Genetic Relationships of Chinese Grape Accessions to European and American Cultivars Assessed by Microsatellite Markers
01 Jan 2010-Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment (Taylor & Francis)-Vol. 24, Iss: 4, pp 2054-2059
TL;DR: The results showed that all accessions could be divided into three major groups and the clustering pattern was related to the classical ecogeographical grouping: occidentalis, pontica and orientalis, suggesting the positive correlation between the cluster results and the geographical origin of the grape accessions.
Abstract: A total of 45 grape accessions were used to investigate the genetic polymorphism and relationships among Chinese and other European or America grape accessions by microsatellite markers. Eighty-six alleles were detected in 9 simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci with an average of 9.6 alleles per locus. Genetic similarity ranged from 0.38 to 0.83 with an average value of 0.58. This indicated sufficient diversity among the accessions. Based on cluster analysis and principal coordinate analysis, the results showed that all accessions could be divided into three major groups and the clustering pattern was related to the classical ecogeographical grouping: occidentalis, pontica and orientalis. Those from the same ecological group could cluster preferentially in most cases into one group, suggesting the positive correlation between the cluster results and the geographical origin of the grape accessions. Wine grapes were significantly differentiated from table grapes no matter whether the accessions were fr...
TL;DR: The overall arrangement of cultivars suggests considerable phenotypical and genetic variability in studied germplasm collection, and may be useful for further utilization of available genetic resources in gene bank managers, growing and breeding.
Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate diversity and relationships among grapevine cultivars from the Serbian gene bank in Sremski Karlovci, and to identify the most useful variables for discrimination. A total of 54 grapevine cultivars have been studied. During the period 2000-2005, twelve quantitative and qualitative characteristics were evaluated using OIV categories to each trait. Characterization was done using multivariate statistical analyses: cluster and principal component analysis (PCA), Based on cluster analysis cultivars divided into three major groups and the clustering pattern was related to the classical eco-geographical grouping: occidentalis, pontica and orientalis. Beside geographic origin clustering position of cultivars throughout the dendrogram was related to main uses. The major part (70.1%) of the total variation presented was explained by four principal components. PC1 is highly correlated with the bunch and berry size and PC2 with the density of prostrate hairs of young shoot tip and the density of prostrate hairs between veins on the lower side of mature leaf. The overall arrangement of cultivars suggests considerable phenotypical (and presumably genetic) variability in studied germplasm collection. Furthermore, obtained results may be useful for further utilization of available genetic resources in gene bank managers, growing and breeding. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31063 i br III 43007]
TL;DR: The results obtained here revealed high similarity among the varieties studied, illuminating the reason why first and second generation of CLCuV resistant cotton varieties became susceptible to the new virus strain.
Abstract: Cotton is a major cash crop of Pakistan. During the last few years, cotton production has been hampered by cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) disease. Cotton breeders successfully combated CLCuV by developing resistant varieties, however it resurfaced in 2001, all the varieties proving susceptible. This study was conducted to explore the genetic diversity among cotton varieties approved as first defense line against CLCuV using DNA markers. The four cotton varieties, CIM-448, CIM-1100, FH-900 and FH-901, were subjected to random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and simple sequence repeats (SSR) finger printing assay to reveal genetic relatedness. A total of 110 RAPD primers were surveyed out of which 16 were found polymorphic. The size of 449 amplified loci ranged from 250 to 1500 bp with an average of 4.08 loci per primer. Similarity matrix revealed 96% similarity among the varieties assayed. For SSR genetic analysis, 92 primer pairs were surveyed and only six primers were found informative. A total ...
TL;DR: Genalex is a user-friendly cross-platform package that runs within Microsoft Excel, enabling population genetic analyses of codominant, haploid and binary data.
Abstract: genalex is a user-friendly cross-platform package that runs within Microsoft Excel, enabling population genetic analyses of codominant, haploid and binary data. Allele frequency-based analyses include heterozygosity, F statistics, Nei's genetic distance, population assignment, probabilities of identity and pairwise relatedness. Distance-based calculations include amova, principal coordinates analysis (PCA), Mantel tests, multivariate and 2D spatial autocorrelation and twogener. More than 20 different graphs summarize data and aid exploration. Sequence and genotype data can be imported from automated sequencers, and exported to other software. Initially designed as tool for teaching, genalex 6 now offers features for researchers as well. Documentation and the program are available at http://www.anu.edu.au/BoZo/GenAlEx/
TL;DR: A mathematical model for the evolutionary change of restriction sites in mitochondrial DNA is developed and a measure called "nucleotide diversity" is proposed to express the degree of polymorphism in a population at the nucleotide level.
Abstract: A mathematical model for the evolutionary change of restriction sites in mitochondrial DNA is developed. Formulas based on this model are presented for estimating the number of nucleotide substitutions between two populations or species. To express the degree of polymorphism in a population at the nucleotide level, a measure called "nucleotide diversity" is proposed.
01 Jan 2000
01 Jan 1992
TL;DR: The photochemically derived silver stain of nucleic acids in polyacrylamide gels originally described by Merril et al. was modified to reduce unspecific background staining and increase sensitivity and this improved staining procedure is applied for the routine analysis of complex DNA profiles generated by DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF).
Abstract: The photochemically derived silver stain of nucleic acids in polyacrylamide gels originally described by Merril et al. (1981, Science 211, 1437-1438) was modified to reduce unspecific background staining and increase sensitivity (down to 1 pg/mm2 band cross-section). Detection limits for double-stranded DNA fragments from HaeIII endonuclease digests of phage phi X174 were maintained despite eliminating oxidation pretreatment of fixed gels and reducing silver nitrate concentration. Preexposure to formaldehyde during silver impregnation enhanced sensitivity and the inclusion of the silver-complexing agent sodium thiosulphate in the image developer decreased background staining. Higher formaldehyde concentration during image development resulted in darker bands with good contrast. The procedure almost halves the number of steps, solutions and experimental time required and can be used for the staining of DNA fragments in polyacrylamide gels bound to a polyester backing film by controlling temperature during image development. We have applied this improved staining procedure for the routine analysis of complex DNA profiles generated by DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF).