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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/MNRAS/STAB304

Galactic potential constraints from clustering in action space of combined stellar stream data

02 Mar 2021-Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (Oxford University Press)-Vol. 502, Iss: 3, pp 4170-4193
Abstract: Stream stars removed by tides from their progenitor satellite galaxy or globular cluster act as a group of test particles on neighbouring orbits, probing the gravitational field of the Milky Way. While constraints from individual streams have been shown to be susceptible to biases, combining several streams from orbits with various distances reduces these biases. We fit a common gravitational potential to multiple stellar streams simultaneously by maximizing the clustering of the stream stars in action space. We apply this technique to members of the GD-1, Palomar 5 (Pal 5), Orphan, and Helmi streams, exploiting both the individual and combined data sets. We describe the Galactic potential with a Stackel model, and vary up to five parameters simultaneously. We find that we can only constrain the enclosed mass, and that the strongest constraints come from the GD-1, Pal 5, and Orphan streams whose combined data set yields $M(\lt 20\, \mathrm{kpc}) = 2.96^{+0.25}_{-0.26} \times 10^{11} \, \mathrm{ M}_{\odot}$ . When including the Helmi stream in the data set, the mass uncertainty increases to $M(\lt 20\, \mathrm{kpc}) = 3.12^{+3.21}_{-0.46} \times 10^{11} \, \mathrm{M}_{\odot}$ .

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14 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1086/117470
Abstract: We examine the outer structure of 12 Galactic globular clusters using star-count analyses. Deep, two-color, photographic photometry is used to select and count stars with colors and magnitudes consistent with cluster-specific, color-magnitude sequences. The resulting reduction in the number of contaminating foreground stars allows us to push the star counts to significantly lower surface densities than has previously been possible. We find that most of our sample clusters show extra-tidal wings in their surface density profiles. The form of the surface density profiles is consistent with recent numerical studies of the tidal stripping of globular clusters. Two-dimensional surface density maps for several clusters are consistent with the expected appearance of tidal tails, with allowance for the effects of orbit shape, orbital phase, and orientation of our line of sight. We identify the extra-tidal material with stars which are still in the process of being removed from the clusters. The extra-tidal stars effectively limit the accuracy to which we can resolve the ``tidal'' radii of globular clusters. However, by tracing the orbital paths of their parent clusters, these stars may also facilitate a renewed attack on the problem of determining globular cluster orbits and the shape of the Galactic potential field.

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Topics: Star cluster (65%), Blue straggler (64%), Horizontal branch (63%) ... read more

164 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/AC0B44
Abstract: Indications of disequilibrium throughout the Milky Way (MW) highlight the need for compact,flexible, non-parametric descriptions of phase--space distributions of galaxies. We present a new representation of the current Dark Matter (DM) distribution and potential derived from N-body simulations of the Milky Way and Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) system using Basis Function Expansions (BFEs). We incorporate methods to maximize the physical signal in the representation. As a result, the simulations of $10^8$ DM particles representing the MW--LMC system can be described by 354 coefficients. We find that the LMC induces asymmetric perturbations (odd l, m) to the MW's halo, which are not well-described by oblate, prolate, or triaxial halos. Furthermore, the energy in high-order even modes (l,m $\geq$ 2) is similar to average triaxial halos found in cosmological simulations. As such, the response of the MW's halo to the LMC must be accounted for in order to recover the imprints of its assembly history. The LMC causes the outer halo ($\geq$ 30 kpc) to shift from the disk center of mass (COM) by $\sim$15-25 kpc at present day, manifesting as a dipole in the BFE and in the radial velocities of halo stars. The shift depends on the LMC's infall mass, the distortion of the LMC's halo and the MW halo response. Within 30 kpc, halo tracers are expected to orbit the COM of the MW's disk, regardless of LMC infall mass. The LMC's halo is also distorted by MW tides, we discuss the implications for its mass loss and the subsequent effects on current Magellanic satellites.

