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Gilles Fauconnier & Mark Turner, " The way we think: conceptual blending and the mind's hidden complexities"

About: The article was published on 2002-01-01 and is currently open access. It has received 868 citations till now. The article focuses on the topics: Conceptual blending.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Important issues in embodied cognition are raised: how fully shared are bodily grounded motivations for universal cognitive patterns, what makes a rare pattern emerge, and what are the cultural entailments of such patterns?

664 citations


Cites background from "Gilles Fauconnier & Mark Turner, " ..."

  • ...Our understanding of this is that gestures enact blends (in the sense of Fauconnier & Turner, 1996, 1998a, 1998b, 2002) of the real space with other spaces (Liddell, 1998, 2003); mental space blending principles apply similarly in all cases, but the precise mappings vary....

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  • ...…or Spanish, supports the cognitive linguistic claim that conceptual metaphor is not a “mere” linguistic phenomenon but a much deeper cognitive one (Fauconnier & Turner, 2002; Johnson, 1987; Lakoff, 1993; Lakoff & Johnson, 1980; Lakoff & Núñez, 2000): It is the peculiar Aymara Ego-RP conceptual…...

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  • ...The fact that many of these gestures when displayed by bilingual speakers, were produced when speaking in either Aymara or Spanish, supports the cognitive linguistic claim that conceptual metaphor is not a “mere” linguistic phenomenon but a much deeper cognitive one ( Fauconnier & Turner, 2002; Johnson, 1987; Lakoff, 1993; Lakoff & Johnson, 1980; Lakoff & Nunez, 2000): It is the peculiar Aymara Ego-RP conceptual ......

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the collective activity system is defined as a unit of analysis, contradictions as a source of change and development, agency as a crucial layer of causality, and transformation of practice as a form of expansive concept formation.
Abstract: So-called “design experiments” have been presented as a radical alternative to traditional experimental designs in behavioral sciences. A closer scrutiny of design experiments shows that they share the basic linear methodology of traditional randomized controlled trials, and thus ignore resistance and agency of learners as a source of surprise and novelty. Formative interventions based on Vygotsky’s principle of double stimulation offer an alternative that builds on and purposefully fosters learners’ agency. Formative interventions may be characterized with the help of an argumentative grammar which proposes (a) the collective activity system as a unit of analysis, (b) contradictions as a source of change and development, (c) agency as a crucial layer of causality, and (d) transformation of practice as a form of expansive concept formation. These four epistemic tenets are concretized with the help of analysis of data from a Change Laboratory formative experiment conducted in a Finnish hospital. The analys...

476 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper showed that discourse context can immediately overrule local lexical-semantic violations, and therefore suggest that language comprehension does not involve an initially context-free semantic analysis, which is an innate organizing principle of cognition.
Abstract: In linguistic theories of how sentences encode meaning, a distinction is often made between the context-free rule-based combination of lexical-semantic features of the words within a sentence (“semantics”), and the contributions made by wider context (“pragmatics”). In psycholinguistics, this distinction has led to the view that listeners initially compute a local, context-independent meaning of a phrase or sentence before relating it to the wider context. An important aspect of such a two-step perspective on interpretation is that local semantics cannot initially be overruled by global contextual factors. In two spoken-language event-related potential experiments, we tested the viability of this claim by examining whether discourse context can overrule the impact of the core lexical-semantic feature animacy, considered to be an innate organizing principle of cognition. Two-step models of interpretation predict that verb-object animacy violations, as in “The girl comforted the clock,” will always perturb the unfolding interpretation process, regardless of wider context. When presented in isolation, such anomalies indeed elicit a clear N400 effect, a sign of interpretive problems. However, when the anomalies were embedded in a supportive context (e.g., a girl talking to a clock about his depression), this N400 effect disappeared completely. Moreover, given a suitable discourse context (e.g., a story about an amorous peanut), animacy-violating predicates (“the peanut was in love”) were actually processed more easily than canonical predicates (“the peanut was salted”). Our findings reveal that discourse context can immediately overrule local lexical-semantic violations, and therefore suggest that language comprehension does not involve an initially context-free semantic analysis.

