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Journal ArticleDOI

Genogroup I picobirnavirus in diarrhoeic foals: can the horse serve as a natural reservoir for human infection?

17 Mar 2011-Veterinary Research (BioMed Central)-Vol. 42, Iss: 1, pp 52-52

TL;DR: A PBV strain, PBV/Horse/India/BG-Eq-3/2010, was identified in the faeces of a 10 month old weaned female foal with diarrhoea in January 2010 from Kolkata, India and sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis revealed close genetic relatedness to a human genogroup IPBV strain detected earlier from the same part of India.

AbstractPicobirnaviruses (PBV) are small, non-enveloped viruses with a bisegmented double-stranded RNA genome. In this study a PBV strain, PBV/Horse/India/BG-Eq-3/2010, was identified in the faeces of a 10 month old weaned female foal with diarrhoea in January 2010 from Kolkata, India. Surprisingly, sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis of a short stretch of the RNA dependent RNA polymerase gene revealed close genetic relatedness (> 98% nucleotide identity) to a human genogroup I PBV strain (Hu/GPBV1) detected earlier from the same part of India. Our observations together with earlier findings on genetic relatedness between human and animal PBV warrant further studies on zoonotic potential.

Topics: Picobirnavirus (55%), Disease reservoir (51%)

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The potential of human pathogenic viruses as significant indicators of water quality is emerging and has been proposed as suitable indices for the effective identification of such organisms of human origin contaminating water systems.
Abstract: Water quality through the presence of pathogenic enteric microorganisms may affect human health. Coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli and coliphages are normally used as indicators of water quality. However, the presence of above-mentioned indicators do not always suggest the presence of human enteric viruses. It is important to study human enteric viruses in water. Human enteric viruses can tolerate fluctuating environmental conditions and survive in the environment for long periods of time becoming causal agents of diarrhoeal diseases. Therefore, the potential of human pathogenic viruses as significant indicators of water quality is emerging. Human Adenoviruses and other viruses have been proposed as suitable indices for the effective identification of such organisms of human origin contaminating water systems. This article reports on the recent developments in the management of water quality specifically focusing on human enteric viruses as indicators.

77 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The number of viruses found in horses is expanded, and their genomes are characterized to assist future epidemiological studies of their transmission and potential association with various equine diseases.
Abstract: Metagenomics was used to characterize viral genomes in clinical specimens of horses with various organ-specific diseases of unknown aetiology. A novel parvovirus as well as a previously described hepacivirus closely related to human hepatitis C virus and equid herpesvirus 2 were identified in the cerebrospinal fluid of horses with neurological signs. Four co-infecting picobirnaviruses, including an unusual genome with fused RNA segments, and a divergent anellovirus were found in the plasma of two febrile horses. A novel cyclovirus genome was characterized from the nasal secretion of another febrile animal. Lastly, a small circular DNA genome with a Rep gene, from a virus we called kirkovirus, was identified in the liver and spleen of a horse with fatal idiopathic hepatopathy. This study expands the number of viruses found in horses, and characterizes their genomes to assist future epidemiological studies of their transmission and potential association with various equine diseases.

72 citations


Cites result from "Genogroup I picobirnavirus in diarr..."

  • ...The GI, GII and GIII genotypes were seen as distinct branches, consistent with previous analyses (Chen et al., 2014; Ganesh et al., 2011; Gillman et al., 2013; Masachessi et al., 2015; Smits et al., 2014)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Although, PBVs may have an ambiguous clinical implication, they do pose a potential public health concern in humans and control of PBVs mainly relies on nonvaccinal approach.
Abstract: Picobirnavirus (PBV) which has been included in the list of viruses causing enteric infection in animals is highly versatile because of its broad host range and genetic diversity PBVs are among the most recent and emerging small, nonenveloped viruses with a bisegmented double-stranded RNA genome, classified under a new family “Picobirnaviridae” PBVs have also been detected from respiratory tract of pigs, but needs further close investigation for their inhabitant behavior Though, accretion of genomic data of PBVs from different mammalian species resolved some of the ambiguity, quite a few questions and hypotheses regarding pathogenesis, persistence location, and evolution of PBVs remain unreciprocated Evolutionary analysis reveals association of PBVs with partitiviruses especially fungi partitiviruses Although, PBVs may have an ambiguous clinical implication, they do pose a potential public health concern in humans and control of PBVs mainly relies on nonvaccinal approach Based upon the published data, from 1988 to date, generated from animal PBVs across the globe, this review provides information and discussion with respect to genetic analysis as well as evolution of PBVs of animal origin in relation to human strains

