Genealogy as History: From Pupil to Artist as the Dynamics of Genius, Status, and Inventiveness in Art Education in Portugal
01 Jan 2013-pp 157-178
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors identify the cultural debates, institutional solutions, and practices in the context of arts education and training in Portugal after the end of the eighteenth century and discuss the meanings of various historical mutations involved in a complex social operation that we still recognize: the transformation of pupil into artist.
Abstract: This chapter identifies the cultural debates, institutional solutions, and practices in the context of arts education and training in Portugal after the end of the eighteenth century. The ways in which the school shaped and mobilized itself to supply the arts student with the cognitive tools and instrumental techniques that would enable him to produce artifacts contrasts to regular education, in which the student traditionally plays the role of a translator of stabilized scientific truths. The text identifies and discusses the meanings of various historical mutations involved in a complex social operation that we still recognize: the transformation of pupil into artist.
TL;DR: This article explored the system of reason that orders and classifies what is talked about, thought and act on in schooling and explored the school subjects of mathematics and music education as an alchemy, the use of translation tools that remake disciplinary knowledge into the school curriculum.
Abstract: Not-with-standing the current topoi of the Knowledge Society, a particular “fact” of modernity is that power is exercised less through brute force and more through systems of reason that order and classify what is known and acted on. This article explored the system of reason that orders and classifies what is talked about, thought and act on in schooling. The study of the system of reason in schooling is framed as social epistemology to consider the historically ordered, relational and socially embeddedness of knowledge as the political. This entails exploring the “reason” of science and schooling as to change social conditions that changes people. Further the school subjects of mathematics and music education are explored as an alchemy, the use of translation tools that remake disciplinary knowledge into the school curriculum. The alchemy of the curriculum is paradoxical. It embodies cultural theses about kinds of people that inscribe differences and divisions in the name of inclusion and equity.
Abstract: espanolEl uso de libros de texto digital (de ahora en adelante , LTD) no contexto educativo foi ganando pouco a pouco importancia nos escenarios educativos do seculo 21. Sin embargo, hay una ambiguedad en la literatura y en el ambito educativo cuanto a las ventajas y la eficacia de la utilizacion generalizada del libro de texto digital. Con el fin de entender, en el contexto portugues, las consecuencias, para el proceso de aprendizaje, del uso de libro de texto digital, el presente estudio se centra en las percepciones de los estudiantes sobre algunas cuestiones pedagogicas y funcionales relacionados con el uso de libros de texto digitales y se llevo a cabo en una Escuela Superior de Educacion situada en el Porto. El total de sesenta y seis estudiantes de clases de posgrado (futuros profesores / educadores de ninos de cinco hasta once anos) participaron en el estudio, completando el cuestionario con respecto a sus representaciones cuanto a su familiaridad, ventajas pedagogicas percibidas, formato preferencial de lectura (impresion vs digitalmente) y la potencialidad para el aprendizaje del libro de texto digital. Los resultados ilustran la importancia que se da a los libros de texto digitales, y aunque los estudiantes expresan, en gran medida, un desconocimiento del concepto de libro de texto digital, sus percepciones cuanto a su uso y a los aspectos pedagogicos indican, en primer lugar, la necesidad de un crecimiento continuo tanto cuanto a su importe cuanto a la variedad de libros disponibles en texto digital y, ademas, que se necesita mas investigacion sobre este tema galegoO uso de libros de texto dixital (de agora en diante, LTD) no contexto educativo foi ganando pouco e pouco importancia nos escenarios educativos do seculo XXI. Poren, existe unha ambiguidade na literatura e no ambito educativo en canto as vantaxes e a eficacia da utilizacion xeneralizada do libro de texto dixital. Co fin de entender, no contexto portugues, as consecuencias para o proceso de aprendizaxe do uso de libro de texto dixital, o presente estudo centrase nas percepcions do alumnado dunha escola superior de educacion situada no Porto sobre algunhas cuestions pedagoxicas e funcionais relacionados co uso de libros de texto dixitais. Participaron no estudo o total dos sesenta e seis estudantes de clases de posgrao (futuro profesorado e educadores/as de nenos e nenas de cinco ata once anos), que cubrion o cuestionario con respecto as representacions en canto a sua familiaridade, vantaxes pedagoxicas percibidas, formato