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Journal ArticleDOI

Gap coupled symmetric split ring resonator based near zero index ENG metamaterial for gain improvement of monopole antenna

TL;DR: In this paper , a symmetric split ring resonator (SRR) based metamaterial (MTM) is presented that exhibits three resonances of transmission coefficient (S21) covering S, C, and X-bands with epsilon negative (ENG) and near zero index properties.
Abstract: In this article, a symmetric split ring resonator (SRR) based metamaterial (MTM) is presented that exhibits three resonances of transmission coefficient (S21) covering S, C, and X-bands with epsilon negative (ENG) and near zero index properties. The proposed MTM is designed on an FR4 substrate with the copper resonator at one side formed with two square rings and one circular split ring. The two square rings are coupled together around the split gap of the outer ring, whereas two split semicircles are also coupled together near the split gaps. Thus, gap coupled symmetric SRR is formed, which helps to obtain resonances at 2.78 GHz, 7.7 GHz and 10.16 GHz with desired properties of the MTM unit cell. The MTM unit cell's symmetric nature helps reduce the mutual coupling effect among the array elements. Thus, different array of unit cells provides a similar response to the unit cell compared with numerical simulation performed in CST microwave studio and validated by measurement. The equivalent circuit is modelled for the proposed MTM unit cell in Advanced Design System (ADS) software, and circuit validation is accomplished by comparing S21 obtained in ADS with the same of CST. The effective medium ratio (EMR) of 10.7 indicates the compactness of the proposed MTM. A test antenna is designed to observe the effect of the MTM over it. Numerical analysis shows that the proposed MTM have an impact on the antenna when it is used as the superstrate and helps to increase the gain of the antenna by 95% with increased directivity. Thus, compact size, high EMR, negative permittivity, near zero permeability and refractive index makes this MTM suitable for S, C and X band applications, especially for antenna gain with directivity enhancement.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , the authors introduced the tunability performance, concept, and analysis of a unique and miniaturized metamaterial (MTM) unit cell covering the upcoming 6G applications.
Abstract: This paper introduces the tunability performance, concept, and analysis of a unique and miniaturized metamaterial (MTM) unit cell covering the upcoming 6G applications. The proposed metamaterial consists of two metallic star-shaped split-ring resonators (SRR). It has a line segment placed in the middle of the structure, which can feature tunable characteristics. The proposed design provides dual resonances of transmission coefficient S21 at 0.248 and 0.383 THz with a significant operating frequency span of 0.207–0.277 and 0.382–0.390 THz, respectively. Moreover, wide-range achievement, negative permittivity, double-negative (DNG) refractive index, and near-zero permeability characteristics have been exhibited in two (z and y) principal wave propagation axes. The resonance frequencies are selective and modified by adjusting the central slotted-strip line length. Furthermore, the metamaterial is constituted on a polyimide substrate while the overall dimensions are 160 × 160 μm2. A numerical simulation of the proposed design is executed in CST microwave studio and has been compared with advanced design software (ADS) to generate the proposed MTM’s equivalent circuit, which exhibits a similar transmission coefficient (S21).

4 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , a metamaterial absorber (MMA) is presented aiming absorption of microwave signals from Wi-Fi frequencies of 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz with the flexibility of on-design tuning of maximum absorption frequencies.
Abstract: In this article, a simple metamaterial absorber (MMA) is presented aiming absorption of microwave signals from Wi-Fi frequencies of 2.4 GHz, and 5 GHz. The MMA unit cell constructed on 20 × 20 mm 2 FR4 substrate provides maximum absorption of 99.2% and 99.9% at 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz with the flexibility of on-design tuning of maximum absorption frequencies. The tuning metallic stubs connected with the outer ring provide the provision of frequency adjustment from 2.34 GHz to 2.45 GHz, whereas middle ring stubs along with the innermost ring assists for frequency tuning from 4.68 GHz to 5.1 GHz. Due to symmetrical structure, excellent angular stability up to 60° is achieved with near zero cross-polarization effect for both transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) modes of excitation. The measured result of the proposed MMA is analyzed that shows good similarity with the simulated one. Due to its simplistic design within nominal dimension, high absorption, flexibility to frequency tuning, wide angular stability, and no cross-polarization effect, this MMA can be a good candidate for absorber applications in wireless communication systems, especially for wave shielding from Wi-Fi frequencies.

