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Book

Genetic Programming: On the Programming of Computers by Means of Natural Selection

01 Jan 1992-

TL;DR: This book discusses the evolution of architecture, primitive functions, terminals, sufficiency, and closure, and the role of representation and the lens effect in genetic programming.
Abstract: Background on genetic algorithms, LISP, and genetic programming hierarchical problem-solving introduction to automatically-defined functions - the two-boxes problem problems that straddle the breakeven point for computational effort Boolean parity functions determining the architecture of the program the lawnmower problem the bumblebee problem the increasing benefits of ADFs as problems are scaled up finding an impulse response function artificial ant on the San Mateo trail obstacle-avoiding robot the minesweeper problem automatic discovery of detectors for letter recognition flushes and four-of-a-kinds in a pinochle deck introduction to biochemistry and molecular biology prediction of transmembrane domains in proteins prediction of omega loops in proteins lookahead version of the transmembrane problem evolutionary selection of the architecture of the program evolution of primitives and sufficiency evolutionary selection of terminals evolution of closure simultaneous evolution of architecture, primitive functions, terminals, sufficiency, and closure the role of representation and the lens effect Appendices: list of special symbols list of special functions list of type fonts default parameters computer implementation annotated bibliography of genetic programming electronic mailing list and public repository
Citations
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Book
Richard S. Sutton1, Andrew G. BartoInstitutions (1)
01 Jan 1988-
TL;DR: This book provides a clear and simple account of the key ideas and algorithms of reinforcement learning, which ranges from the history of the field's intellectual foundations to the most recent developments and applications.
Abstract: Reinforcement learning, one of the most active research areas in artificial intelligence, is a computational approach to learning whereby an agent tries to maximize the total amount of reward it receives when interacting with a complex, uncertain environment. In Reinforcement Learning, Richard Sutton and Andrew Barto provide a clear and simple account of the key ideas and algorithms of reinforcement learning. Their discussion ranges from the history of the field's intellectual foundations to the most recent developments and applications. The only necessary mathematical background is familiarity with elementary concepts of probability. The book is divided into three parts. Part I defines the reinforcement learning problem in terms of Markov decision processes. Part II provides basic solution methods: dynamic programming, Monte Carlo methods, and temporal-difference learning. Part III presents a unified view of the solution methods and incorporates artificial neural networks, eligibility traces, and planning; the two final chapters present case studies and consider the future of reinforcement learning.

32,257 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Jürgen Schmidhuber1Institutions (1)
01 Jan 2015-Neural Networks
TL;DR: This historical survey compactly summarizes relevant work, much of it from the previous millennium, review deep supervised learning, unsupervised learning, reinforcement learning & evolutionary computation, and indirect search for short programs encoding deep and large networks.
Abstract: In recent years, deep artificial neural networks (including recurrent ones) have won numerous contests in pattern recognition and machine learning. This historical survey compactly summarizes relevant work, much of it from the previous millennium. Shallow and Deep Learners are distinguished by the depth of their credit assignment paths, which are chains of possibly learnable, causal links between actions and effects. I review deep supervised learning (also recapitulating the history of backpropagation), unsupervised learning, reinforcement learning & evolutionary computation, and indirect search for short programs encoding deep and large networks.

11,176 citations


Cites background from "Genetic Programming: On the Program..."

  • ...…brought simple NNs trained by SL (e.g., Narendra & Thathatchar, 1974; Rosenblatt, 1958, 1962; Widrow & Hoff, 1962) and UL (e.g., Grossberg, 1969; Kohonen, 1972; von der Malsburg, 1973; Willshaw & von der Malsburg, 1976), as well as closely related associative memories (e.g., Hopfield, 1982;…...

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  • ...…& Mitchison, 1989; Barrow, 1987; Deco & Parra, 1997; Field, 1987; Földiák, 1990; Földiák & Young, 1995; Grossberg, 1976a, 1976b; Hebb, 1949; Kohonen, 1972, 1982, 1988; Kosko, 1990; Martinetz, Ritter, & Schulten, 1990; Miller, 1994; Mozer, 1991; Oja, 1989; Palm, 1992; Pearlmutter &Hinton,…...