preferente de lectura (impresion vs dixitalmente) e a potencialidade para a aprendizaxe do libro de texto dixital. Os resultados ilustran a importancia que se concede aos libros de texto dixitais, e ainda que os estudantes expresan, en gran medida, un desconecemento do concepto de libro de texto dixital, as suas percepcions en cuanto ao seu uso e aos aspectos pedagoxicos indican, en primeiro lugar, a necesidade dun crecemento continuo tanto en relacion a sua importancia como en canto a variedade de libros disponibles en texto dixital e, en segundo, a necesidade de seguir investigando sobre este tema EnglishUsing digital textbook (from now on, DTB) in the learning context has been gradually gaining importance in the 21st century educational scenarios. Nevertheless, there is ambiguity in the literature and in the educational field as far as the advantages and efficiency of the widespread use of digital textbook. In order to understand, in the Portuguese context, the implications foreseen, as far as the learning process is concerned, on the use of digital textbook, the present study focuses on students’ perceptions of some pedagogical and functional issues related to the use of digital textbook and was carried on at a higher School of Education in Oporto. A total of sixty-six students from postgraduate classes (future teachers/educators of children from five up to eleven years old) participated in the study by completing a survey questionnaire regarding their representations on their familiarity, perceived pedagogical advantages, textbook format preferences (print vs. digital) and learning potentiality of the digital textbook. The results illustrate the importance given to digital textbook, and despite the fact that the students were, to a large extent, unaware of the concept of digital textbook, their perceptions on the usability and pedagogical aspects indicate, on the one hand, the need for continued growth in the number and variety of digital textbook made available and, on the other hand, that more research on this subject is needed
TL;DR: The authors examines how the idea of musical genius, a mythical notion used as a device for musical practices, facilitates a split between the genius of an innate learner and that of an apprentice.
Abstract: This paper examines how the idea of musical genius, a mythical notion used as a device for musical practices, facilitates a split between the genius of an innate learner and that of an apprentice, ...
••01 Jan 2019
TL;DR: Popkewitz as discussed by the authors explored how cultural principles are generated, assembled, and connected in discontinuous time and spaces for understanding difference in transnational historical studies through examining the principles of reason that order and classify what is seen, thought about and acted upon.
Abstract: Issues of comparison lurk in the subterranean recesses of transnational studies but are rarely enunciated. Popkewitz explores these recesses. He weaves together historical and theoretical considerations in a history of history, examining two sacraments of context and archive, the heart of contemporary historical analyses. These are examined as inscriptions of a particular ordering of time in cultural practices and as a realism that erases differences in its modes of comparing. Popkewitz considers how cultural principles are generated, assembled, and connected in discontinuous time and spaces for understanding difference. His intent is to outline a mode of analysis for thinking about constructions of difference in transnational historical studies through examining the principles of reason that order and classify what is seen, thought about and acted upon.
•02 Dec 2015
TL;DR: In this paper, critical, cultural and historical perspectives on arts education, from its "reason" in schooling to curriculum, pedagogy, the sciences of education and artistic research are discussed.
Abstract: The contributions included in this special issue focus on critical, cultural and historical perspectives on arts education, from its 'reason' in schooling to curriculum, pedagogy, the sciences of education and artistic research. The editors invited international scholars for a conversation that breaks conventions in thinking about arts education as an event that engages a broader and simultaneously focused theoretically discussion around problems that directly affect today's arts education disciplinary field. Theoretical yet at the same time historical and 'empirical' through detailed attention to things of the world; an 'act' that itself has repercussions into the very tissues of contemporary thinking about method as distinct from theory; and the real as somehow a distinction field that separates and makes the material as in opposition rather than in relation to language and discourses. The authors provide a family of resemblance to constitute a share common feld of study, commonly referred to as post-structuralism, and therefore operations dedicated to language as embodying historical inscribed systems of reason understood in their productive effects.
