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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41467-021-21691-6

Germline inherited small RNAs facilitate the clearance of untranslated maternal mRNAs in C. elegans embryos

04 Mar 2021-Nature Communications (Nat Commun)-Vol. 12, Iss: 1, pp 1441-1441
Abstract: Inheritance and clearance of maternal mRNAs are two of the most critical events required for animal early embryonic development. However, the mechanisms regulating this process are still largely unknown. Here, we show that together with maternal mRNAs, C. elegans embryos inherit a complementary pool of small non-coding RNAs that facilitate the cleavage and removal of hundreds of maternal mRNAs. These antisense small RNAs are loaded into the maternal catalytically-active Argonaute CSR-1 and cleave complementary mRNAs no longer engaged in translation in somatic blastomeres. Induced depletion of CSR-1 specifically during embryonic development leads to embryonic lethality in a slicer-dependent manner and impairs the degradation of CSR-1 embryonic mRNA targets. Given the conservation of Argonaute catalytic activity, we propose that a similar mechanism operates to clear maternal mRNAs during the maternal-to-zygotic transition across species.

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Topics: Argonaute (60%)
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9 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41467-021-24526-6
Abstract: CSR-1 is an essential Argonaute protein that binds to a subclass of 22G-RNAs targeting most germline-expressed genes. Here we show that the two isoforms of CSR-1 have distinct expression patterns; CSR-1B is ubiquitously expressed throughout the germline and during all stages of development while CSR-1A expression is restricted to germ cells undergoing spermatogenesis. Furthermore, CSR-1A associates preferentially with 22G-RNAs mapping to spermatogenesis-specific genes whereas CSR-1B-bound small RNAs map predominantly to oogenesis-specific genes. Interestingly, the exon unique to CSR-1A contains multiple dimethylarginine modifications, which are necessary for the preferential binding of CSR-1A to spermatogenesis-specific 22G-RNAs. Thus, we have discovered a regulatory mechanism for C. elegans Argonaute proteins that allows for specificity of small RNA binding between similar Argonaute proteins with overlapping temporal and spatial localization.

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Topics: Argonaute (67%), SiRNA binding (58%), Small RNA (56%) ... read more

4 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/NAR/GKAB619
Abstract: The Caenorhabditis elegans genome encodes nineteen functional Argonaute proteins that use 22G-RNAs, 26G-RNAs, miRNAs or piRNAs to regulate target transcripts. Only one Argonaute is essential under normal laboratory conditions: CSR-1. While CSR-1 has been studied widely, nearly all studies have overlooked the fact that the csr-1 locus encodes two isoforms. These isoforms differ by an additional 163 amino acids present in the N-terminus of CSR-1a. Using CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing to introduce GFP::3xFLAG into the long (CSR-1a) and short (CSR-1b) isoforms, we found that CSR-1a is expressed during spermatogenesis and in several somatic tissues, including the intestine. CSR-1b is expressed constitutively in the germline. small RNA sequencing of CSR-1 complexes shows that they interact with partly overlapping sets of 22G-RNAs. Phenotypic analyses reveal that the essential functions of csr-1 described in the literature coincide with CSR-1b, while CSR-1a plays tissue specific functions. During spermatogenesis, CSR-1a integrates into an sRNA regulatory network including ALG-3, ALG-4 and WAGO-10 that is necessary for fertility at 25°C. In the intestine, CSR-1a silences immunity and pathogen-responsive genes, and its loss results in improved survival from the pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Our findings functionally distinguish the CSR-1 isoforms and highlight the importance of studying each AGO isoform independently.

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Topics: Argonaute (58%), Caenorhabditis elegans (54%), Small RNA (53%) ... read more

3 Citations


Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2020.09.04.282863
Meetali Singh1, Eric Cornes1, Blaise Li1, Piergiuseppe Quarato2  +7 moreInstitutions (4)
04 Sep 2020-bioRxiv
Abstract: In the Caenorhabditis elegans germline, thousands of mRNAs are concomitantly expressed with antisense 22G-RNAs, which are loaded into the Argonaute CSR-1. Despite their essential functions for animal fertility and embryonic development, how CSR-1 22G-RNAs are produced remains unknown. Here, we show that CSR-1 slicer activity is primarily involved in triggering the synthesis of small RNAs on the coding sequences of germline mRNAs and post-transcriptionally regulates a fraction of targets. CSR-1-cleaved mRNAs prime the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, EGO-1, to synthesize 22G-RNAs in phase with ribosome translation in the cytoplasm, in contrast to other 22G-RNAs mostly synthesized in germ granules. Moreover, codon optimality and efficient translation antagonize CSR-1 slicing and 22G-RNAs biogenesis. We propose that codon usage differences encoded into mRNA sequences might be a conserved strategy in eukaryotes to regulate small RNA biogenesis and Argonaute targeting.

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Topics: Argonaute (64%), Small RNA (60%), Codon usage bias (57%) ... read more

3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41467-021-23615-W
Meetali Singh1, Eric Cornes1, Blaise Li1, Piergiuseppe Quarato1  +7 moreInstitutions (4)
Abstract: In the Caenorhabditis elegans germline, thousands of mRNAs are concomitantly expressed with antisense 22G-RNAs, which are loaded into the Argonaute CSR-1. Despite their essential functions for animal fertility and embryonic development, how CSR-1 22G-RNAs are produced remains unknown. Here, we show that CSR-1 slicer activity is primarily involved in triggering the synthesis of small RNAs on the coding sequences of germline mRNAs and post-transcriptionally regulates a fraction of targets. CSR-1-cleaved mRNAs prime the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, EGO-1, to synthesize 22G-RNAs in phase with translating ribosomes, in contrast to other 22G-RNAs mostly synthesized in germ granules. Moreover, codon optimality and efficient translation antagonize CSR-1 slicing and 22G-RNAs biogenesis. We propose that codon usage differences encoded into mRNA sequences might be a conserved strategy in eukaryotes to regulate small RNA biogenesis and Argonaute targeting.

