Gastropexy simplifies the use of the right gastroepiploic artery for myocardial revascularization.
01 Jan 1996-European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (Eur J Cardiothorac Surg)-Vol. 10, Iss: 4, pp 294-296
TL;DR: Gastropexy avoids objections to the use of this pedicled arterial graft, such as the prolonged dissection time, the limited length of the conduit and the potential damage when abdominal surgery is later required.
Abstract: Surgical anterior and superior fixation to the diaphragm of a segment of the greater curvature of the stomach simplifies the technical performance of harvesting the right gastroepiploic artery for coronary bypass grafting. Gastropexy avoids objections to the use of this pedicled arterial graft, such as the prolonged dissection time, the limited length of the conduit and the potential damage when abdominal surgery is later re- quired_ (Eur J Cardio-thorac Surg (1996) 10:294-296)
TL;DR: The gastroepiploic artery is a suitable conduit for coronary artery bypass grafting in terms of low surgical risk, high patency rate, and excellent patient outcome.
Abstract: From March 1986 to September 1991, the right gastroepiploic artery has been used for coronary artery bypass grafting in 200 patients (171 male and 29 female patients, mean age 58 years, range 6 to 80 years. They were followed up from 6 to 70 months with a mean of 27 months. There were 16 reoperations and 176 patients had triple vessel or left main disease. The gastroepiploic artery (182 in situ and 18 free grafts) was anastomosed to 11 anterior descending, 3 diagonal, 26 circumflex, and 160 right coronary arteries. The internal thoracic artery was concomitantly used in 192 patients. The mean number of distal anastomoses was 2.3 with arterial grafts and 3.3 including additional saphenous vein grafts. Postoperative angiography was performed in 152 patients within 6 months after the operation (mean 2 months) and after the operation second angiograms were done sequentially 1 to 5 years (mean 2 years) after the operation in 40 patients. There were 6 early and 4 late deaths. A new Q wave was noted in 4 patients. Duration of the operation and postoperative complications did not increase with the use of the gastroepiploic artery. Relief of angina was noted in 186 patients. Gastroepiploic artery graft patency was 95% (144/152) in the early postoperative period and 95% (38/40) in the late postoperative period. Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty was done successfully through the in situ gastroepiploic artery graft for anastomotic stenosis in four cases. In stress myocardial scintiscans, performed sequentially preoperatively and in the immediate, 1-year, and 2-year postoperative periods in 11 patients, washout rate of the gastroepiploic artery-grafted area improved from 35% ± 10% to 45% ± 15% (p
TL;DR: This study shows that distal right gastroepiploic artery sizes are comparable with sizes of target coronary arteries, however, neither flow nor size is as consistent when compared with internal thoracic artery grafts.
Abstract: Questions remain concerning the physiologic capabilities of the right gastroepiploic artery as a bypass graft in the clinical setting. Our last 90 consecutive pedicle right gastroepiploic artery grafts were prepared with intraluminal papaverine and verapamil. Our series comprised 81 male and 9 female patients with average body surface areas of 1.92 m2. Ages ranged from 11 to 79 years (mean 57.2 years). A second to fourth revascularization was undertaken in 32 patients (35.5 %). The following arteries were bypassed: posterior descending artery, 63; right coronary artery, 23; distal right, 4; circumflex, 2; left anterior descending, 1; and diagonal, 1. Free flow rates ranged from 42 to 660 ml/min (mean 179.96 ml/min). Internal diameters measured 1.5 to 4.0 mm (mean 2.20 mm) at the anastomotic sites. Pedicle lengths ranged from 16 to 26 cm (mean 19.2 cm). Inotropic support was required in 11 patients (12%) and had no adverse effects on right gastroepiploic artery grafts. There were 2 hospital deaths (2.2%). Angina has recurred in 6 patients. One patient with cardiomyopathy required transplantation 2 years after coronary bypass grafting. Repeat angiography showed widely patent grafts in 18 patients and generalized narrowing in 4 grafts. In only 2 patients of our total experience has right gastroepiploic artery grafting been aborted because of inadequate conduit size. One right gastroepiploic artery had visible atherosclerosis. This study shows that distal right gastroepiploic artery sizes are comparable with sizes of target coronary arteries. However, neither flow nor size is as consistent when compared with internal thoracic artery grafts. Higher flow rates are related to graft anatomic characteristics and larger body surface areas. Spasm, secondary to harvest in these vasoreactive grafts, can be managed appropriately by intraluminal vasodilating drugs. However, use of the right gastroepiploic artery should be avoided in a setting with possible competition of flow. ( J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1993;106:579-86)
TL;DR: Prevention of platelet-, adrenergic-, or potassium-induced contraction may be more important when the gastroepiploic artery is used as an alternate conduit for coronary artery bypass, reinforcing consideration of nitrovasodilators and platelet inhibitors in the perioperative interval.
Abstract: The gastroepiploic artery is an alternate conduit for coronary artery bypass grafting. To test the hypothesis that its vasoreactive properties are different from those of the internal mammary artery, we obtained gastroepiploic artery segments from human gastrectomy specimens. Trimmed internal mammary artery segments were obtained during coronary artery bypass. Ring segments were mounted on a strain gauge and stretched to optimum resting length (90 % of the internal circumference at 100 mm Hg). Potassium chloride, serotonin, and norepinephrine were chosen to simulate physiologic vasospasm induced by depolarization, platelet aggregation, or adrenergic stimulation, respectively. Contractions to potassium and a concentration-response curve to serotonin or norepinephrine were obtained. Sodium nitroprusside was used to assess relaxation. Gastroepiploic artery segments had stronger contractions to the depolarizing agent (potassium chloride), adrenergic stimulation (norepinephrine), and product of platelet aggregation (serotonin). The gastroepiploic and internal mammary arteries showed equal sensitivity, measured by concentration causing half-maximal contraction to norepinephrine and serotonin. There was no difference in relaxation to sodium nitroprusside. These data suggest that prevention of platelet-, adrenergic-, or potassium-induced contraction may be more important when the gastroepiploic artery is used as an alternate conduit for coronary artery bypass, reinforcing consideration of nitrovasodilators and platelet inhibitors in the perioperative interval. (J T horac C ardiovasc S urg 1992;103:116—23)