52 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The public health aspects of PBV infection, especially its possible association with zoonosis is analyzed, as well as evidence has been found for genetic relatedness between human and animalPBV strains, suggesting extant crossing points in the ecology and evolution of heterologous PBV strains.
Abstract: Picobirnaviruses (PBVs) are small, non-enveloped, bisegmented double-stranded RNA genomic viruses of vertebrate hosts. Since their discovery in the late 1980s in clinical specimens from outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis in children, significant efforts have been made to investigate the role of PBV in diarrheic diseases. PBV has been detected in sporadic episodes of diarrhea as sole pathogen or coinfection as well as in outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis and in immunocompromised patients with diarrhea. However, PBV is frequently detected in non-diarrheic healthy hosts, and prolonged shedding has been observed in some individuals. Of interest, similar patterns of PBV infection have also been observed in pigs and other animal hosts. The increasing amount of PBV sequence data gathered from molecular epidemiological studies has evidenced a great sequence diversity of PBVs in various hosts and environmental samples. Importantly, evidence has been found for genetic relatedness between human and animal PBV strains, suggesting extant crossing points in the ecology and evolution of heterologous PBV strains. At present, no cell culture and animal model exists for PBVs. Well-structured epidemiological studies are still the only alternative to demonstrate the potential etiological role of PBVs in acute gastroenteritis or other diseases. This review aims to analyze the public health aspects of PBV infection, especially its possible association with zoonosis.

50 citations


Cites background from "Genogroup I picobirnavirus in diarr..."

  • ...More recently, an equine PBV strain was identified in a diarrheic foal in Kolkata, India, which shared complete sequence identity with a previously described human PBV strain from the same area [45] and close homology with porcine PBV strains reported from Hungary....

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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jun 2014
Abstract: Picobirnavirus (PBV) is a small, non-enveloped, bisegmented double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus of vertebrate hosts. The name ‘Picobirnavirus’ derives from the prefix ‘pico’ (latin for ‘small’) in reference to the small virion size, plus the prefix ‘bi’ (latin for ‘two’) and the word ‘RNA’ to indicate the nature of the viral genome. The serendipitous discovery of PBV dates back to 1988 from Brazil, when human fecal samples collected during the acute gastroenteritis outbreaks were subjected for routine rotavirus surveillance by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and silver straining (S/S). The PAGE gels after silver staining showed a typical ‘two RNA band’ pattern, and it was identified as Picobirnavirus. Likewise, the feces of wild black-footed pigmy rice rats (Oryzomys nigripes) subjected for PAGE assay by the same research group in Brazil reported the presence of PBV (Pereira et al., J Gen Virol 69:2749–2754, 1988). PBVs have been detected in faeces of humans and wide range of animal species with or without diarrhoea, worldwide. The probable role of PBV as either a ‘primary diarrhoeal agent’ in ‘immunocompetent children’; or a ‘potential pathogen’ in ‘immunocompromised individuals’ or an ‘innocuous virus’ in the intestine remains elusive and needs to be investigated despite the numerous reports of the presence of PBV in fecal samples of various species of domestic mammals, wild animals, birds and snakes; our current knowledge of their biology, etiology, pathogenicity or their transmission characteristics remains subtle. This review aims to analyse the veterinary and zoonotic aspects of animal Picobirnavirus infections since its discovery.

48 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A rapid simple technique based on the sensitive detection of rotavirus double-stranded RNA genome segments separated in polyacrylamide gels, which is comparable with that of electron microscopy or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Abstract: A rapid simple technique for the diagnosis of rotavirus has been developed based on the sensitive detection of rotavirus double-stranded RNA genome segments separated in polyacrylamide gels. The method utilizes a recently described ultrasensitive silver stain for polypeptides, which can also detect subnanogram amounts of nucleic acid. The sensitivity of the technique is comparable with that of electron microscopy or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

822 citations


"Genogroup I picobirnavirus in diarr..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...From 10% fecal suspensions, total RNA was extracted for PAGE and silver staining [14,31]....

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  • ...The detection of the bisegmented dsRNA genome of PBV by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and silver staining [31], is one of the standard and reliable laboratory diagnoses....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The most abundant fecal virus in this study was pepper mild mottle virus (PMMV), which was found in high concentrations—up to 109 virions per gram of dry weight fecal matter, indicating that this plant virus is prevalent in the human population.
Abstract: The human gut is known to be a reservoir of a wide variety of microbes, including viruses. Many RNA viruses are known to be associated with gastroenteritis; however, the enteric RNA viral community present in healthy humans has not been described. Here, we present a comparative metagenomic analysis of the RNA viruses found in three fecal samples from two healthy human individuals. For this study, uncultured viruses were concentrated by tangential flow filtration, and viral RNA was extracted and cloned into shotgun viral cDNA libraries for sequencing analysis. The vast majority of the 36,769 viral sequences obtained were similar to plant pathogenic RNA viruses. The most abundant fecal virus in this study was pepper mild mottle virus (PMMV), which was found in high concentrations—up to 109 virions per gram of dry weight fecal matter. PMMV was also detected in 12 (66.7%) of 18 fecal samples collected from healthy individuals on two continents, indicating that this plant virus is prevalent in the human population. A number of pepper-based foods tested positive for PMMV, suggesting dietary origins for this virus. Intriguingly, the fecal PMMV was infectious to host plants, suggesting that humans might act as a vehicle for the dissemination of certain plant viruses.

