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Journal ArticleDOI

Geographical range, heat tolerance and invasion success in aquatic species

07 Dec 2013-Proceedings of The Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (The Royal Society)-Vol. 280, Iss: 1772, pp 20131958-20131958

TL;DR: It is found that species introduced to freshwater systems have broader geographical ranges in comparison to native species, and introduced species are more heat tolerant than related native species collected from the same habitats.

AbstractSpecies with broader geographical ranges are expected to be ecological generalists, while species with higher heat tolerances may be relatively competitive at more extreme and increasing temperatures. Thus, both traits are expected to relate to increased survival during transport to new regions of the globe, and once there, establishment and spread. Here, we explore these expectations using datasets of latitudinal range breadth and heat tolerance in freshwater and marine invertebrates and fishes. After accounting for the latitude and hemisphere of each species’ native range, we find that species introduced to freshwater systems have broader geographical ranges in comparison to native species. Moreover, introduced species are more heat tolerant than related native species collected from the same habitats. We further test for differences in range breadth and heat tolerance in relation to invasion success by comparing species that have established geographically restricted versus extensive introduced distributions. We find that geographical range size is positively related to invasion success in freshwater species only. However, heat tolerance is implicated as a trait correlated to widespread occurrence of introduced populations in both freshwater and marine systems. Our results emphasize the importance of formal risk assessments before moving heat tolerant species to novel locations.

Topics: Species richness (62%), Range (biology) (58%), Introduced species (58%), Generalist and specialist species (54%), Macroecology (53%)

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Climate change is driving changes in the physical and chemical properties of the ocean that have consequences for marine ecosystems. Here, we review evidence for the responses of marine life to recent climate change across ocean regions, from tropical seas to polar oceans. We consider observed changes in calcification rates, demography, abundance, distribution and phenology of marine species. We draw on a database of observed climate change impacts on marine species, supplemented with evidence in the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. We discuss factors that limit or facilitate species’ responses, such as fishing pressure, the availability of prey, habitat, light and other resources, and dispersal by ocean currents. We find that general trends in species responses are consistent with expectations from climate change, including poleward and deeper distributional shifts, advances in spring phenology, declines in calcification and increases in the abundance of warm-water species. The volume and type of evidence of species responses to climate change is variable across ocean regions and taxonomic groups, with much evidence derived from the heavily-studied north Atlantic Ocean. Most investigations of marine biological impacts of climate change are of the impacts of changing temperature, with few observations of effects of changing oxygen, wave climate, precipitation (coastal waters) or ocean acidification. Observations of species responses that have been linked to anthropogenic climate change are widespread, but are still lacking for some taxonomic groups (e.g., phytoplankton, benthic invertebrates, marine mammals).

374 citations


Cites background from "Geographical range, heat tolerance ..."

  • ...The role of climate change in driving distribution shifts in marine biodiversity is currently garnering considerable attention (e.g., Bates et al., 2013; Poloczanska et al., 2013; Lenoir and Svenning, 2014) given the potential ramifications for fisheries, marine management, conservation, and policy…...

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Impacts of AIS, factors limiting their dispersal, and the role that humans play in transporting AIS are described, including those that pave the way for invasions by other species (“invasional meltdown”).
Abstract: Humans have effectively transported thousands of species around the globe and, with accelerated trade; the rate of introductions has increased over time. Aquatic ecosystems seem at particular risk from invasive species because of threats to biodiversity and human needs for water resources. Here, we review some known aspects of aquatic invasive species (AIS) and explore several new questions. We describe impacts of AIS, factors limiting their dispersal, and the role that humans play in transporting AIS. We also review the characteristics of species that should be the greatest threat for future invasions, including those that pave the way for invasions by other species (“invasional meltdown”). Susceptible aquatic communities, such as reservoirs, may serve as stepping stones for invasions of new landscapes. Some microbes disperse long distance, infect new hosts and grow in the external aquatic medium, a process that has consequences for human health. We also discuss the interaction between species invasions and other human impacts (climate change, landscape conversion), as well as the possible connection of invasions with regime shifts in lakes. Since many invaders become permanent features of the environment, we discuss how humans live with invasive species, and conclude with questions for future research.

234 citations


Cites background from "Geographical range, heat tolerance ..."

