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Journal ArticleDOI

Galling insects are bioindicators of environmental quality in a Conservation Unit

01 Dec 2014-Acta Botanica Brasilica (Sociedade Botânica do Brasil)-Vol. 28, Iss: 4, pp 594-608

TL;DR: The diversity of galls at Parque Estadual Serra Verde reflects an area with high levels of stress but with moderate botanical diversity, which can support the status of conservation of an area as an urban park, once inventories are presented.

AbstractGalls are well distributed across the World and among plant families. Their diversity can support the status of conservation of an area as an urban park, once inventories are presented. These inventories also help to understand the morphological patterns of the galls, based on their most common shape, color, host botanical families, inducers and galled organs. This study is about an inventory of galls at Parque Estadual Serra Verde, Brazil. This conservation unit is an urban park strongly anthropized in a transition area of Cerrado and Mata Atlântica. Galls from four different trails were observed, and collected monthly during one year. The terminology morphospecies was used to distinguish the galls because the identification of the inducers were not always possible. Seventy five morphospecies of galls belonging to 43 host plant species of 24 botanical families were observed. Mostly of the galls was induced by Diptera:Cecidomyiidae, in Fabaceae and Myrtaceae. The most common traits were the globoid shape and green color. The leaves were the most frequent galled organ and followed by the stems. All these tendencies had been already observed in other inventories. Comparing current results with other studies at similar areas, we can assume that the Parque Estadual Serra Verde is very important for conservation. Urban green areas are subject to high disturbance and degradation but also increase the quality of life for the population inhabiting the areas nearby. The diversity of galls at Parque Estadual Serra Verde reflects an area with high levels of stress but with moderate botanical diversity. These features make this protected area an important site for the continuous conservation and regeneration, and highlight the environmental value of Parque Estadual Serra Verde.

Topics: Population (52%)

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The animal-induced galls have a striking anatomical diversity, concerning several patterns, which were reunited herein, and culminates in extant gall structural diversity.
Abstract: Galls are neoformed structures induced by specific animals, fungi, bacteria, virus or some parasitic plants on their host plant organs. Developmental processes are well known in Agrobacterium tumefasciens galls, but the animal-induced galls have a striking anatomical diversity, concerning several patterns, which were reunited herein. Anatomical traits observed in animal-induced galls involve manipulation of plant morphogenesis in convergent ways. Nematode, mite and insect galls usually contain homogeneous storage parenchyma and develop due to hyperplasia and cell hypertrophy. The development of typical nutritive tissues, giant cells, or hypertrophied vascular bundles may occur. Some other anatomical features may be usually restricted to galls induced by specific taxa, but they may eventually be related to the developmental potentialities of the host plants. The combination of distinct morphogenetic peculiarities in each gall system culminates in extant gall structural diversity. Convergent anatomical traits are observed according to the feeding mode of the gall inducers, representing potentiation or inhibition of similar events of host plant morphogenesis and cell redifferentiation, independent of gall-inducing taxa.