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Topics: Argonaute (63%), Small RNA (60%), Codon usage bias (58%) ... read more

3 Citations


Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2021.07.23.453445
23 Jul 2021-bioRxiv
Abstract: Small RNA pathways play diverse regulatory roles in the nematode C. elegans. However, our understanding of small RNA pathways, their conservation, and their roles in other nematodes is limited. Here, we analyzed small RNA pathways in the parasitic nematode Ascaris. Ascaris has ten Argonautes with five worm-specific Argonautes (WAGOs) that are associated with secondary 59-triphosphate small RNAs (22-24G-RNAs). These Ascaris WAGOs and their small RNAs target repetitive sequences (WAGO-1, WAGO-2, WAGO-3, and NRDE-3) or mature mRNAs (CSR-1, NRDE-3, and WAGO-3) and are similar to the C. elegans mutator, nuclear, and CSR-1 small RNA pathways. Ascaris CSR-1 likely functions to "license" gene expression in the absence of an Ascaris piRNA pathway. Ascaris ALG-4 and its associated 26G-RNAs target and appear to repress specific mRNAs during meiosis in the testes. Notably, Ascaris WAGOs (WAGO-3 and NRDE-3) small RNAs change their targets between repetitive sequences and mRNAs during spermatogenesis or in early embryos illustrating target plasticity of these WAGOs. We provide a unique and comprehensive view of mRNA and small RNA expression throughout nematode spermatogenesis that illustrates the dynamics and flexibility of small RNA pathways. Overall, our study provides key insights into the conservation and divergence of nematode small RNA pathways.

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Topics: Small RNA (65%), Piwi-interacting RNA (60%), Ascaris (57%) ... read more

1 Citations


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65 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/BIOINFORMATICS/BTP352
Heng Li1, Bob Handsaker2, Alec Wysoker2, T. J. Fennell2  +5 moreInstitutions (4)
01 Aug 2009-Bioinformatics
Abstract: Summary: The Sequence Alignment/Map (SAM) format is a generic alignment format for storing read alignments against reference sequences, supporting short and long reads (up to 128 Mbp) produced by different sequencing platforms. It is flexible in style, compact in size, efficient in random access and is the format in which alignments from the 1000 Genomes Project are released. SAMtools implements various utilities for post-processing alignments in the SAM format, such as indexing, variant caller and alignment viewer, and thus provides universal tools for processing read alignments. Availability: http://samtools.sourceforge.net Contact: [email protected]

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Topics: Variant Call Format (62%), Stockholm format (61%), FASTQ format (56%) ... read more

35,747 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NMETH.1923
01 Apr 2012-Nature Methods
Abstract: As the rate of sequencing increases, greater throughput is demanded from read aligners. The full-text minute index is often used to make alignment very fast and memory-efficient, but the approach is ill-suited to finding longer, gapped alignments. Bowtie 2 combines the strengths of the full-text minute index with the flexibility and speed of hardware-accelerated dynamic programming algorithms to achieve a combination of high speed, sensitivity and accuracy.

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27,973 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.14806/EJ.17.1.200
Marcel Martin1Institutions (1)
02 May 2011-EMBnet.journal
Abstract: When small RNA is sequenced on current sequencing machines, the resulting reads are usually longer than the RNA and therefore contain parts of the 3' adapter. That adapter must be found and removed error-tolerantly from each read before read mapping. Previous solutions are either hard to use or do not offer required features, in particular support for color space data. As an easy to use alternative, we developed the command-line tool cutadapt, which supports 454, Illumina and SOLiD (color space) data, offers two adapter trimming algorithms, and has other useful features. Cutadapt, including its MIT-licensed source code, is available for download at http://code.google.com/p/cutadapt/

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Topics: Adapter (genetics) (50%)

13,576 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/GENETICS/77.1.71
Sydney Brenner1Institutions (1)
01 May 1974-Genetics
Abstract: Methods are described for the isolation, complementation and mapping of mutants of Caenorhabditis elegans, a small free-living nematode worm. About 300 EMS-induced mutants affecting behavior and morphology have been characterized and about one hundred genes have been defined. Mutations in 77 of these alter the movement of the animal. Estimates of the induced mutation frequency of both the visible mutants and X chromosome lethals suggests that, just as in Drosophila, the genetic units in C. elegans are large.

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Topics: WormBook (60%), Caenorhabditis briggsae (60%), Caenorhabditis (59%) ... read more

12,264 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/BIOINFORMATICS/BTT656
Yang Liao1, Gordon K. Smyth1, Wei Shi1Institutions (1)
01 Apr 2014-Bioinformatics
Abstract: MOTIVATION: Next-generation sequencing technologies generate millions of short sequence reads, which are usually aligned to a reference genome. In many applications, the key information required for downstream analysis is the number of reads mapping to each genomic feature, for example to each exon or each gene. The process of counting reads is called read summarization. Read summarization is required for a great variety of genomic analyses but has so far received relatively little attention in the literature. RESULTS: We present featureCounts, a read summarization program suitable for counting reads generated from either RNA or genomic DNA sequencing experiments. featureCounts implements highly efficient chromosome hashing and feature blocking techniques. It is considerably faster than existing methods (by an order of magnitude for gene-level summarization) and requires far less computer memory. It works with either single or paired-end reads and provides a wide range of options appropriate for different sequencing applications. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: featureCounts is available under GNU General Public License as part of the Subread (http://subread.sourceforge.net) or Rsubread (http://www.bioconductor.org) software packages.

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8,495 Citations