07 Jan 1988
TL;DR: Martin et al. as mentioned in this paper present a transcript of a faculty seminar on "Technologies of the self," originally presented at the University of Vermont in the fall of 1982, where Foucault's project on the self was the logical conclusion to his historical inquiry over twenty-five years into insanity, deviancy, criminality and sexuality.
Abstract: Shortly before his death in 1984, Michel Foucault spoke of an idea for a new book on "technologies of the self." He described it as "composed of different papers about the self..., about the role of reading and writing in constituting the self... and so on." The book Foucault envisioned was based on a faculty seminar on "Technologies of the Self," originally presented at the University of Vermont in the fall of 1982. This volume is a partial record of that seminar. In many ways, Foucault's project on the self was the logical conclusion to his historical inquiry over twenty-five years into insanity, deviancy, criminality, and sexuality. Because Foucault died before he completed the revisions of his seminar presentations, this volume includes a careful transcription instead...as a prolegomenon to that unfinished task.Foucault was a French philosopher, historian of ideas, social theorist, philologist and literary critic.This volume was edited by Luther H. Martin, Huck Gutman, and Patrick H. Hutton.
21 Sep 2010
TL;DR: A refreshing approach to the study of major Western philosophers is presented in this paper, where introductory essays by noted scholars enliven each volume with insights into the human side of the great thinkers, and provide authoritative discussions of the historical background, evolution, and imporace of their ideas.
Abstract: A refreshing approach to the study of major Western philosophers. Introductory essays by noted scholars enliven each volume with insights into the human side of the great thinkers, and provide authoritative discussions of the historical background, evolution, and imporace of their ideas. Highly recommended as stimulating classroom texts.
01 Oct 2001
TL;DR: Crary as mentioned in this paper examines the connections between the modernization of subjectivity and the dramatic expansion and industrialization of visual/auditory culture and argues that the ways in which we intently look at or listen to anything result form crucial changes in the nature of perception that can be traced back to the second half of the 19th century.
Abstract: "Suspensions of Perception" is a major historical study of human attention and its volatile role in modern Western culture. It argues that the ways in which we intently look at or listen to anything result form crucial changes in the nature of perception that can be traced back to the second half of the 19th century. Focusing on the period from about 1880 to 1905, Jonathan Crary examines the connections between the modernization of subjectivity and the dramatic expansion and industrialization of visual/auditory culture. At the core of his project is the paradoxical nature of modern attention, which was both a fundamental condition of individual freedom, creativity and experience and a central element in the efficient functioning of economic and disciplinary institution, as well as the emerging space of mass consumption and spectacle. Crary approaches these issues through multiple analyses of single works by three key modernist painters - Manet, Seurat and Cezanne - who each engaged in a singular confrontation with the disruptions, vacancies and rifts within a perceptual field. Each in his own way discovered that sustained attentiveness, rather than fixing or securing the world, led to perceptual disintegration and loss of presence, and each used this discovery as the basis for a reinvention of representational practices. "Suspensions of Perception" decisively relocates the problems of aesthetic contemplation within a broader collective encounter with the unstable nature of perception - in psychology, philosophy, neurology, early cinema and photography. In doing so, it provides an historical framework for understanding the current social crisis of attention amid the accelerating metamorphoses of our contemporary technological culture.
