scispace - formally typeset

Journal ArticleDOI

Genetic relationships among American species of Prosopis (Leguminosae) based on enzyme markers

01 Jan 2005-Genetics and Molecular Biology (Sociedade Brasileira de Genética)-Vol. 28, Iss: 2, pp 277-286

TL;DR: The results suggest that the two North American species (P. velutina and P. glandulosa) would have originated in different founder events, and the series within section Algarobia are not supported by the clusters retrieved in the phenogram based on isoenzymatic data.

AbstractIn the present work, isoenzyme electrophoresis was used to analyze the variability and phenetic relationships among seven American species of genus Prosopis belonging to three different sections: P. argentina (Monilicarpa), P. glandulosa, P. velutina, P. flexuosa, P. ruscifolia, P. kuntzei (Algarobia), and P. reptans (Strombocarpa). The genetic variability in P. argentina, P. reptans, and P. kuntzei was significantly lower than in the rest of the species analyzed. The species belonging to different sections are highly differentiated, but the relationships retrieved among species belonging to the section Algarobia suggested that the series of this section are not natural groups. P. kuntzei is as differentiated from the remaining species of Algarobia as from P. reptans or P. argentina, suggesting that this species might be included in a different section. The series within section Algarobia are not supported by the clusters retrieved in the phenogram based on isoenzymatic data. The results suggest that the two North American species (P. velutina and P. glandulosa) would have originated in different founder events.

Topics: Velutina (52%)

...read more

Content maybe subject to copyright    Report

Citations
More filters

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A combined approach including molecular phylogeny, molecular dating, and character optimization analysis was applied to study Prosopis diversification and evolution, suggesting that prosopis is not a natural group.
Abstract: The genus Prosopis is an important member of arid and semiarid environments around the world. To study Prosopis diversification and evolution, a combined approach including molecular phylogeny, molecular dating, and character optimization analysis was applied. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred from five different molecular markers (matK-trnK, trnL-trnF, trnS-psbC, G3pdh, NIA). Taxon sampling involved a total of 30 Prosopis species that represented all Sections and Series and the complete geographical range of the genus. The results suggest that Prosopis is not a natural group. Molecular dating analysis indicates that the divergence between Section Strombocarpa and Section Algarobia plus Section Monilicarpa occurred in the Oligocene, contrasting with a much recent diversification (Late Miocene) within each of these groups. The diversification of the group formed by species of Series Chilenses, Pallidae, and Ruscifoliae is inferred to have started in the Pliocene, showing a high diversification rate. The moment of diversification within the major lineages of American species of Prosopis is coincident with the spreading of arid areas in the Americas, suggesting a climatic control for diversification of the group. Optimization of habitat parameters suggests an ancient occupation of arid environments by Prosopis species. © 2008 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2008, 93, 621–640.

75 citations


Cites background or result from "Genetic relationships among America..."

  • ...The groupings obtained in our analysis are generally more in agreement with previous analyses (Ramírez et al., 1999; Bessega et al., 2005), and with traditional taxonomy (Fig....

    [...]

  • ...In addition, none of these studies have evaluated the nature of the Prosopis generic limits as either outgroups were not included (Ramírez et al., 1999; Bessega et al., 2005), or these were distantly related to Prosopis species (Bessega et al., 2006)....

    [...]

  • ...In addition, none of these studies have evaluated the nature of the Prosopis generic limits as either outgroups were not included (Ramírez et al., 1999; Bessega et al., 2005), or these were distantly related to Prosopis species (Bessega et al....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work aimed to determine whether American Prosopis sections arose in North or South America, and to explain the current distribution of their species on the basis of their genetic relationships.
Abstract: Aim The genus Prosopis includes 44 species and has a pseudoamphitropical, disjunct distribution. We aimed to determine whether American Prosopis sections arose in North or South America, and to explain the current distribution of their species on the basis of their genetic relationships. Location South-western USA, Mexico, Caribbean Antilles, Peru–Ecuador, central and northern Argentina, south-western Argentina (Patagonia) and Cuyo, south-western Asia and northern Africa. Methods Internal transcribed spacer fragments from 21 species of Prosopis were sequenced and the data were used to analyse the phylogenetic relationships using Microlobius and Mimosa as outgroups. Genetic distances were calculated to estimate the degree of divergence. Dispersal–vicariance (DIVA) analysis was conducted to help understand the biogeographical history of the genus. Main conclusions The sections Strombocarpa and Algarobia are not monophyletic. Prosopis argentina (section Monilicarpa) and the species of Algarobia are included in single clade. The phylogeny, DIVA analysis, and the pattern of genetic distances indicate that the ancestral area for the American species was wide, from south-western USA to Central and northern Argentina. Successive vicariance events split this area, and long-distance dispersal episodes (perhaps mediated by birds) led to recolonizations from North to South America, and vice versa.