  • ...Furthermore, species with greater heat tolerance tend to also be over-represented in the invaders (Bates et al., 2013), a trend that has important implications for interactions between invasive species and climate change (Interaction with other processes section below)....

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  • ...Reservoirs create conditions more suitable for the invasive and more heat-tolerant species (Bates et al., 2013), as well as fauna tolerant of degraded ecosystems (Karatayev et al., 2009; Früh et al., 2012b)....

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  • ...Since many non-native species are tolerant to a wide range of environmental conditions (Kolar & Lodge, 2002; Bates et al., 2013; Sorte et al., 2013), we expect changing climate should facilitate the establishment of non-native species....

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  • ...For freshwater and marine invertebrates and fish, species with greater geographic range tend to be over-represented among invasive species, relative to those not invading (Kolar & Lodge, 2002; Bates et al., 2013)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work focuses on warming-related range shifts in marine systems to describe extensions and contractions as stages, and evaluates the utility of trait-based risk (invasion) and vulnerability (extinction) frameworks for application in a range shift context and finds inadequacies.
Abstract: Climate change is transforming the structure of biological communities through the geographic extension and contraction of species’ ranges. Range edges are naturally dynamic, and shifts in the location of range edges occur at different rates and are driven by different mechanisms. This leads to challenges when seeking to generalize responses among taxa and across systems. We focus on warming-related range shifts in marine systems to describe extensions and contractions as stages. Range extensions occur as a sequence of (1) arrival, (2) population increase, and (3) persistence. By contrast, range contractions occur progressively as (1) performance decline, (2) population decrease and (3) local extinction. This stage-based framework can be broadly applied to geographic shifts in any species, life-history stage, or population subset. Ideally the probability of transitioning through progressive range shift stages could be estimated from empirical understanding of the various factors influencing range shift rates. Nevertheless, abundance and occupancy data at the spatial resolution required to quantify range shifts are often unavailable and we suggest the pragmatic solution of considering observations of range shifts within a confidence framework incorporating the type, amount and quality of data. We use case studies to illustrate how diverse evidence sources can be used to stage range extensions and contractions and assign confidence that an observed range shift stage has been reached. We then evaluate the utility of trait-based risk (invasion) and vulnerability (extinction) frameworks for application in a range shift context and find inadequacies, indicating an important area for development. We further consider factors that influence rates of extension and contraction of range edges in marine habitats. Finally, we suggest approaches required to increase our capacity to observe and predict geographic range shifts under climate change.

184 citations


Cites background from "Geographical range, heat tolerance ..."

  • ...…physiological tolerances, phenotypic plasticity, the ability to overcome dispersal barriers and ecological generalism are expected pre-requisites for colonization and spread into new areas (Angert et al., 2011; Keith et al., 2011; Weir and Salice, 2011; Bates et al., 2013; Knutsen et al., 2013)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results provide novel insight into the well‐studied system of clinal differentiation in D. melanogaster and provide a context for future studies seeking to identify loci contributing to local adaptation in a wide variety of organisms, including other invasive species as well as temperate endemics.
Abstract: Populations arrayed along broad latitudinal gradients often show patterns of clinal variation in phenotype and genotype. Such population differentiation can be generated and maintained by both historical demographic events and local adaptation. These evolutionary forces are not mutually exclusive and can in some cases produce nearly identical patterns of genetic differentiation among populations. Here, we investigate the evolutionary forces that generated and maintain clinal variation genome-wide among populations of Drosophila melanogaster sampled in North America and Australia. We contrast patterns of clinal variation in these continents with patterns of differentiation among ancestral European and African populations. Using established and novel methods we derive here, we show that recently derived North America and Australia populations were likely founded by both European and African lineages and that this hybridization event likely contributed to genome-wide patterns of parallel clinal variation between continents. The pervasive effects of admixture mean that differentiation at only several hundred loci can be attributed to the operation of spatially varying selection using an FST outlier approach. Our results provide novel insight into the well-studied system of clinal differentiation in D. melanogaster and provide a context for future studies seeking to identify loci contributing to local adaptation in a wide variety of organisms, including other invasive species as well as temperate endemics.

131 citations


Cites background from "Geographical range, heat tolerance ..."

  • ...If invasive species are widely distributed in their native range (Bates et al. 2013), this raises the pos-...

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  • ...If invasive species are widely distributed in their native range (Bates et al. 2013), this raises the possibility that successful invasions may often result from admixture of populations that are already differentially adapted to selection pressures that vary along broad spatial gradients in the…...

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An integrative, synthetic approach including the investigation of multiple physiological traits (metabolic performance and thermal tolerance), and their plasticity, is proposed to provide more accurate and balanced predictions on species and assemblage vulnerability to both acute and chronic effects of global warming.
Abstract: Predicting species vulnerability to global warming requires a comprehensive, mechanistic understanding of sublethal and lethal thermal tolerances. To date, however, most studies investigating species physiological responses to increasing temperature have focused on the underlying physiological traits of either acute or chronic tolerance in isolation. Here we propose an integrative, synthetic approach including the investigation of multiple physiological traits (metabolic performance and thermal tolerance), and their plasticity, to provide more accurate and balanced predictions on species and assemblage vulnerability to both acute and chronic effects of global warming. We applied this approach to more accurately elucidate relative species vulnerability to warming within an assemblage of six caridean prawns occurring in the same geographic, hence macroclimatic, region, but living in different thermal habitats. Prawns were exposed to four incubation temperatures (10, 15, 20 and 25 °C) for 7 days, their metabolic rates and upper thermal limits were measured, and plasticity was calculated according to the concept of Reaction Norms, as well as Q10 for metabolism. Compared to species occupying narrower/more stable thermal niches, species inhabiting broader/more variable thermal environments (including the invasive Palaemon macrodactylus) are likely to be less vulnerable to extreme acute thermal events as a result of their higher upper thermal limits. Nevertheless, they may be at greater risk from chronic exposure to warming due to the greater metabolic costs they incur. Indeed, a trade-off between acute and chronic tolerance was apparent in the assemblage investigated. However, the invasive species P. macrodactylus represents an exception to this pattern, showing elevated thermal limits and plasticity of these limits, as well as a high metabolic control. In general, integrating multiple proxies for species physiological acute and chronic responses to increasing temperature helps providing more accurate predictions on species vulnerability to warming.

120 citations


Cites background from "Geographical range, heat tolerance ..."

  • ...This combination of traits possibly explains the recent geographical expansion of this species (Bates et al., 2013), and may make it particularly resilient to future warming scenarios (IPCC, 2014)....

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  • ...Palaemon macrodactylus seems, therefore, to have evolved a remarkably high metabolic control, which possibly explains its recent geographical expansion (Bates et al., 2013), and may make it especially resilient to future warming scenarios....

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  • ...…under future glo- bal change scenarios, we predict that in the English Channel area P. montagui may suffer a reduction in © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Global Change Biology, 21, 181–194 presence and abundance, while P. macrodactylus may experience a further expansion (e.g., Bates et al., 2013)....

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  • ...Palaemon macrodactylus seems, therefore, to have evolved a remarkably high metabolic control, which possibly explains its recent geographical expansion (Bates et al., 2013), and may make it especially resilient to future warming scenarios....

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  • ...This combi- nation of traits possibly explains the recent geographical expansion of this species (Bates et al., 2013), and may make it particularly resilient to future warming scenarios (IPCC, 2014)....