•01 Jan 1997
TL;DR: In the early 1900s, H. S. Jennings published a paper entitled "The psychology of the protozoan." In 1904 he published another called "The behavior of the Paramecium" and by the mid 1930s psychology would become almost universally defined as the science of behaviour and its principal explanatory category would be learning as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: In 1899 H. S. Jennings published a paper entitled "The psychology of the protozoan." In 1904 he published another called "The behavior of the Paramecium." The second edition of Ernst Meumann's book on the "economy and technique of memory" was published in 1908; its third edition, translated into English and published in 1913, was called The Psychology of Learning. These events serve as markers for the historical introduction into scientific practice of the two categories that would become fundamental to American psychology by the middle of this century: behaviour and learning. By the mid 1930s psychology would become almost universally defined as the science of behaviour and its principal explanatory category would be learning. While both "behaviour" and "learning" had long been part of ordinary discourse, there is no evidence that they assumed any kind of technical, scientific significance until around 1900 for the former and just before 1913 for the latter.A similar picture emerges for most, probably all, major psychological categories. "Intelligence" developed as a biological category in the 19th century but was first applied to humans in its modern psychological form in 1904. "Motivation" appeared first in education in 1916, and then in psychology only in 1928. "Personality," long a moral or theological category, then a psychiatric category, first took on its psychological meaning in the 1920s. The same decade saw the first appearance of "attitude" in its current technical, psychological sense. And psychologists did not generally speak of their subject matter in terms of "variables" until the 1930s. It is the fascinating story of how psychologists in this century came to define and speak of their objects of investigation that Kurt Danziger recounts in this book.Returning to the examples of behaviour and learning, one might ask how it happened that two categories, to which philosophers and scientists had been largely indifferent prior to the turn of the century, should have become so utterly indispensable by mid century? According to Danziger, the success of evolution theory in biology had much to do with it. Among other things, evolution implied the continuity of species. The minds of humans had to have qualitatively similar counterparts among lower animals. This recognition led to the establishment of comparative psychology as a biological discipline. But to speak of the minds of protozoa made biologists uncomfortable. Mental processes were necessarily inferred from observable movements, so why not just talk about those? As the prevailing scientific motive shifted from understanding to control, behaviour became all that really mattered since control could only be exercised from the perspective of external conditions. Thus J. B. Watson urged psychologists to forget inferring anything about internal, unobservable states and processes. Watson's stand was subsequently softened somewhat by later neo-behaviourists and behavioural scientists, but the resulting behavioural methodology remained to shape the subject matter, however it was called.But the reduction to behaviour alone left an explanatory vacuum. This was quickly filled by learning, supported by comparative psychology's emphasis on the organism's capacity to make adjustments to environmental demands. Indeed, the capacity to adapt had already in 1884 been asserted by biologists as the criterion of mind in animals. In contrast to instinct, what made animals, including human beings, different from one another was their degree of modifiability. Some organisms are more adaptive than others, and thus more successful. Another boost came from a growing concern in industry for the training of practical skills. Thus some of the earliest studies of what became know as "learning" were in telegraphy, typewriting, and stenography. The growth of standardized schooling with its need for efficiency in training was also important. The new category of learning appeared to unify the other diverse processes that had traditionally preoccupied educationists, like habit formation, memory, and association. …
27 Dec 2007
TL;DR: The authors have long been interested in classifications of people, in how they affect the people classified, and how the effects on the people in turn change the classifications, which has led them to undertake an unending series of studies: two books, one about 1980s multiple personality and one about 1890s dissociative fugue; articles about old criminology, about contemporary child abuse, and a study of the poverty line.
Abstract: I HAVE LONG BEEN INTERESTED in classifications of people, in how they affect the people classified, and how the effects on the people in turn change the classifications. Since 1983 that has led me to undertake an unending series of studies: two books, one about 1980s multiple personality and one about 1890s dissociative fugue;1 articles about old criminology, about contemporary child abuse, and a study of the very idea of the poverty line.2 There were detailed unpublished talks on genius and on suicide, plus some lectures, on-line in French, about autism and obesity.3 I coined two slogans. The first one, ‘making up people’, referred to the ways in which a new scientific classification may bring into being a new kind of person, conceived of and experienced as a way to be a person.4 The second,
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