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Journal ArticleDOI

Gender differences in the creation of different types of social capital : A multilevel study

01 Jan 2006-Social Networks (North-Holland)-Vol. 28, Iss: 1, pp 24-37

TL;DR: Men were shown to be more effective in creating hard social capital, but, unexpectedly, women were not found to be the emotional specialists they often are thought to be.

AbstractThis study examined gender differences in the creation of hard and soft social capital in a sample of 352 female and 486 male faculty members. Men were shown to be more effective in creating hard social capital, but, unexpectedly, women were not found to be the emotional specialists they often are thought to be. Moreover, multilevel analyses indicated that men were more effective in using emotional intensity of ties to create hard social capital, and they were also more effective using team-related resources to create both hard and soft social capital.

Topics: Social mobility (71%), Social status (70%), Cultural capital (63%), Social capital (60%)

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An analysis of the relationships among perceived stigma, reported disclosure and perceived social support for those living with HIV showed a positive, heterogeneous correlation between disclosure and social support and a negative, homogenous correlation between stigma and disclosure.
Abstract: This study provides an analysis of the relationships among perceived stigma, reported disclosure and perceived social support for those living with HIV. The meta-analytic summary of 21 studies (4,104 participants) showed, as predicted, a positive, heterogeneous correlation between disclosure and social support (ŕ = .159), a negative, heterogeneous correlation between stigma and social support (ŕ = -.344) and a negative, homogenous correlation between stigma and disclosure (ŕ = -.189). The heterogeneity of the first two relationships indicates the presence of moderators, which may include participants' age and publications' year.

414 citations


Cites background from "Gender differences in the creation ..."

  • ...Emmerick (2006) argues that different types of people and resources should better meet different types of social support goals....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Web-based RDS (WebRDS) is found to be highly efficient and effective and methods for testing the validity of assumptions required by RDS estimation are presented.
Abstract: This study tests the feasibility, effectiveness, and efficiency of respondent-driven sampling (RDS) as a Web-based sampling method. Web-based RDS (WebRDS) is found to be highly efficient and effective. The online nature of WebRDS allows referral chains to progress very quickly, such that studies with large samples can be expected to proceed up to 20 times faster than with traditional sampling methods. Additionally, the unhidden nature of the study population allows comparison of RDS estimators to institutional data. Results indicate that RDS estimates are reasonable but not precise. This is likely due to bias associated with the random recruitment assumption and small sample size of the study. Finally, this article presents methods for testing the validity of assumptions required by RDS estimation.

187 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Entrepreneurship contributes to economic development in countries worldwide. Entrepreneurial activity is beneficial for both men and women, including those in developing countries. However, men and women may not engage in entrepreneurship to the same extent because of differential access to (various forms of) capital. This study examines the relative importance of three types of capital – human, family and financial – in pursuing entrepreneurship. Using data collected in Turkey, we find that regardless of sex, all three forms of capital influence the likelihood of becoming an entrepreneur in varying degrees. Contrary to expectations, the impact of human capital on the likelihood of becoming an entrepreneur is higher for women than men. Data also revealed that family capital facilitates women's entry into entrepreneurship only when family size is very large (i.e. seven or more). No gender differences are observed in the impact of financial capital on the likelihood of becoming an entrepreneur. Findings sug...

153 citations


Cites background from "Gender differences in the creation ..."

  • ...Social capital theorists argue that gender has a major influence on people’s social capital (van Emmerik 2006)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Mark Lutter1
Abstract: That social capital matters is an established fact in the social sciences. Less clear, however, is how different forms of social capital affect gender disadvantages in career advancement. Focusing on a project-based type of labor market, namely the U.S. film industry, this study argues that women suffer a “closure penalty” and face severe career disadvantages when collaborating in cohesive teams. At the same time, gender disadvantages are reduced for women who build social capital in open networks with higher degrees of diversity and information flow. Using large-scale longitudinal data on career profiles of about one million performances by 97,657 film actors in 369,099 film productions between the years 1929 and 2010, I analyze career survival models and interaction effects between gender and different measures of social capital and information openness. Findings reveal that female actors have a higher risk of career failure than do their male colleagues when affiliated in cohesive networks, but women have better survival chances when embedded in open, diverse structures. This study contributes to the understanding of how and what type of social capital can be either a beneficial resource for otherwise disadvantaged groups or a constraining mechanism that intensifies gender differences in career advancement.

123 citations


Cites background from "Gender differences in the creation ..."

  • ...Network structures can create social capital in different ways, either through strong, dense, and cohesive ties—network closure (Coleman 1988)—or through “network betweenness” (Freeman 1977), that is, networks in which weakly connected ties act as brokers between different core groups (Burt 2000)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Gender differences in the extent to which older adults maintain a related, but distinct, form of social capital-bridging potential, which involves serving as a tie between two unconnected parties and thus boosts independence and control of everyday social life are documents.
Abstract: Objectives. Most studies of older adults’ social networks focus on their access to dense networks that yield access to social support. This paper documents gender differences in the extent to which older adults maintain a related, but distinct, form of social capital—bridging potential, which involves serving as a tie between two unconnected parties and thus boosts independence and control of everyday social life. Methods. I use egocentric social network data from a national sample of 3,005 older adults—collected in 2005–2006 by the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project—to compare older men’s and women’s network bridging potential using multivariate regression analysis. Results. Older women are more likely than older men to have bridging potential in their networks—between both kin and non-kin contacts. These gender differences increase with age. Older women are also more likely to have network members who are not connected to or monopolized by their spouse or partner. Some, but not all, of these gender differences are due to the fact that older women have larger social networks and maintain more ties to people outside of the household.

