic printed metallic patches on a metal-backed high dielectric material. A simplified circuit model describing the physical phenomenon of the periodic surface is developed for simple analysis and design of the RIS substrate. Also a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) full-wave analysis in conjunction with periodic boundary conditions and perfectly matched layer walls is applied to provide comprehensive study and analysis of complex antennas on such substrates. Examples of different planar antennas including dipole and patch antennas on RIS are considered, and their characteristics are compared with those obtained from the same antennas over PEC and PMC. The simulations compare very well with measured results obtained from a prototype /spl lambda//10 miniaturized patch antenna fabricated on an RIS substrate. This antenna shows measured relative bandwidth, gain, and radiation efficiency of BW=6.7, G=4.5 dBi, and e/sub r/=90, respectively, which constitutes the highest bandwidth, gain, and efficiency for such a small size thin planar antenna.

653 citations

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01 Nov 1992TL;DR: A comprehensive review of integrated circuit antennas suitable for millimeter and terahertz applications is presented in this paper, where several antennas, such as the integrated horn antenna, the dielectric-filled parabola, the Fresnel plate antenna, dual-slot antenna, and the log-periodic and spiral antennas on extended hemispherical lenses, which have resulted in excellent performance at millimeter-wave frequencies, are covered in detail.

Abstract: A comprehensive review of integrated circuit antennas suitable for millimeter and terahertz applications is presented. A great deal of research was done on integrated circuit antennas in the last decade, and many of the problems associated with electrically thick dielectric substrates, such as substrate modes and poor radiation patterns, have been understood and solved. Several antennas, such as the integrated horn antenna, the dielectric-filled parabola, the Fresnel plate antenna, the dual-slot antenna, and the log-periodic and spiral antennas on extended hemispherical lenses, which have resulted in excellent performance at millimeter-wave frequencies, are covered in detail. A review of the efficiency definitions used with planar antennas is included. >

422 citations

##### References

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TL;DR: A survey of microstrip antenna elements is presented, with emphasis on theoretical and practical design techniques, and critical needs for further research and development for this antenna are identified.

Abstract: A survey of microstrip antenna elements is presented, with emphasis on theoretical and practical design techniques. Available substrate materials are reviewed along with the relation between dielectric constant tolerance and resonant frequency of microstrip patches. Several theoretical analysis techniques are summarized, including transmission-line and modal-expansion (cavity) techniques as well as numerical methods such as the method of moments and finite-element techniques. Practical procedures are given for both standard rectangular and circular patches, as well as variations on those designs including circularly polarized microstrip patches. The quality, bandwidth, and efficiency factors of typical patch designs are discussed. Microstrip dipole and conformal antennas are summarized. Finally, critical needs for further research and development for this antenna are identified.

1,598 citations

••

[...]

TL;DR: This paper gives a basic review and a summary of recent developments for leaky-wave antennas (LWAs), a guiding structure that supports wave propagation along the length of the structure, with the wave radiating or “leaking” continuously along the structure.

Abstract: This paper gives a basic review and a summary of recent developments for leaky-wave antennas (LWAs). An LWA uses a guiding structure that supports wave propagation along the length of the structure, with the wave radiating or “leaking” continuously along the structure. Such antennas may be uniform, quasi-uniform, or periodic. After reviewing the basic physics and operating principles, a summary of some recent advances for these types of structures is given. Recent advances include structures that can scan to endfire, structures that can scan through broadside, structures that are conformal to surfaces, and structures that incorporate power recycling or include active elements. Some of these novel structures are inspired by recent advances in the metamaterials area.

988 citations

••

TL;DR: In this article, a ray analysis is employed in order to give physical insight into the performance of AMCs and derive design guidelines, and the bandwidth and center frequency of AMC surfaces are investigated using full-wave analysis and the qualitative predictions of the ray model are validated.

Abstract: Planar periodic metallic arrays behave as artificial magnetic conductor (AMC) surfaces when placed on a grounded dielectric substrate and they introduce a zero degrees reflection phase shift to incident waves. In this paper the AMC operation of single-layer arrays without vias is studied using a resonant cavity model and a new application to high-gain printed antennas is presented. A ray analysis is employed in order to give physical insight into the performance of AMCs and derive design guidelines. The bandwidth and center frequency of AMC surfaces are investigated using full-wave analysis and the qualitative predictions of the ray model are validated. Planar AMC surfaces are used for the first time as the ground plane in a high-gain microstrip patch antenna with a partially reflective surface as superstrate. A significant reduction of the antenna profile is achieved. A ray theory approach is employed in order to describe the functioning of the antenna and to predict the existence of quarter wavelength resonant cavities.

907 citations

••

[...]

TL;DR: In this paper, an introduction history classification of leaky wave antennas is presented, along with a detailed discussion of the physics of Leaky Waves Radiation properties of one-dimensional and two-dimensional Leaky wave antenna.

Abstract: This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction History Classification of Leaky‐Wave Antennas Physics of Leaky Waves Radiation Properties of One‐Dimensional Leaky‐Wave Antennas Radiation Properties of Two‐Dimensional Leaky‐Wave Antennas Conclusions Acknowledgment References

792 citations

••

TL;DR: In this article, the authors proposed a reactive impedance surface (RIS) as a substrate for planar antennas that can miniaturize the size and significantly enhance both the bandwidth and the radiation characteristics of an antenna.

Abstract: The concept of a novel reactive impedance surface (RIS) as a substrate for planar antennas, that can miniaturize the size and significantly enhance both the bandwidth and the radiation characteristics of an antenna is introduced. Using the exact image formulation for the fields of elementary sources above impedance surfaces, it is shown that a purely reactive impedance plane with a specific surface reactance can minimize the interaction between the elementary source and its image in the RIS substrate. An RIS can be tuned anywhere between perfectly electric and magnetic conductor (PEC and PMC) surfaces offering a property to achieve the optimal bandwidth and miniaturization factor. It is demonstrated that RIS can provide performance superior to PMC when used as substrate for antennas. The RIS substrate is designed utilizing two-dimensional periodic printed metallic patches on a metal-backed high dielectric material. A simplified circuit model describing the physical phenomenon of the periodic surface is developed for simple analysis and design of the RIS substrate. Also a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) full-wave analysis in conjunction with periodic boundary conditions and perfectly matched layer walls is applied to provide comprehensive study and analysis of complex antennas on such substrates. Examples of different planar antennas including dipole and patch antennas on RIS are considered, and their characteristics are compared with those obtained from the same antennas over PEC and PMC. The simulations compare very well with measured results obtained from a prototype /spl lambda//10 miniaturized patch antenna fabricated on an RIS substrate. This antenna shows measured relative bandwidth, gain, and radiation efficiency of BW=6.7, G=4.5 dBi, and e/sub r/=90, respectively, which constitutes the highest bandwidth, gain, and efficiency for such a small size thin planar antenna.

653 citations