3 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , a novel metamaterial (MTM) with a mirror symmetric resonator that exhibits multiple resonances of transmission coefficient covering the L, S, C, and X bands is presented.
Abstract: This article presents a novel metamaterial (MTM) with a mirror symmetric resonator that exhibits multiple resonances of transmission coefficient covering the L, S, C, and X bands. The resonating patch is constructed on a low-loss Rogers (RT5880) substrate with a dimension of 20 × 20 × 1.575 mm3. It consists of four equal quartiles with each quartile made with interconnected split-ring resonators; the quartiles are in mirror symmetry with each other. The proposed MTM exhibits resonances at 1.98 GHz, 3.67 GHz, 4.74 GHz, 8.38 GHz, and 10.8 GHz, and electromagnetic characterization is performed through studies of permittivity, permeability, refractive index, and impedances. Power analysis is also performed, and the effect of polarized incident waves is studied. An electromagnetic characterization study reveals that the proposed MTM shows negative permittivity with near-zero permeability and refractive index. It also reveals very little power consumption in the vicinity of the resonances. The dielectric-based frequency tuning is studied by using different dielectric layers over the patch that provides good frequency tuning; this method provides flexibility for adjusting the resonance frequencies in accordance with the application demand. The measured result of the proposed unit cell with the dielectric layer is extracted using a vector network analyzer, and the results exhibit good similarity with the simulated ones. The above-mentioned properties, along with a good effective medium ratio (EMR) of 7.57 indicate that this MTM is suitable for frequency selective applications in microwave devices such as antenna performance improvement and sensing.

2 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , a novel metamaterial (MTM) with a mirror symmetric resonator that exhibits multiple resonances of transmission coefficient covering the L, S, C, and X bands is presented.
Abstract: This article presents a novel metamaterial (MTM) with a mirror symmetric resonator that exhibits multiple resonances of transmission coefficient covering the L, S, C, and X bands. The resonating patch is constructed on a low-loss Rogers (RT5880) substrate with a dimension of 20 × 20 × 1.575 mm3. It consists of four equal quartiles with each quartile made with interconnected split-ring resonators; the quartiles are in mirror symmetry with each other. The proposed MTM exhibits resonances at 1.98 GHz, 3.67 GHz, 4.74 GHz, 8.38 GHz, and 10.8 GHz, and electromagnetic characterization is performed through studies of permittivity, permeability, refractive index, and impedances. Power analysis is also performed, and the effect of polarized incident waves is studied. An electromagnetic characterization study reveals that the proposed MTM shows negative permittivity with near-zero permeability and refractive index. It also reveals very little power consumption in the vicinity of the resonances. The dielectric-based frequency tuning is studied by using different dielectric layers over the patch that provides good frequency tuning; this method provides flexibility for adjusting the resonance frequencies in accordance with the application demand. The measured result of the proposed unit cell with the dielectric layer is extracted using a vector network analyzer, and the results exhibit good similarity with the simulated ones. The above-mentioned properties, along with a good effective medium ratio (EMR) of 7.57 indicate that this MTM is suitable for frequency selective applications in microwave devices such as antenna performance improvement and sensing.

2 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Aug 2022-Sensors
TL;DR: In this article , a printed compact meander line patch antenna array for wireless local-area network (WLAN) applications in the frequency span of 2.3685-2.4643 GHz is presented.
Abstract: An antenna assumes a significant role in expanding the levels of communication to meet the demands of contemporary technologically based industry and private data services. In this paper, a printed compact meander line patch antenna array for wireless local-area network (WLAN) applications in the frequency span of 2.3685–2.4643 GHz is presented. The impedance matching of the antenna is generated by applying a partial rectangular-shaped ground plane backside of the meander line antenna. The proposed antenna evolved on the Rogers RT5880 substrate with a dielectric permittivity of 2.2, and the height of the substrate was 1.575 mm to accomplish the lowest possible return loss. The proposed antenna was developed to achieve particular outcomes, for example, voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) 1.32, reflection coefficient 20 dB with a bandwidth of 94.2 MHz, a gain of 2.8 dBi, and an efficacy measurement of 97%. This antenna is appropriate for WLAN applications that utilize a 2.4 GHz resonance frequency. The overall dimensions of the antenna are 15 mm × 90.86 mm.

1 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is found that intraflagellar transport 20 mediates the ability of Ror2 signaling to induce the invasiveness of tumors that lack primary cilia, and IFT20 regulates the nucleation of Golgi-derived microtubules by affecting the GM130-AKAP450 complex.
Abstract: Signaling through the Ror2 receptor tyrosine kinase promotes invadopodia formation for tumor invasion. Here, we identify intraflagellar transport 20 (IFT20) as a new target of this signaling in tumors that lack primary cilia, and find that IFT20 mediates the ability of Ror2 signaling to induce the invasiveness of these tumors. We also find that IFT20 regulates the nucleation of Golgi-derived microtubules by affecting the GM130-AKAP450 complex, which promotes Golgi ribbon formation in achieving polarized secretion for cell migration and invasion. Furthermore, IFT20 promotes the efficiency of transport through the Golgi complex. These findings shed new insights into how Ror2 signaling promotes tumor invasiveness, and also advance the understanding of how Golgi structure and transport can be regulated.