41 citations


Cites background from "Genetic relationships among America..."

  • ...Bessega et al. (2005) also observed that section Monilicarpa is as differentiated from Algarobia as it is from Strombocarpa....

    [...]

  • ...Previous studies based on phenetic relationships through isoenzyme data (Hunziker et al., 1986; Saidman et al., 1996; Bessega et al., 2005) indicated that sections Algarobia and Strombocarpa are highly differentiated....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: These loci will enable genetic diversity studies of P. alba and P. chilensis and contribute to fine-scale population structure, indirect estimation of relatedness among individuals, and marker-assisted selection.
Abstract: Premise of the study: As only six useful microsatellite loci that exhibit broad cross-amplification are so far available for Prosopis species, it is necessary to develop a larger number of codominant markers for population genetic studies. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers obtained for Prosopis species from a 454 pyrosequencing run were optimized and characterized for studies in P. alba and P. chilensis. Methods and Results: Twelve markers that were successfully amplified showed polymorphism in P. alba and P. chilensis. The number of alleles per locus ranged between two and seven and heterozygosity estimates ranged from 0.2 to 0.8. Most of these loci cross-amplify in P. ruscifolia, P. flexuosa, P. kuntzei, P. glandulosa, and P. pallida. Conclusions: These loci will enable genetic diversity studies of P. alba and P. chilensis and contribute to fine-scale population structure, indirect estimation of relatedness among individuals, and marker-assisted selection.

28 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
24 Jul 2017-PLOS ONE
TL;DR: Although Algarrobos could have appeared as early as 4200 yr BP in northernmost Chile, they only became common throughout the Atacama over a thousand years later, during and after the Formative period.
Abstract: Archaeological and palaeoecological studies throughout the Americas have documented widespread landscape and environmental transformation during the pre-Columbian era. The highly dynamic Formative (or Neolithic) period in northern Chile (ca. 3700-1550 yr BP) brought about the local establishment of agriculture, introduction of new crops (maize, quinoa, manioc, beans, etc.) along with a major population increase, new emergent villages and technological innovations. Even trees such as the Algarrobos (Prosopis section Algarobia) may have been part of this transformation. Here, we provide evidence that these species were not native to the Atacama Desert of Chile (18-27°S), appearing only in the late Holocene and most likely due to human actions. We assembled a database composed of 41 taxon specific AMS radiocarbon dates from archaeobotanical and palaeoecological records (rodent middens, leaf litter deposits), as well an extensive bibliographical review comprising archaeobotanical, paleoecological, phylogenetic and taxonomic data to evaluate the chronology of introduction and dispersal of these trees. Although Algarrobos could have appeared as early as 4200 yr BP in northernmost Chile, they only became common throughout the Atacama over a thousand years later, during and after the Formative period. Cultural and natural factors likely contributed to its spread and consolidation as a major silvicultural resource.

