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Journal ArticleDOI

Genomic heterogeneity and instability of the AZF locus on the human Y chromosome.

30 Sep 2004-Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology (Elsevier)-Vol. 224, Iss: 1, pp 1-9

TL;DR: A genetic redundancy of the multi-copy genes in AZFb and AZFc and a causative relationship between the occurrence of first microdeletions then macro deletions in the repetitive structure of Yq11 is suggested where large palindromes are probably promoting multiple gene conversions andAZF rearrangements.

AbstractThe spermatogenesis locus azoospermia factor (AZF) in Yq11 has been mapped to three microdeletion intervals designated as AZFa, AZFb, and AZFc. They are caused by intrachromosomal recombination events between large homologous repetitive sequence blocks, and AZFc microdeletions are now recognised as the most frequent known genetic lesion causing male infertility. However, in the same Y-region, large genomic heterogeneities are also observed in fertile men, and only complete AZFa and AZFb deletions are associated with a specific testicular pathology. Partial AZF deletions are associated with variable pathologies and partial AZFc deletions may even have no impact on male fertility. This suggests a genetic redundancy of the multi-copy genes in AZFb and AZFc and a causative relationship between the occurrence of first microdeletions then macrodeletions in the repetitive structure of Yq11 where large palindromes are probably promoting multiple gene conversions and AZF rearrangements.

Topics: Azoospermia factor (74%)

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The American College of Medical Genetics has developed the following professional guidelines for the interpretation and reporting of copy number variation: evaluation of constitutional copy number variants detected in the postnatal setting.
Abstract: Genomic microarrays used to assess DNA copy number are now recommended as first-tier tests for the postnatal evaluation of individuals with intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorders, and/or multiple congenital anomalies. Application of this technology has resulted in the discovery of widespread copy number variation in the human genome, both polymorphic variation in healthy individuals and novel pathogenic copy number imbalances. To assist clinical laboratories in the evaluation of copy number variants and to promote consistency in interpretation and reporting of genomic microarray results, the American College of Medical Genetics has developed the following professional guidelines for the interpretation and reporting of copy number variation. These guidelines apply primarily to evaluation of constitutional copy number variants detected in the postnatal setting.

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A systematic search of the nonrecombining region of the human Y chromosome (NRY) identified 12 novel genes or families, 10 with full-length complementary DNA sequences, which may account for infertility among men with Y deletions.
Abstract: A systematic search of the nonrecombining region of the human Y chromosome (NRY) identified 12 novel genes or families, 10 with full-length complementary DNA sequences. All 12 genes, and six of eight NRY genes or families previously isolated by less systematic means, fell into two classes. Genes in the first group were expressed in many organs; these housekeeping genes have X homologs that escape X inactivation. The second group, consisting of Y-chromosomal gene families expressed specifically in testes, may account for infertility among men with Y deletions. The coherence of the NRY's gene content contrasts with the apparently haphazard content of most eukaryotic chromosomes.

412 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The genetic causes of male infertility known to date, the genetic polymorphisms possibly associated with male infertility, and novel results of global gene expression profiling of normal human testis by microarray technology are reported.
Abstract: Male infertility represents one of the clearest examples of a complex disease with a substantial genetic basis. Numerous male mouse models, mutation screening and association studies reported over the last few years reveal the high prevalence of genetic causes of spermatogenic impairment, accounting for 10-15% of severe male infertility, including chromosomal aberrations and single gene mutations. Natural selection prevents the transmission of mutations causing infertility, but this protective mechanism may be overcome by assisted reproduction techniques. Consequently, the identification of genetic factors is important for appropriate management of the infertile couple. However, a large proportion of infertile males are diagnosed as idiopathic, reflecting poor understanding of the basic mechanisms regulating spermatogenesis and sperm function. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms underlying spermatogenic damage in cases of genetic infertility (for example Yq microdeletions) are not known. These problems can be addressed only by large scale association studies and testicular or spermatozoal expression studies in well-defined alterations of spermatogenesis. It is conceivable that these studies will have important diagnostic and therapeutic implications in the future. This review discusses the genetic causes of male infertility known to date, the genetic polymorphisms possibly associated with male infertility, and reports novel results of global gene expression profiling of normal human testis by microarray technology.

396 citations


Cites background from "Genomic heterogeneity and instabili..."

  • ...Therefore, AZF microdeletions can be considered as ‘pre-mutations’ for a subsequent complete loss of the Y chromosome in the AZF-deleted patients’ spermatozoa, increasing the risk of embryonic X0 cells (Vogt, 2004)....