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Topics: Dark matter halo (64%), Halo (60%), Large Magellanic Cloud (59%) ... read more

17 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/ABEAA9
Ana Bonaca1, Rohan P. Naidu1, Charlie Conroy1, Nelson Caldwell1  +8 moreInstitutions (4)
Abstract: The origins of most stellar streams in the Milky Way are unknown. With improved proper motions provided by Gaia EDR3, we show that the orbits of 23 Galactic stellar streams are highly clustered in orbital phase space. Based on their energies and angular momenta, most streams in our sample can plausibly be associated with a specific (disrupted) dwarf galaxy host that brought them into the Milky Way. For eight streams we also identify likely globular cluster progenitors (four of these associations are reported here for the first time). Some of these stream progenitors are surprisingly far apart, displaced from their tidal debris by a few to tens of degrees. We identify stellar streams that appear spatially distinct, but whose similar orbits indicate they likely originate from the same progenitor. If confirmed as physical discontinuities, they will provide strong constraints on the mass-loss from the progenitor. The nearly universal ex-situ origin of existing stellar streams makes them valuable tracers of galaxy mergers and dynamical friction within the Galactic halo. Their phase-space clustering can be leveraged to construct a precise global map of dark matter in the Milky Way, while their internal structure may hold clues to the small-scale structure of dark matter in their original host galaxies.

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Topics: Dwarf galaxy (60%), Galaxy (59%), Milky Way (59%) ... read more

11 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/ABEAA9
Ana Bonaca1, Rohan P. Naidu1, Charlie Conroy1, Nelson Caldwell1  +8 moreInstitutions (4)
Abstract: The origins of most stellar streams in the Milky Way are unknown. With improved proper motions provided by Gaia EDR3, we show that the orbits of 23 Galactic stellar streams are highly clustered in orbital phase space. Based on their energies and angular momenta, most streams in our sample can plausibly be associated with a specific (disrupted) dwarf galaxy host that brought them into the Milky Way. For eight streams we also identify likely globular cluster progenitors (four of these associations are reported here for the first time). Some of these stream progenitors are surprisingly far apart, displaced from their tidal debris by a few to tens of degrees. We identify stellar streams that appear spatially distinct, but whose similar orbits indicate they likely originate from the same progenitor. If confirmed as physical discontinuities, they will provide strong constraints on the mass-loss from the progenitor. The nearly universal ex-situ origin of existing stellar streams makes them valuable tracers of galaxy mergers and dynamical friction within the Galactic halo. Their phase-space clustering can be leveraged to construct a precise global map of dark matter in the Milky Way, while their internal structure may hold clues to the small-scale structure of dark matter in their original host galaxies.

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Topics: Dwarf galaxy (60%), Galaxy (59%), Milky Way (59%) ... read more

8 Citations


Open accessJournal Article
Abstract: We perform a search for stellar streams around the Milky Way using the first 3 yr of multiband optical imaging data from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We use DES data covering ∼5000 deg2 to a depth of g>23.5 with a relative photometric calibration uncertainty of <1%. This data set yields unprecedented sensitivity to the stellar density field in the southern celestial hemisphere, enabling the detection of faint stellar streams to a heliocentric distance of ∼50 kpc. We search for stellar streams using a matched filter in color–magnitude space derived from a synthetic isochrone of an old, metal-poor stellar population. Our detection technique recovers four previously known thin stellar streams: Phoenix, ATLAS, Tucana III, and a possible extension of Molonglo. In addition, we report the discovery of 11 new stellar streams. In general, the new streams detected by DES are fainter, more distant, and lower surface brightness than streams detected by similar techniques in previous photometric surveys. As a by-product of our stellar stream search, we find evidence for extratidal stellar structure associated with four globular clusters: NGC 288, NGC 1261, NGC 1851, and NGC 1904. The ever-growing sample of stellar streams will provide insight into the formation of the Galactic stellar halo, the Milky Way gravitational potential, and the large- and small-scale distribution of dark matter around the Milky Way.

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Topics: Dark energy (53%)

5 Citations


References
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136 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/TAC.1974.1100705
Abstract: The history of the development of statistical hypothesis testing in time series analysis is reviewed briefly and it is pointed out that the hypothesis testing procedure is not adequately defined as the procedure for statistical model identification. The classical maximum likelihood estimation procedure is reviewed and a new estimate minimum information theoretical criterion (AIC) estimate (MAICE) which is designed for the purpose of statistical identification is introduced. When there are several competing models the MAICE is defined by the model and the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters which give the minimum of AIC defined by AIC = (-2)log-(maximum likelihood) + 2(number of independently adjusted parameters within the model). MAICE provides a versatile procedure for statistical model identification which is free from the ambiguities inherent in the application of conventional hypothesis testing procedure. The practical utility of MAICE in time series analysis is demonstrated with some numerical examples.

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Topics: Likelihood function (61%), Akaike information criterion (61%), Statistical model (60%) ... read more

42,619 Citations


Open accessBook
01 Jan 1951-

10,662 Citations


Open accessBook
01 Jan 1959-
Topics: Joint entropy (81%), Information diagram (80%), Rényi entropy (79%) ... read more

7,226 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201833051
Abstract: Context. We present the second Gaia data release, Gaia DR2, consisting of astrometry, photometry, radial velocities, and information on astrophysical parameters and variability, for sources brighter than magnitude 21. In addition epoch astrometry and photometry are provided for a modest sample of minor planets in the solar system. Aims: A summary of the contents of Gaia DR2 is presented, accompanied by a discussion on the differences with respect to Gaia DR1 and an overview of the main limitations which are still present in the survey. Recommendations are made on the responsible use of Gaia DR2 results. Methods: The raw data collected with the Gaia instruments during the first 22 months of the mission have been processed by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) and turned into this second data release, which represents a major advance with respect to Gaia DR1 in terms of completeness, performance, and richness of the data products. Results: Gaia DR2 contains celestial positions and the apparent brightness in G for approximately 1.7 billion sources. For 1.3 billion of those sources, parallaxes and proper motions are in addition available. The sample of sources for which variability information is provided is expanded to 0.5 million stars. This data release contains four new elements: broad-band colour information in the form of the apparent brightness in the GBP (330-680 nm) and GRP (630-1050 nm) bands is available for 1.4 billion sources; median radial velocities for some 7 million sources are presented; for between 77 and 161 million sources estimates are provided of the stellar effective temperature, extinction, reddening, and radius and luminosity; and for a pre-selected list of 14 000 minor planets in the solar system epoch astrometry and photometry are presented. Finally, Gaia DR2 also represents a new materialisation of the celestial reference frame in the optical, the Gaia-CRF2, which is the first optical reference frame based solely on extragalactic sources. There are notable changes in the photometric system and the catalogue source list with respect to Gaia DR1, and we stress the need to consider the two data releases as independent. Conclusions: Gaia DR2 represents a major achievement for the Gaia mission, delivering on the long standing promise to provide parallaxes and proper motions for over 1 billion stars, and representing a first step in the availability of complementary radial velocity and source astrophysical information for a sample of stars in the Gaia survey which covers a very substantial fraction of the volume of our galaxy.

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Topics: Astrometry (56%)

7,024 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1086/118116
Abstract: A database of parameters for globular star clusters in the Milky Way is described which is available in electronic form through the WorldWideWeb. The information in the catalog includes up-to-date measurements for cluster distance, reddening, luminosity, colors and spectral types, velocity, structural and dynamical parameters, horizontal branch morphology, metallicity, and other quantities. This catalog will be updated regularly and maintained in electronic form for widest possible accessibility. Associated Articles Source Paper Catalog Description Catalog Description

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Topics: Globular cluster (57%), Horizontal branch (57%), Star cluster (57%) ... read more

4,560 Citations


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Metrics
No. of citations received by the Paper in previous years
YearCitations
20217
20204
20181
20141
19951