27 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
23 Jan 2007-Genetica
TL;DR: The hierarchical analyses of the distribution of genetic variability showed that the highest proportion of variation occurred within populations, the differentiation among species was intermediate and the lowest component was observed among populations within species.
Abstract: Genetic variability, population structure and differentiation among 17 populations of 5 species and 2 natural interspecific hybrids of section Algarobia of genus Prosopis were analyzed from data of 23 isozyme and 28 RAPD loci. Both markers indicated that the studied populations are highly variable. P. alba populations in average showed lower values of genetic variability estimates from isozyme data, but this trend was not observed for RAPD markers. The hierarchical analyses of the distribution of genetic variability showed that the highest proportion of variation occurred within populations, the differentiation among species was intermediate and the lowest component was observed among populations within species. The consistency between results from both dataset implies that they are not biased and reflect the actual genetic structure of the populations analyzed. The matrices of Euclidean distances obtained from the two sets of markers were highly correlated according to Mantel test. In both cases the corresponding phenogram and MDS plot tended to cluster conspecific populations while hybrid populations were not intermediate between putative parents. Some disagreements between isozyme and RAPD phenograms were observed mainly in the affinities of hybrid populations. Such inconsistencies might result from reticular rather than dichotomic evolutionary relationships. The phenetic associations retrieved gave no support to the division of the section Algarobia into series.

25 citations


Cites result from "Genetic relationships among America..."

  • ...By contrast, most of the analyzed species of Algarobia showed high isozymatic similarity (Saidman 1986; Saidman and Vilardi 1987, 1993; Saidman et al. 2000; Bessega et al. 2005) and only few species are recognized by the patterns of few loci (Saidman 1990; Saidman et al....

    [...]

  • ...By contrast, most of the analyzed species of Algarobia showed high isozymatic similarity (Saidman 1986; Saidman and Vilardi 1987, 1993; Saidman et al. 2000; Bessega et al. 2005) and only few species are recognized by the patterns of few loci (Saidman 1990; Saidman et al. 2000)....

    [...]


References
More filters

Journal ArticleDOI
20 Jul 1978-Genetics
TL;DR: It is shown that the number of individuals to be used for estimating average heterozygosity can be very small if a large number of loci are studied and the average heter homozygosity is low.
Abstract: The magnitudes of the systematic biases involved in sample heterozygosity and sample genetic distances are evaluated, and formulae for obtaining unbiased estimates of average heterozygosity and genetic distance are developed. It is also shown that the number of individuals to be used for estimating average heterozygosity can be very small if a large number of loci are studied and the average heterozygosity is low. The number of individuals to be used for estimating genetic distance can also be very small if the genetic distance is large and the average heterozygosity of the two species compared is low.

10,751 citations


Journal ArticleDOI

5,893 citations


Journal ArticleDOI

2,348 citations


Additional excerpts

  • ...They were calculated using BIOSYS 1.7 (Swofford and Selander, 1981)....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is found that selection is not detectable in MHC datasets in every generation, population, or every evolutionary lineage, suggesting either that selection on the MHC is heterogeneous or that many of the current neutrality tests lack sufficient power to detect the selection consistently.
Abstract: In the 1960s, when population geneticists first began to collect data on the amount of genetic variation in natural populations, balancing selection was invoked as a possible explanation for how such high levels of molecular variation are maintained. However, the predictions of the neutral theory of molecular evolution have since become the standard by which cases of balancing selection may be inferred. Here we review the evidence for balancing selection acting on the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) of vertebrates, a genetic system that defies many of the predictions of neutrality. We apply many widely used tests of neutrality to MHC data as a benchmark for assessing the power of these tests. These tests can be categorized as detecting selection in the current generation, over the history of populations, or over the histories of species. We find that selection is not detectable in MHC datasets in every generation, population, or every evolutionary lineage. This suggests either that selection on the MHC is heterogeneous or that many of the current neutrality tests lack sufficient power to detect the selection consistently. Additionally, we identify a potential inference problem associated with several tests of neutrality. We demonstrate that the signals of selection may be generated in a relatively short period of microevolutionary time, yet these signals may take exceptionally long periods of time to be erased in the absence of selection. This is especially true for the neutrality test based on the ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions. Inference of the nature of the selection events that create such signals should be approached with caution. However, a combination of tests on different time scales may overcome such problems.

393 citations


"Genetic relationships among America..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The remaining species, which belong to section Algarobia, exhibit, for most enzyme loci, transspecies polymorphisms (similar to those described for DNA sequences in Klein, 1980; Garrigan and Hedrick, 2003), differing from each other only in allelic frequencies....

    [...]