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Journal Article
TL;DR: The current estimate is that about 30 percent of men seeking help at the infertility clinic are found to have oligozoospermia or azoospermia of unknown aetiology, and there is a need to find the cause of infertility.
Abstract: Infertility is defined as a failure to conceive in a couple trying to reproduce for a period of two years without conception. Approximately 15 percent of couples are infertile, and among these couples, male factor infertility accounts for approximately 50 percent of causes. Male infertility is a multifactorial syndrome encompassing a wide variety of disorders. In more than half of infertile men, the cause of their infertility is unknown (idiopathic) and could be congenital or acquired. Infertility in men can be diagnosed initially by semen analysis. Seminograms of infertile men may reveal many abnormal conditions, which include azoospermia, oligozoospermia, t e r at ozoos p e r mi a , a s t he nozoos p e r mi a , necrospermia and pyospermia. The current estimate is that about 30 percent of men seeking help at the infertility clinic are found to have oligozoospermia or azoospermia of unknown aetiology. Therefore, there is a need to find the cause of infertility. The causes are known in less than half of these cases, out of which genetic or inherited disease and specific abnormalities in the Y chromosome are major factors. About 10–20 percent of males presenting without sperm in the ejaculate carry a deletion of the Y chromosome. This deleted region includes the Azoospermia Factor (AZF) locus, located in the Yq11, which is divided into four recurrently deleted non-overlapping subregions designated as AZFa, AZFb, AZFc and AZFd. Each of these regions may be associated with a particular testicular histology, and several candidate genes have been found within these regions. The Deleted in Azoospermia (DAZ) gene family is reported to be the most frequently deleted AZF candidate gene and is located in the AZFc region. Recently, a partial, novel Y chromosome 1.6-Mb deletion, designated “gr/gr” deletion, has been described specifically in infertile men with varying degrees of spermatogenic failure. The DAZ gene has an autosomal homologue, DAZL (DAZ-Like), on the short arm of the chromosome 3 (3p24) and it is possible that a defective autosomal DAZL may be responsible for the spermatogenic defect. The genetic complexity of the AZF locus on the long arm of the Y chromosome could be revealed only with the development of sequence tagged sites. Random attacks on the naked mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of sperm by reactive oxygen species or free radicals will inevitably cause oxidative damage or mutation to the mitochondrial genome with pathological consequences and lead to infertility in males. The key nuclear enzyme involved in the elongation and repair of mtDNA strands is DNA polymerase gamma, mapped to the long arm of chromosome 15 (15q25), and includes a CAG repeat region. Its mutation affects the adenosine triphosphate production. The introduction of molecular techniques has provided great insight into the genetics of infertility. Yet, our understanding of the genetic causes of male infertility remains limited.

306 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review will report and discuss the genetic causes of male infertility known up to date and analyse genetic polymorphisms possibly associated with male infertility.
Abstract: Genetic causes account for 10-15% of severe male infertility, including chromosomal aberrations and single gene mutations. Natural selection prevents the transmission of mutations causing infertility, while this protective mechanism may be overcome by assisted reproduction techniques. Consequently the identification of genetic factors has become good practice for appropriate management of the infertile couple. Furthermore, patients affected by some forms of genetic alterations produce a higher frequency of sperm with aneuploidies. Sperm aneuploidies are the direct result of the constitutional genetic abnormality or are caused by meiotic errors induced by the altered testicular environment that these men present. In this review we will report and discuss the genetic causes of male infertility known up to date and we will analyse genetic polymorphisms possibly associated with male infertility.

240 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
19 Jun 2003-Nature
TL;DR: The male-specific region of the Y chromosome, the MSY, differentiates the sexes and comprises 95% of the chromosome's length, and is a mosaic of heterochromatic sequences and three classes of euchromatics sequences: X-transposed, X-degenerate and ampliconic.
Abstract: The male-specific region of the Y chromosome, the MSY, differentiates the sexes and comprises 95% of the chromosome's length. Here, we report that the MSY is a mosaic of heterochromatic sequences and three classes of euchromatic sequences: X-transposed, X-degenerate and ampliconic. These classes contain all 156 known transcription units, which include 78 protein-coding genes that collectively encode 27 distinct proteins. The X-transposed sequences exhibit 99% identity to the X chromosome. The X-degenerate sequences are remnants of ancient autosomes from which the modern X and Y chromosomes evolved. The ampliconic class includes large regions (about 30% of the MSY euchromatin) where sequence pairs show greater than 99.9% identity, which is maintained by frequent gene conversion (non-reciprocal transfer). The most prominent features here are eight massive palindromes, at least six of which contain testis genes.