529 citations


"Genogroup I picobirnavirus in diarr..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The lack of a consistent pattern in PBV detection concomitantly in healthy [27] and diarrhoeic individuals and animal species raises questions regarding the pathogenic potential of PBV, albeit they have been often implicated in opportunistic infections in immunocompromised patients [28-30]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Methods and oligonucleotide primers are described to overcome failures to type G9, G 10 and P[11] rotavirus strains, and cross-reactivity identified between G10 and G3 rotaviruses.
Abstract: The use of molecular methods for rotavirus characterisation provides not only increased sensitivity for typing, but also allows accurate and more complete characterisation of strains, and the identification of putative reassortant strains. However, due to the constant accumulation of point mutations through genetic drift, and to the emergence of novel genotypes, possibly zoonotic transmission and subsequent reassortment, the reagents and methods used require close monitoring and updating. Methods and oligonucleotide primers are described to overcome failures to type G9, G10 and P[11] rotavirus strains, and cross-reactivity identified between G10 and G3 rotaviruses.

392 citations


"Genogroup I picobirnavirus in diarr..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...(Similarly, RT-PCR assay using the primers [32] targeting the rotavirus VP4 and VP7 genes failed to detect the group A rotavirus)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Novel enteric viruses such as astrovirus and picobirnavirus may be more important etiologic agents of diarrhea in HIV-infected patients than previously recognized and may been more common than either bacterial or parasitic enteropathogens.
Abstract: Background Diarrhea occurs frequently among persons with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, but the cause often remains unknown. We used a group of diagnostic assays to determine which viruses were etiologic agents of diarrhea in a group of persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Methods Stool and serum specimens were obtained from HIV-infected patients enrolled in a longitudinal study in Atlanta. Fecal specimens from patients with diarrhea and from control patients without diarrhea were screened by electron microscopy, polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, and enzyme immunoassays for rotaviruses, enteric adenoviruses, caliciviruses, picobirnaviruses, and astroviruses. Paired serum samples were tested for antibody responses to Norwalk virus and picobirnavirus. Results Viruses were detected in 35 percent of 109 fecal specimens from patients with diarrhea but in only 12 percent of 113 specimens from those without diarrhea (P<0.001). Specimens from patients with diarrhea were more li...

270 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A baseline understanding of viruses in raw sewage will enable educated decisions to be made regarding the use of different viruses in water quality assessments, and uncovered previously unknown sequence diversity in human picobirnaviruses.
Abstract: Human fecal matter contains a large number of viruses, and current bacterial indicators used for monitoring water quality do not correlate with the presence of pathogenic viruses. Adenoviruses and enteroviruses have often been used to identify fecal pollution in the environment; however, other viruses shed in fecal matter may more accurately detect fecal pollution. The purpose of this study was to develop a baseline understanding of the types of viruses found in raw sewage. PCR was used to detect adenoviruses, enteroviruses, hepatitis B viruses, herpesviruses, morbilliviruses, noroviruses, papillomaviruses, picobirnaviruses, reoviruses, and rotaviruses in raw sewage collected throughout the United States. Adenoviruses and picobirnaviruses were detected in 100% of raw sewage samples and 25% and 33% of final effluent samples, respectively. Enteroviruses and noroviruses were detected in 75% and 58% of raw sewage samples, respectively, and both viral groups were found in 8% of final effluent samples. This study showed that adenoviruses, enteroviruses, noroviruses, and picobirnaviruses are widespread in raw sewage. Since adenoviruses and picobirnaviruses were detected in 100% of raw sewage samples, they are potential markers of fecal contamination. Additionally, this research uncovered previously unknown sequence diversity in human picobirnaviruses. This baseline understanding of viruses in raw sewage will enable educated decisions to be made regarding the use of different viruses in water quality assessments.

122 citations


"Genogroup I picobirnavirus in diarr..." refers background in this paper

  • ...PBV are commonly detected in communal sewage and surface waters [33], thus consumption of water contaminated with PBV may provide one way to acquire PBV by different host species....

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