20 citations


Additional excerpts

  • ...…psylloids, lepidopterans, hymenopterans, and cecidomyiids (Raman & Ananthakrishnan, 1983; Inbar et al., 1995; Nyman et al., 2000; Souza et al., 2000; Arduin et al., 2005; Rancic et al., 2006; Álvarez et al., 2009, 2016; Magalhães et al., 2014; Portugal-Santana & Isaias, 2014; Bedetti et al., 2013)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Feb 2017-Flora
TL;DR: Such long-distance effects indicate that D. gallaeformans is a peculiar colonial parasite, which may compensate the damages of gall inducing mechanisms by favoring, at least partially, its host plant fitness.
Abstract: The majority of gall-inducing nematodes lives in the soil, and induces galls on roots. Nevertheless, some nematodes are able to climb up the stems and induce galls on aerial plant organs. This is the case of Ditylenchus gallaeformans (Oliveira et al., 2013), which induces galls on the inflorescences of Miconia albicans (Sw.) Steud. (1841) and Miconia ibaguensis (Bonpl.) Triana (1871) (Melastomataceae). Under the influence of D. gallaeformans, the flowers of M. albicans and M. ibaguensis do not differentiate in situ. Instead of flowers, the axes of the galled inflorescences are surrounded by emergences with nutritive tissues lining the larval chambers. The nutritive tissues are meristem-like, but distinct from other galls, they have a promeristematic capability. In other words, the nutritive tissues of these galls have totipotent cells, originating new covering emergences with dermal, ground and vascular tissues. Therefore, these galls have an indeterminate growth, which is a novelty for galls in general. Additionally, D. gallaeformans induces a long-distance impact on fruits, which have increased number of carpels. Such long-distance effects indicate that D. gallaeformans is a peculiar colonial parasite, which may compensate the damages of gall inducing mechanisms by favoring, at least partially, its host plant fitness. The number of carpels is a conservative character in most plant species, and the promeristems are maintained only in apical and lateral buds of normal plants. However, D. gallaeformans is capable of manipulating these conservative features in its host plants, and the signaling factors involved in these interactions deserves special attention.

15 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
13 Mar 2019
TL;DR: The first register of Bauhinia holophylla as host plants of Cecidomyiidae is presented, and the occurrence of Rochadiplosis tibouchinae Tavares and Couridiplosis vena is expanded to São Paulo State.
Abstract: Herein, we studied the occurrence of insect galls from natural vegetation around the Itambe Cave, Altinopolis, SP, Brazil. A sampling effort of 7.5 hours resulted in 41 gall morphotypes on 21 host plant species from 14 families. The richest families of host plants in morphotypes were Fabaceae (N = 11), Euphorbiaceae (N = 7), and Malpighiaceae (N = 5). Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. (N = 8), Croton floribundus Spreng. (N = 7), Diplopterys pubipetala (A. Juss.) W.R. Anderson & C.C. Davis (N = 5), and Bauhinia holophylla (Bong.) Steud. (N = 4) were the super host plant species. Among the gall makers obtained, cecidomyiids were reared in 81% of cases and Hemiptera (Diaspididae), Hymenoptera (Eurytomidae), Coleoptera (Apion sp./Apionidae), and Lepidoptera in 4.5% of cases, each. The parasitoids belong to the Chalcidoidea superfamily (Hymenoptera). One new species of Camptoneuromyiia (Cecidomyiidae) was found in Smilax oblongifolia Pohl ex Griseb. (Smilacaceae) as inquiline and a new species of Lestodiplosis in Diplopterys pubipetala (Malpighiaceae) was a predator. We also present the first register of Bauhinia holophylla as host plants of Cecidomyiidae, and we expand the occurrence of Rochadiplosis tibouchinae Tavares and Couridiplosis vena to Sao Paulo State. The results of this paper are a continuation of the description of gall morphotypes from the vegetation in Northeastern Sao Paulo State, and they also increase knowledge about the diversity of host plant and gall-maker associations in the Neotropical region.

9 citations


Cites result from "Galling insects are bioindicators o..."