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Book
Melanie Mitchell1Institutions (1)
01 Jan 1996-
TL;DR: An Introduction to Genetic Algorithms focuses in depth on a small set of important and interesting topics -- particularly in machine learning, scientific modeling, and artificial life -- and reviews a broad span of research, including the work of Mitchell and her colleagues.
Abstract: From the Publisher: "This is the best general book on Genetic Algorithms written to date. It covers background, history, and motivation; it selects important, informative examples of applications and discusses the use of Genetic Algorithms in scientific models; and it gives a good account of the status of the theory of Genetic Algorithms. Best of all the book presents its material in clear, straightforward, felicitous prose, accessible to anyone with a college-level scientific background. If you want a broad, solid understanding of Genetic Algorithms -- where they came from, what's being done with them, and where they are going -- this is the book. -- John H. Holland, Professor, Computer Science and Engineering, and Professor of Psychology, The University of Michigan; External Professor, the Santa Fe Institute. Genetic algorithms have been used in science and engineering as adaptive algorithms for solving practical problems and as computational models of natural evolutionary systems. This brief, accessible introduction describes some of the most interesting research in the field and also enables readers to implement and experiment with genetic algorithms on their own. It focuses in depth on a small set of important and interesting topics -- particularly in machine learning, scientific modeling, and artificial life -- and reviews a broad span of research, including the work of Mitchell and her colleagues. The descriptions of applications and modeling projects stretch beyond the strict boundaries of computer science to include dynamical systems theory, game theory, molecular biology, ecology, evolutionary biology, and population genetics, underscoring the exciting "general purpose" nature of genetic algorithms as search methods that can be employed across disciplines. An Introduction to Genetic Algorithms is accessible to students and researchers in any scientific discipline. It includes many thought and computer exercises that build on and reinforce the reader's understanding of the text. The first chapter introduces genetic algorithms and their terminology and describes two provocative applications in detail. The second and third chapters look at the use of genetic algorithms in machine learning (computer programs, data analysis and prediction, neural networks) and in scientific models (interactions among learning, evolution, and culture; sexual selection; ecosystems; evolutionary activity). Several approaches to the theory of genetic algorithms are discussed in depth in the fourth chapter. The fifth chapter takes up implementation, and the last chapter poses some currently unanswered questions and surveys prospects for the future of evolutionary computation.

9,645 citations


Cites background or methods or result from "Genetic Programming: On the Program..."

  • ...Though five problems is not many for such a comparison in view of the number of problems on which GP has been tried, these results bring into question the claim (Koza 1992) that the crossover operator is a major contributor to GP's success....

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  • ...John Koza (1992) also applied the GP paradigm to evolve CAs for simple random−number generation....

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  • ...John Koza (1992,1994) has used a form of the genetic algorithm to evolve Lisp programs to perform various tasks....

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  • ...Koza (1992) discusses how to amend the fitness function to produce a more efficient program to do this task....

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  • ...Implement a genetic programming algorithm and use it to solve the "6−multiplexer" problem (Koza 1992)....

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Proceedings ArticleDOI
Yuhui Shi1, Russell C. Eberhart1Institutions (1)
04 May 1998-
TL;DR: A new parameter, called inertia weight, is introduced into the original particle swarm optimizer, which resembles a school of flying birds since it adjusts its flying according to its own flying experience and its companions' flying experience.
Abstract: Evolutionary computation techniques, genetic algorithms, evolutionary strategies and genetic programming are motivated by the evolution of nature. A population of individuals, which encode the problem solutions are manipulated according to the rule of survival of the fittest through "genetic" operations, such as mutation, crossover and reproduction. A best solution is evolved through the generations. In contrast to evolutionary computation techniques, Eberhart and Kennedy developed a different algorithm through simulating social behavior (R.C. Eberhart et al., 1996; R.C. Eberhart and J. Kennedy, 1996; J. Kennedy and R.C. Eberhart, 1995; J. Kennedy, 1997). As in other algorithms, a population of individuals exists. This algorithm is called particle swarm optimization (PSO) since it resembles a school of flying birds. In a particle swarm optimizer, instead of using genetic operators, these individuals are "evolved" by cooperation and competition among the individuals themselves through generations. Each particle adjusts its flying according to its own flying experience and its companions' flying experience. We introduce a new parameter, called inertia weight, into the original particle swarm optimizer. Simulations have been done to illustrate the significant and effective impact of this new parameter on the particle swarm optimizer.