114 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Analysis of social networks is suggested as a tool for linking micro and macro levels of sociological theory. The procedure is illustrated by elaboration of the macro implications of one aspect of small-scale interaction: the strength of dyadic ties. It is argued that the degree of overlap of two individuals' friendship networks varies directly with the strength of their tie to one another. The impact of this principle on diffusion of influence and information, mobility opportunity, and community organization is explored. Stress is laid on the cohesive power of weak ties. Most network models deal, implicitly, with strong ties, thus confining their applicability to small, well-defined groups. Emphasis on weak ties lends itself to discussion of relations between groups and to analysis of segments of social structure not easily defined in terms of primary groups.

35,312 citations


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TL;DR: A new sex-role inventory is described that treats masculinity and femininity as two independent dimensions, thereby making it possible to characterize a person as masculine, feminine, or "androgynous" as a function of the difference between his or her endorsement of masculine and feminine personality characteristics.
Abstract: This article describes the development of a new sex-role inventory that treats masculinity and femininity as two independent dimensions, thereby making it possible to characterize a person as masculine, feminine, or "androgynous" as a function of the difference between his or her endorsement of masculine and feminine personality characteristics. Normative data are presented, as well as the results of various psychometric analyses. The major findings of conceptual interest are: (a) the dimensions of masculinity and femininity are empirically as well as logically independent; (6) the concept of psychological androgyny is a reliable one; and (c) highly sex-typed scores do not reflect a general tendency to respond in a socially desirable direction, but rather a specific tendency to describe oneself in accordance with sex-typed standards of desirable behavior for men and women. Both in psychology and in society at large, masculinity and femininity have long been conceptualized as bipolar ends of a single continuum; accordingly, a person has had to be either masculine or feminine, but not both. This sex-role dichotomy has served to obscure two very plausible hypotheses: first, that many individuals might be "androgynous" ; that is, they might be both masculine and feminine, both assertive and yielding, both instrumental and expressive—depending on the situational appropriateness of these various behaviors; and conversely, that strongly sex-typed individuals might be seriously limited in the range of behaviors available to them as they move from situation to situation. According to both Kagan (1964) and Kohlberg (1966), the highly sex-typed individual is motivated to keep his behavior consistent with an internalized sex-role standard, a goal that he presumably accomplishes by suppressing any behavior that might be con

7,650 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: I present argument and evidence for a structural ecology of social capital that describes how the value of social capital to an individual is contingent on the number of people doing the same work. The information and control benefits of bridging the structural holes—or, disconnections between nonredundant contacts in a network—that constitute social capital are especially valuable to managers with few peers. Such managers do not have the guiding frame of reference for behavior provided by numerous competitors, and the work they do does not have the legitimacy provided by numerous people doing the same kind of work. I use network and performance data on a probability sample of senior managers to show how the value of social capital, high on average for the managers, varies as a power function of the number of people doing the same work.

3,234 citations


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Abstract: Geert Hofstede University of Limburg Bram Neuijen University of Groningen Denise Davat Ohayv Institute for Research on intercultural Cooperation Geert Sanders University of Groningen This paper presents the results of a study on organizational cultures in twenty units from ten different organizations in Denmark and the Netherlands. Data came from in-depth interviews of selected informants and a questionnaire survey of a stratified random sample of organizational members. Data on task, structure, and control characteristics of each unit were collected separately. Quantitative measures of the cultures of the twenty units, aggregated at the unit level, showed that a targe part of the differences among these twenty units could be explained by six factors, related to established concepts from organizational sociology, that measured the organizational cultures on six independent dimensions. The organizational culture differences found resided mainly at the levei of practices as perceived by members. Scores of the units on the six dimensions were partly explainable from organizational idiosyncrasies but were also significantly correlated with a variety of task, structural, and control-system characteristics of the units.

3,145 citations


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Abstract: Proportions, that is, relative numbers of socially and culturally different people in a group, are seen as critical in shaping interaction dinamics, and four group types are identified in the basis of varying proportional compositions. "Skewed" groups contain a large preponderance of one type (the numerical "dominants") over another (the rare "tokens"). A framework is developed for conceptualizing the processes that occur between dominants and tokens. Three perceptual phenomena are associated with tokens: visibility (tokens capture a disproportionate awareness share), polarization (differences between tokens and dominants are exaggerated), and assimilation (tokens' attributes are distorted to fit preexisting generalizations about their social type). Visibility generates performance pressures; polarization leads dominants to heighten their group boundaries; and assimilation leads to the tokens' role entrapment. Illustrations are drawn from a field study in a large industrial corporation. Concepts are exten...

2,200 citations