1,913 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The presence of not one but three spermatogenesis loci in Yq11 is proposed and that each locus is active during a different phase of male germ cell development.
Abstract: In a large collaborative screening project, 370 men with idiopathic azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia wereanalysed for deletions of 76 DNA loci in Yq11. In 12 individuals, we observed de novo microdeletions involvingseveral DNA loci, while an additional patient had an inherited deletion. They were mapped to three differentsubregions in Yq11. One subregion coincides to the AZF region defined recently in distal Yq11. The second andthird subregion were mapped proximal to it, in proximal and middle Yq11, respectively. The different deletionsobserved were not overlapping but the extension of the deleted Y DNA in each subregion was similar in eachpatient analysed. In testis tissue sections, disruption of spermatogenesis was shown to be at the same phasewhen the microdeletion occurred in the same Yq11 subregion but at a different phase when the microdeletionoccurred in a different Yq11 subregion. Therefore, we propose the presence of not one but three spermatogenesisloci in Yq11 and that each locus is active during a different phase of male germ cell development. As the mostsevere phenotype after deletion of each locus is azoospermia, we designated them as: AZFa, AZFb and AZFc.Their probable phase of function in human spermatogenesis and candidate genes involved will be discussed. INTRODUCTIONGenes for male germ cell development are present on the Ychromosome in different species groups (1–3). In men, theposition of a spermatogenesis locus was mapped in theeuchromatic part of the long Y arm (Yq11). It was called‘azoospermia factor’ (AZF), as the first six men observed withterminal deletions in Yq were azoospermic (4). Mature spermcells were not detectable in their seminal fluid. In all cases, the Ydeletions included the large heterochromatin block of the long Yarm (Yq12) and an undefined amount of the adjacent euchromatin(Yq11). Subsequently, the presence of AZF in Yq11 wasconfirmed by numerous studies at both cytogenetic (5) andmolecular level (6–8). However, the genetic complexity of AZFcould not be revealed by these analyses.This first became possible by the detection of sterile patientswith small interstitial deletions (i.e. microdeletions) in Yq11. Ina study with 13 sterile men suffering from idiopathic azoospermiatwo different microdeletions in Yq11 were observed (9). Theywere mapped to two non overlapping positions in Yq11 interval6 (10). However, further studies of Yq11 microdeletionsassociated to the phenotype of male sterility, only confirmed theposition of an AZF locus in distal Yq11 (11,12). The mostextensive study was performed by Reijo et al. (13) on 89 sterile

1,208 citations


"Genomic heterogeneity and instabili..." refers background in this paper

  • ...E-mail address:petervogt@med.uni-heidelberg.de. mosomes with a ring structure (ring-Y), or translocation the Y to an autosome or the X chromosome, all characte by a complete absence of the fluorescent Y heterochrom in distal Yq (Yq12) were most often reported (Sandberg 1985; Vogt, 1996)....

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  • ...Infertile men with microscopically visible abberratio n Yq11 usually have a mosaic karyotype such as 46,X 45,X0 or 46,X idicY/45,X0, with a variable number 0 cells (Sandberg, 1985; Vogt, 1996; Vogt and Fernan 003)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Binary polymorphisms associated with the non-recombining region of the human Y chromosome (NRY) preserve the paternal genetic legacy of the authors' species that has persisted to the present, permitting inference of human evolution, population affinity and demographic history.
Abstract: Binary polymorphisms associated with the non-recombining region of the human Y chromosome (NRY) preserve the paternal genetic legacy of our species that has persisted to the present, permitting inference of human evolution, population affinity and demographic history 1 . We used denaturing highperformance liquid chromatography (DHPLC; ref. 2) to identify 160 of the 166 bi-allelic and 1 tri-allelic site that formed a parsimonious genealogy of 116 haplotypes, several of which display distinct population affinities based on the analysis of 1062 globally representative individuals. A minority of contemporary East Africans and Khoisan represent the descendants of the most ancestral patrilineages of anatomically modern humans that left Africa between 35,000 and 89,000 years ago.

942 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is suggested that on the distal portion of the nonfluorescent segment of the long arm of the Y, factors are located controlling spermatogenesis.
Abstract: A deletion of the Y chromosome at the distal portion of band q11 was found in 6 men with normal male habitus but with azoospermia. Five of them were found during a survey of 1170 subfertile males while the sixth was karyotyped because of slight bone abnormalities. These findings, together with a review of the literature, suggest that on the distal portion of the nonfluorescent segment of the long arm of the Y, factors are located controlling spermatogenesis.

903 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The availability of the near-complete chromosome sequence, plus many new polymorphisms, a highly resolved phylogeny and insights into its mutation processes, now provide new avenues for investigating human evolution.
Abstract: Until recently, the Y chromosome seemed to fulfil the role of juvenile delinquent among human chromosomes — rich in junk, poor in useful attributes, reluctant to socialize with its neighbours and with an inescapable tendency to degenerate. The availability of the near-complete chromosome sequence, plus many new polymorphisms, a highly resolved phylogeny and insights into its mutation processes, now provide new avenues for investigating human evolution. Y-chromosome research is growing up.

885 citations


"Genomic heterogeneity and instabili..." refers background in this paper

  • ...They have inevitably led o new speculations about the evolutionary future of this ale-specific chromosome (Jobling and Tyler-Smith, 2003) ut also to an increased understanding of the azoospermia actor (AZF) locus in Yq11 concerning its function in uman spermatogenesis....

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  • ...It might be found in men of Y lineage O; a sister clade to N in the current Y phylogeny (Jobling and Tyler-Smith, 2003)....

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