8,672 citations


Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 2014-
TL;DR: This chapter provides an overview of the fundamentals of algorithms and their links to self-organization, exploration, and exploitation.
Abstract: Algorithms are important tools for solving problems computationally. All computation involves algorithms, and the efficiency of an algorithm largely determines its usefulness. This chapter provides an overview of the fundamentals of algorithms and their links to self-organization, exploration, and exploitation. A brief history of recent nature-inspired algorithms for optimization is outlined in this chapter.

7,424 citations


References
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Book
01 Sep 1988-
Abstract: From the Publisher: This book brings together - in an informal and tutorial fashion - the computer techniques, mathematical tools, and research results that will enable both students and practitioners to apply genetic algorithms to problems in many fields Major concepts are illustrated with running examples, and major algorithms are illustrated by Pascal computer programs No prior knowledge of GAs or genetics is assumed, and only a minimum of computer programming and mathematics background is required

52,793 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
13 May 1983-Science
Abstract: There is a deep and useful connection between statistical mechanics (the behavior of systems with many degrees of freedom in thermal equilibrium at a finite temperature) and multivariate or combinatorial optimization (finding the minimum of a given function depending on many parameters). A detailed analogy with annealing in solids provides a framework for optimization of the properties of very large and complex systems. This connection to statistical mechanics exposes new information and provides an unfamiliar perspective on traditional optimization problems and methods.

38,868 citations


Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 1988-
TL;DR: This chapter contains sections titled: The Problem, The Generalized Delta Rule, Simulation Results, Some Further Generalizations, Conclusion.
Abstract: This chapter contains sections titled: The Problem, The Generalized Delta Rule, Simulation Results, Some Further Generalizations, Conclusion

16,807 citations


"Genetic Programming: On the Program..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Neural networks consist of processing elements that are connected with various weighted signal lines (Rumelhart, Hinton, and Williams 1986; Hinton 1989; Nilsson 1990)....

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  • ...Networks with two layers of such threshold processing elements were called perceptrons, and those with additional layers are now called neural networks (Minsky and Papert 1969; Rumelhart, Hinton, and Williams 1986; Hinton 1989; Nilsson 1990)....

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Book
30 Sep 1988-
Abstract: Definitions of diversity. Measuring species diversity. Choosing an index and interpreting diversity measures. Sampling problems. Structural diversity. Applications of diversity measures. Summary.

10,689 citations


Book
01 Jun 1991-
TL;DR: A new architecture for controlling mobile robots is described, building a robust and flexible robot control system that has been used to control a mobile robot wandering around unconstrained laboratory areas and computer machine rooms.
Abstract: A new architecture for controlling mobile robots is described. Layers of control system are built to let the robot operate at increasing levels of competence. Layers are made up of asynchronous modules that communicate over low-bandwidth channels. Each module is an instance of a fairly simple computational machine. Higher-level layers can subsume the roles of lower levels by suppressing their outputs. However, lower levels continue to function as higher levels are added. The result is a robust and flexible robot control system. The system has been used to control a mobile robot wandering around unconstrained laboratory areas and computer machine rooms. Eventually it is intended to control a robot that wanders the office areas of our laboratory, building maps of its surroundings using an onboard arm to perform simple tasks.

7,657 citations


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Related Papers (5)
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No. of citations received by the Paper in previous years
YearCitations
202218
2021484
2020507
2019510
2018541
2017585