  • ...Our results indicated that the richer the host family, the richer their gall morphotypes, corroborating data previously obtained in the Neotropical region (Gagné, 1994; Araújo, 2011; Santana & Isaias, 2014)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Despite the environmental stresses, the xeric features of the dunes of the ASP, and the high local plant diversity, the diversity of galling herbivores were low and the environmental effect seems to be neutral, either for the host plants or for the generation of gall morphotypes.
Abstract: The Atlantic Coast Restinga is a mosaic of plant communities with a distinct floristic and phytophysi- ognomy, exposed to luminous, thermal, and saline stresses. Plants of the restinga must have special features commonly associated to xeric environments, and are expected to host a high diversity of galling herbivores. We studied gall morphotypes, and recorded the diversity of galls on plants growing in sand dunes in a remnant area of restinga (Acarai State Park) in Sao Francisco do Sul, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. The sampling was done in four plots (250 x 5 m), constituting a total area of 5 000 m², during April, May and June. Plant branches (n ≥ 5) with galls were sampled, identified, and the galls were photographed. The galls were classified into eight morphotypes, associated to eight host plants constituting 15 host plants - galling herbivores systems. The identification of the gall - inducers was based on literature, and on the species-specific feature of this kind of host plant-gall inducers interaction. There was a predominance of leaf galls, green in color. The most common morphotypes were the globoid, lenticular, conical, rosette, marginal, and fusiform galls, similarly to the inven- tories performed on other Brazilian biomes. Despite the environmental stresses, the xeric features of the dunes of the ASP, and the high local plant diversity, the diversity of galling herbivores were low. Varronia curassavica (Boraginaceae), Smilax campestris (Smilacaceae), and Guapira opposita (Nyctaginaceae) were superhosts of galling herbivores in the dunes, with about 70 % of the total associated parasites. The environmental effect seems to be neutral, either for the host plants or for the generation of gall morphotypes. Alternatively, the scarce nutritional resources could be restrictive for the establishment of the galling herbivores inside plant tissues. Rev. Biol. Trop. 63 (4): 959-970. Epub 2015 December 01.

9 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: First records and morphological characterization of galls in a Cerrado area in western Bahia, Brazil are reported and species of microhymenoptera belonging to the Eulophidae, Eurytomidae and Encyrtidae families were found.
Abstract: In this study, we report the first records and morphological characterization of galls in a Cerrado area in western Bahia, Brazil. The data were collected monthly over two hours between March and September 2015. Fifteen gall morphotypes were found in twelve plant species distributed among seven families. The plant family with the greatest richness of galls was Fabaceae (n = 8). The following gall morphologies were found: globoid, lenticular, marginal leaf roll, conical, cylindrical, fusiform, spherical and pocket shaped. Cecidomyiidae induced globoid, lenticular, conical, fusiform, spherical and cylindrical morphotypes. In addition, species of microhymenoptera belonging to the Eulophidae, Eurytomidae and Encyrtidae families were found. Marginal leaf roll and pocket-shaped galls induced by Thysanoptera were also verified. Springtails were also identified as a successor. Undescribed species of Schizomyia and Lopesia were recorded in B. cupulata and Andira humilis, respectively.

8 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
16 Sep 1988-Science
TL;DR: Current answers to the factual question posed in the title are surveyed and the kinds of information that are needed to make these answers more precise are reviewed.
Abstract: This article surveys current answers to the factual question posed in the title and reviews the kinds of information that are needed to make these answers more precise. Various factors affecting diversity are also reviewed. These include the structure of food webs, the relative abundance of species, the number of species and of individuals in different categories of body size, along with other determinants of the commonness and rarity of organisms.

1,080 citations


"Galling insects are bioindicators o..." refers background or result in this paper

  • ...This data corroborates most of the inventories on the diversity and richness of galls (Espírito-Santo & Fernandes 2007, Moreira et al. 2007, Coelho et al. 2009, Toma & Mendonça-Junior 2013)....

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  • ...Based on the growing diversity of their inducers and the correlation between the number of galls and plant richness, Espírito-Santo & Fernandes (2007) estimated the existence of about 133,000 of galling insect species in the World....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An alternative approach to quantify PP based on phenotypic distances among individuals of a given species exposed to different environments is summarized in a relative distance plasticity index (RDPI) that allows for statistical comparisons of PP between species (or populations within species).
Abstract: Summary 1 Global change and emerging concepts in ecology and evolution are leading to a growing interest in phenotypic plasticity (PP), the environmentally contingent trait expression observed in a given genotype. The need to quantify PP in a simple manner in comparative ecological studies has resulted in the prevalence of various indices instead of the classic approaches, i.e. a comparison of slopes in the norms of reactions (trait vs. environment plots). 2 The objectives of this study were: (i) to review the most common methods for quantitative estimation of PP; (ii) to apply them to a specific case study of growth and shoot‐root allocation responses to irradiance in seedlings of four woody species grown at 1%, 6%, 20% and 100% full sunlight; and (iii) to propose new methods of estimating PP. 3 The 17 different plasticity indices analysed rendered disparate results, with cross-overs in species PP rankings. Statistical comparisons of PP among species were not possible with most of the indices due to the lack of confidence intervals. The non-linear responses of the traits made the use of the slope of the reaction norm to quantify PP unrealistic, and raised awareness on values derived from studies that consider just two environments. 4 We propose an alternative approach to quantify PP based on phenotypic distances among individuals of a given species exposed to different environments, which is summarized in a relative distance plasticity index (RDPI) that allows for statistical comparisons of PP between species (or populations within species). RDPI was significantly correlated with 12 out of the 17 PP indices analysed. An index including the environmental range leading to the different phenotypes (environmentally standardized plasticity index, ESPI), and thus expressing plasticity per unit of environmental change, is also proposed. 5 The new indexes can statistically segregate and unambiguously rank species according to their PP, which can foster a better understanding of plant ecology and evolution, particularly when common protocols are used by different investigators.