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Given their current scale, biotic invasions have taken their place alongside human-driven atmospheric and oceanic alterations as major agents of global change and left unchecked, they will influence these other forces in profound but still unpredictable ways.
Abstract: Biotic invaders are species that establish a new range in which they proliferate, spread, and persist to the detriment of the environment. They are the most important ecological outcomes from the unprecedented alterations in the distribution of the earth's biota brought about largely through human transport and commerce. In a world without borders, few if any areas remain sheltered from these im- migrations. The fate of immigrants is decidedly mixed. Few survive the hazards of chronic and stochastic forces, and only a small fraction become naturalized. In turn, some naturalized species do become invasive. There are several potential reasons why some immigrant species prosper: some escape from the constraints of their native predators or parasites; others are aided by human-caused disturbance that disrupts native communities. Ironically, many biotic invasions are apparently facilitated by cultivation and husbandry, unintentional actions that foster immigrant populations until they are self-perpetuating and uncontrollable. Whatever the cause, biotic invaders can in many cases inflict enormous environmental damage: (1) Animal invaders can cause extinctions of vulnerable native species through predation, grazing, competition, and habitat alteration. (2) Plant invaders can completely alter the fire regime, nutrient cycling, hydrology, and energy budgets in a native ecosystem and can greatly diminish the abundance or survival of native species. (3) In agriculture, the principal pests of temperate crops are nonindigenous, and the combined expenses of pest control and crop losses constitute an onerous "tax" on food, fiber, and forage production. (4) The global cost of virulent plant and animal diseases caused by parasites transported to new ranges and presented with susceptible new hosts is currently incalculable. Identifying future invaders and taking effective steps to prevent their dispersal and establishment con- stitutes an enormous challenge to both conservation and international commerce. Detection and management when exclusion fails have proved daunting for varied reasons: (1) Efforts to identify general attributes of future invaders have often been inconclusive. (2) Predicting susceptible locales for future invasions seems even more problematic, given the enormous differences in the rates of arrival among potential invaders. (3) Eradication of an established invader is rare, and control efforts vary enormously in their efficacy. Successful control, however, depends more on commitment and continuing diligence than on the efficacy of specific tools themselves. (4) Control of biotic invasions is most effective when it employs a long-term, ecosystem- wide strategy rather than a tactical approach focused on battling individual invaders. (5) Prevention of invasions is much less costly than post-entry control. Revamping national and international quarantine laws by adopting a "guilty until proven innocent" approach would be a productive first step. Failure to address the issue of biotic invasions could effectively result in severe global consequences, including wholesale loss of agricultural, forestry, and fishery resources in some regions, disruption of the ecological processes that supply natural services on which human enterprise depends, and the creation of homogeneous, impoverished ecosystems composed of cosmopolitan species. Given their current scale, biotic invasions have taken their place alongside human-driven atmospheric and oceanic alterations as major agents of global change. Left unchecked, they will influence these other forces in profound but still unpredictable ways.

5,846 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Active adaptive management and governance of resilience will be required to sustain desired ecosystem states and transform degraded ecosystems.
Abstract: ▪ Abstract We review the evidence of regime shifts in terrestrial and aquatic environments in relation to resilience of complex adaptive ecosystems and the functional roles of biological diversity in this context. The evidence reveals that the likelihood of regime shifts may increase when humans reduce resilience by such actions as removing response diversity, removing whole functional groups of species, or removing whole trophic levels; impacting on ecosystems via emissions of waste and pollutants and climate change; and altering the magnitude, frequency, and duration of disturbance regimes. The combined and often synergistic effects of those pressures can make ecosystems more vulnerable to changes that previously could be absorbed. As a consequence, ecosystems may suddenly shift from desired to less desired states in their capacity to generate ecosystem services. Active adaptive management and governance of resilience will be required to sustain desired ecosystem states and transform degraded ecosystems...

3,039 citations


"Geographical range, heat tolerance ..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Introduced species have been implicated in causing biodiversity loss [4], regime shifts [5] and extinctions [6], all of which can impact human resources and economic activity [7]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Although restricted to few taxa, these studies reveal clear relationships between the characteristics of releases and the species involved, and the successful establishment and spread of invaders.
Abstract: Predicting which species are probable invaders has been a long-standing goal of ecologists, but only recently have quantitative methods been used to achieve such a goal. Although restricted to few taxa, these studies reveal clear relationships between the characteristics of releases and the species involved, and the successful establishment and spread of invaders. For example, the probability of bird establishment increases with the number of individuals released and the number of release events. Also, the probability of plant invasiveness increases if the species has a history of invasion and reproduces vegetatively. These promising quantitative approaches should be more widely applied to allow us to predict patterns of invading species more successfully.

2,577 citations


01 Jan 2009

2,365 citations


"Geographical range, heat tolerance ..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...See http://CRAN.R-project. org/package=MuMIn....

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  • ...The 80% confidence model set (table S3) was calculated with the package “MuMIn” [24] and the function model....

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  • ...Bartoń K. 2009 MuMIn: Multi-model inference....

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  • ...The 80% confidence model set (see electronic supplementary material, table S3) was calculated with the package ‘MuMIn’ [23] and the function model.avg....

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01 Jan 2009

1,967 citations