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Journal ArticleDOI

Gamma-Ray-Driven Photovoltaic Cells via a Scintillator Interface

01 Dec 2011-Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology (Taylor & Francis Group)-Vol. 48, Iss: 12, pp 1428-1436
TL;DR: In this article, a new theoretical model of gamma ray photovoltaic cells is presented with calculations of efficiency η, open circuit voltage V∞, and maximum output power P0max.
Abstract: A new theoretical model of gamma ray photovoltaic cells is presented with calculations of efficiency η, open circuit voltage V∞, and maximum output power P0max. The model incorporates a scintillator interfaced between the high-energy nuclear isomer and the semiconductor materials of the photovoltaic cell. High-energy γ-photons, E γ1 = 1:333 MeV and E γ2 = 1:173 MeV, emanate from nuclear isomers Nickel-60m1/m2 of Nickel-60 in Cobalt-60 decay. The scintillator converts the γ-photons into large numbers of low-energy photons. The latter photons illuminate the semiconductor materials of the photovoltaic cell. Such devices can have enhanced η, V∞, and a much longer operational life than those driven by Thorium-229m1/m2. Results are reported for devices with scintillators of various maximum emission wavelengths λmax and yields y. One mol of Cobalt-60, combined with a high-y and short-λmax scintillator, can produce V∞ ~ 10V and P0max of several hundred W/m2 to few times the AM0 power at about 70%. These are signi...
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a diamond gammavoltaic cell with a low-coverage hydrogen-terminated collection volume around the device, exploiting the transfer doping effect, is presented.

4 citations

Cites methods from "Gamma-Ray-Driven Photovoltaic Cells..."

  • ...[18], has also modeled the effectiveness of using Th-229, which...


Journal ArticleDOI
28 Sep 2021-Energies
TL;DR: A review of the current state of the knowledge regarding the use of radioactive sources to generate photonic light in scintillators as converters of ionizing radiation to electricity in photovoltaic cells is presented in this paper.
Abstract: This review presents the current state of the knowledge regarding the use of radioactive sources to generate photonic light in scintillators as converters of ionizing radiation to electricity in photovoltaic cells. The possibility of using the phenomenon of the excitation of light photons in the scintillation materials during the interaction with particles and photons of ionizing radiation was analyzed in detail. The light photons obtained in such a way can generate an electric charge in photovoltaic cells. The whole process can be named as a nuclear cell (nuclear battery). Theoretically, the use of such physical phenomena seems to be an ideal practical solution to meet the energy needs of the modern world. However, there are many physical and technical problems that limit its widespread use in practical applications. In an ideal system, the ionizing radiation sources can emit the radiation for billions of years, and the energy of particles and photons from the radiation can be converted into photons in the scintillation material, with energy suitable to generate a photoelectric effect in a photovoltaic cell. Such a cascade sequence of different physical phenomena allows, from a theoretical point of view, for the creation of a virtually inexhaustible source of electricity. This review of historical and current literature reports aims to bring closer the idea of “energy perpetuum mobile”, which has troubled many scientists around the world for centuries.

4 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, simulations were carried out using Monte-Carlo N-Particle MCNP-4C code to determine the energy dependence of the response of a highly sensitive silver activation detector used for fast-neutron detection after moderated to thermal neutrons.
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Proceedings Article
01 Jan 1969

16,580 citations

01 Mar 2009

14,586 citations

01 Jan 1997
TL;DR: In this article, the authors describe the physical mechanism of scintillation creation of Electron Hole Pairs and the effects of ionizing radiation with Scintillators, including the effect of ionization density and energy loss.
Abstract: BASIC PRINCIPLES AND PROCESSES Physical Mechanism of Scintillation Creation of Electron Hole Pairs Excitation and Emission of Luminescence Centers Scintillation Materials Halides Oxides and Oxide Systems Chalcogenides Glasses Interaction of Ionizing Radiation with Scintillators High Energy Photons Charged Particles Neutral Particles General Characteristics of Inorganic Scintillators Light Yield Duration of Scintillation Pulse Afterglow Temperature Response Optical Properties Radiation Hardness Density Emission Spectra Mechanical and Chemical Properties Physical Parameters Cost Consideration Scintillator Requirements in Various Applications High Energy Physics Intermediate Energy Physics Positron Emission Tomography Gamma Spectroscopy Energy Resolution Intrinsic Scintillator Resolution Nonproportional Response Time Resolution Low Energy Quanta and Electrons CONVERSION OF ELECTRONIC EXCITATIONS IN SOLIDS Charge Carrier Behaviors Delta Rays Secondaries Excitation of Luminescence Centers Effect of Ionization Density Energy Losses Simple Phenomenological Model Plasmon Model Polaron Model Scintillation Yield Spectra Vacuum Ultraviolet Region Ultrasoft X-Rays X-Rays Gamma Rays Heavy Ionizing Particles INTRINSIC LUMINESCENCE OF INORGANIC SCINTILLATORS Excitonic Luminescence Alkali Halide Crystals Alkaline-Earth Fluorides Ternary Halide Compounds Excitonic-Like Luminescence Cesium Iodide Tungstate and Molybdate Phosphors Core-to-Valence Transitions First Evidence for Radiative Core-to-Valence Transitions Excitation Spectra Emission Spectra Experiment Theory Luminescence Kinetics Experimental Theoretical Investigations Temperature Dependence of Luminescence Parameters Conditions of Detection Prospects for Research EXTRINSIC LUMINESCENCE OF INORGANIC SCINTILLATORS Thallium-Activated Halide Scintillators Crystals with NaCl-Type Structure Crystals with CsCl-Type Structure Other Thallium-Based and Thallium-Doped Crystals Crystals Containing Other ns2 Ions Bismuth Germanate (BGO) Sodium-Activated Cesium Iodide Rare-Earth-Activated Crystals General Considerations Europium-Activated Crystals Cerium-Activated Compounds Preliminary Comments LaF3-CeF3 Systems Cerium Chloride Barium Fluoride Gadolinium-Containing Crystals Lu- and Y-Containing Crystals Nd- and Pr-Activated Crystals DEFECT FORMATION BY IONIZING RADIATION Effect on Scintillator Characteristics Mechanisms of Defect Formation Efficiency of Defect Production Geometrical Factor Separation between F and H Centers Temperature Dependence of Production Efficiency Role of Halogen Ion Impurities Effect of Cation Impurities Formation Time of F-H Pairs Closing Comments References Index

314 citations

12 May 2000
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a survey of the major advances in radiation physics, including nuclear criticality, radioactive transformation, radiation detection and shielding, and irradiation detection and measurement.
Abstract: Introductory Concepts. Forces and Energy in Atoms. Major Discoveries in Radiation Physics. Interactions. Radioactive Transformation. Naturally Occurring Radiation and Radioactivity. Interactions of Radiation with Matter. Radiation Shielding. Production of Activation Products. Nuclear Fission and Its Products. Nuclear Criticality. Radiation Detection and Measurement. Statistics in Radiation Physics. Neutrons. X Rays. Appendices. Answers to Selected Problems. Index.

184 citations

Trending Questions (1)
What are the effects of gamma rays on photoelectric cells?

The provided paper discusses a theoretical model of gamma-ray-driven photovoltaic cells. It presents calculations of efficiency, open circuit voltage, and maximum output power of these cells. However, it does not specifically mention the effects of gamma rays on photoelectric cells.