656 citations


"Galling insects are bioindicators o..." refers background in this paper

  • ...These organs are also more abundant and easily observed, in contrast to the other plant organs; they are more plastic (Valladares et al. 2006, Formiga et al. 2013), and have a larger potential to respond to galling stimuli....

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Book
01 Jan 1964

424 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The present study corroborates the hypothesis that the gall forming habit is an adaptation to harsh or stressful environments, and describes for the first time broad scale geographical patterns in galling insect species richness.
Abstract: Five hypotheses were invoked to account for variation in galling species number per location on plants of different structural complexity, namely herbs, shrubs, and trees, both in Brazil and USA. The hypotheses were: 1) the altitudinal/latitudinal gradient hypothesis; 2) the harsh environment hypothesis; 3) the plant species richness hypothesis; 4) the host plant area hypothesis; 5) the plant structural complexity hypothesis. The altitudinal and the harsh environment hypotheses were correlated and supported with sample data in both localities, with increasing gall species number as altitude/latitude declined and as sites became hotter and drier. The two hypotheses were separated by studying riparian sites and dry hillside sites at the same elevation in Arizona. Galling species frequency was higher in dry sites than in riparian sites, supporting the harsh environment hypothesis. Of the five hypotheses tested only the harsh environment hypothesis predicted that galling insect species number should vary in response to environmental variables such as moisture and temperature. Temperate shrubs supported more galling species than did other plant types, both in dry and mesic sites. The overall difference between galling species richness for tropical and temperate latitudes was not statistically significant. Free-feeding insect herbivore species exhibited the opposite pattern of species richness to gallers, being more speciose in riparian sites. The present study corroborates the hypothesis that the gall forming habit is an adaptation to harsh or stressful environments, and we describe for the first time broad scale geographical patterns in galling insect species richness.

325 citations


"Galling insects are bioindicators o..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The gall inducers are also good indicators of environmental conditions and biodiversity, especially where there is a mosaic of habitats established by water, heat and anthropogenic stresses (Fernandes & Price 1988, 1992, Fernandes et al. 1995, Resende et al. 2002, Moreira et al. 2007)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A formal classification of the land plants that is compatible with the APG III classification is proposed, and two new names are established: Amborellanae and Austrobaileyanae.
Abstract: A formal classification of the land plants that is compatible with the APG III classification is proposed. Previous classifications inflated taxonomic ranks, particularly of the angiosperms. If the major clades of green algae are recognized as classes, then all land plants, the embryophytes, should be included in a single class, here recognized as Equisitopsida. Accordingly, the 16 major clades of land plants, including the angiosperms, should all be recognized as subclasses, the angiosperms as Magnoliidae. Major clades within the angiosperms are then recognized as superorders. This classification still uses a few informal categories (e.g. eudicots, lamiids, etc.) within the angiosperms because this is convenient. Two new names are established: Amborellanae and Austrobaileyanae. © 2009 The Linnean Society of London, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 2009, 161, 122–127.

310 citations


"Galling insects are bioindicators o..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The classification of the host angiosperms followed the proposal of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group III - APGIII (Chase & Reveal 2009)....

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