13,354 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors evaluated plasma heat shock protein (Hsp) 90 in the skin of patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and characterized its association with SSc-related features.
Abstract: Our previous study demonstrated increased expression of Heat shock protein (Hsp) 90 in the skin of patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). We aimed to evaluate plasma Hsp90 in SSc and characterize its association with SSc-related features. Ninety-two SSc patients and 92 age-/sex-matched healthy controls were recruited for the cross-sectional analysis. The longitudinal analysis comprised 30 patients with SSc associated interstitial lung disease (ILD) routinely treated with cyclophosphamide. Hsp90 was increased in SSc compared to healthy controls. Hsp90 correlated positively with C-reactive protein and negatively with pulmonary function tests: forced vital capacity and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO). In patients with diffuse cutaneous (dc) SSc, Hsp90 positively correlated with the modified Rodnan skin score. In SSc-ILD patients treated with cyclophosphamide, no differences in Hsp90 were found between baseline and after 1, 6, or 12 months of therapy. However, baseline Hsp90 predicts the 12-month change in DLCO. This study shows that Hsp90 plasma levels are increased in SSc patients compared to age-/sex-matched healthy controls. Elevated Hsp90 in SSc is associated with increased inflammatory activity, worse lung functions, and in dcSSc, with the extent of skin involvement. Baseline plasma Hsp90 predicts the 12-month change in DLCO in SSc-ILD patients treated with cyclophosphamide.

2,948 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, an improved method to retrieve the effective constitutive parameters (permittivity and permeability) of a slab of metamaterial from the measurement of S parameters is proposed.
Abstract: We propose an improved method to retrieve the effective constitutive parameters (permittivity and permeability) of a slab of metamaterial from the measurement of S parameters. Improvements over existing methods include the determination of the first boundary and the thickness of the effective slab, the selection of the correct sign of effective impedance, and a mathematical method to choose the correct branch of the real part of the refractive index. The sensitivity of the effective constitutive parameters to the accuracy of the S parameters is also discussed. The method has been applied to various metamaterials and the successful retrieval results prove its effectiveness and robustness.

1,941 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a coaxially-fed single-layer single-patch wideband microstrip antenna in the form of a rectangular patch with a U-shaped slot is discussed, achieving 10-40% impedance bandwidth without the need of adding parasitic patches in another layer or in the same layer.
Abstract: A coaxially-fed single-layer single-patch wide-band microstrip antenna in the form of a rectangular patch with a U-shaped slot is discussed. Measurements showed that this antenna can attain 10-40% impedance bandwidth without the need of adding parasitic patches in another layer or in the same layer.< >

742 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This Review surveys the basic principles, recent advances and promising future directions for wave-based-metamaterial analogue computing systems, and describes some of the most exciting applications suggested for these Computing metamaterials, including image processing, edge detection, equation solving and machine learning.
Abstract: Despite their widespread use for performing advanced computational tasks, digital signal processors suffer from several restrictions, including low speed, high power consumption and complexity, caused by costly analogue-to-digital converters. For this reason, there has recently been a surge of interest in performing wave-based analogue computations that avoid analogue-to-digital conversion and allow massively parallel operation. In particular, novel schemes for wave-based analogue computing have been proposed based on artificially engineered photonic structures, that is, metamaterials. Such kinds of computing systems, referred to as computational metamaterials, can be as fast as the speed of light and as small as its wavelength, yet, impart complex mathematical operations on an incoming wave packet or even provide solutions to integro-differential equations. These much-sought features promise to enable a new generation of ultra-fast, compact and efficient processing and computing hardware based on light-wave propagation. In this Review, we discuss recent advances in the field of computational metamaterials, surveying the state-of-the-art metastructures proposed to perform analogue computation. We further describe some of the most exciting applications suggested for these computing systems, including image processing, edge detection, equation solving and machine learning. Finally, we provide an outlook for the possible directions and the key problems for future research. Metamaterials provide a platform to leverage optical signals for performing specific-purpose computational tasks with ultra-fast speeds. This Review surveys the basic principles, recent advances and promising future directions for wave-based-metamaterial analogue computing systems.

175 citations