414 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors argue that creating novel ventures consists of inductive analogical or metaphorical reasoning, which generates a platform for the creation and commercialization of novel ventures and facilitates the comprehension and justification of a venture.
Abstract: We argue that creating novel ventures consists of inductive analogical or metaphorical reasoning, which generates a platform for the creation and commercialization of novel ventures and facilitates the comprehension and justification of a venture. We argue that such inductive reasoning is shaped by two determinants (the applicability of prior entrepreneurial experience and the motivation to resolve uncertainty and acquire legitimacy) that interrelate to predict and explain patterns of analogical and metaphorical reasoning by which novice and experienced entrepreneurs construct meaning for themselves as well as others in the early stages of creating a venture.

411 citations


Cites background from "Gilles Fauconnier & Mark Turner, " ..."

  • ...Words are not only retrospective signifiers but also “prompts we use to get one another to call up some of what we know and to work on it creatively to arrive at a meaning” (Fauconnier & Turner, 2002: 164)....

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  • ...…extended to or aligned with a target their use simulates an entire scene that can be dynamically manipulated and generates a wide range of emergent inferences (about events, actions, interests and political biases) (Fauconnier & Turner, 1998, 2002; see also Gaglio, 2004; Sarasvathy, 2004)....

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  • ...The construction and elaboration of such scenes also makes them appear real (Fauconnier & Turner, 1998, 2002)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Compared with the closeness prime, the distance prime produced greater enjoyment of media depicting embarrassment, less emotional distress from violent media, lower estimates of the number of calories in unhealthy food, and weaker reports of emotional attachments to family members and hometowns.
Abstract: Current conceptualizations of psychological distance (e.g., construal-level theory) refer to the degree of overlap between the self and some other person, place, or point in time. We propose a complementary view in which perceptual and motor representations of physical distance influence people's thoughts and feelings without reference to the self, extending research and theory on the effects of distance into domains where construal-level theory is silent. Across four experiments, participants were primed with either spatial closeness or spatial distance by plotting an assigned set of points on a Cartesian coordinate plane. Compared with the closeness prime, the distance prime produced greater enjoyment of media depicting embarrassment (Study 1), less emotional distress from violent media (Study 2), lower estimates of the number of calories in unhealthy food (Study 3), and weaker reports of emotional attachments to family members and hometowns (Study 4). These results support a broader conceptualization o...

379 citations


Cites background from "Gilles Fauconnier & Mark Turner, " ..."

  • ...These phenomena demonstrate how knowledge about physical relations is projected onto other domains as an analogical means of understanding them, as theorized by Lakoff and Johnson (1980) and other researchers (Fauconnier & Turner, 2002)....

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References
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Important issues in embodied cognition are raised: how fully shared are bodily grounded motivations for universal cognitive patterns, what makes a rare pattern emerge, and what are the cultural entailments of such patterns?

664 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors argue that creating novel ventures consists of inductive analogical or metaphorical reasoning, which generates a platform for the creation and commercialization of novel ventures and facilitates the comprehension and justification of a venture.
Abstract: We argue that creating novel ventures consists of inductive analogical or metaphorical reasoning, which generates a platform for the creation and commercialization of novel ventures and facilitates the comprehension and justification of a venture. We argue that such inductive reasoning is shaped by two determinants (the applicability of prior entrepreneurial experience and the motivation to resolve uncertainty and acquire legitimacy) that interrelate to predict and explain patterns of analogical and metaphorical reasoning by which novice and experienced entrepreneurs construct meaning for themselves as well as others in the early stages of creating a venture.

411 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Compared with the closeness prime, the distance prime produced greater enjoyment of media depicting embarrassment, less emotional distress from violent media, lower estimates of the number of calories in unhealthy food, and weaker reports of emotional attachments to family members and hometowns.
Abstract: Current conceptualizations of psychological distance (e.g., construal-level theory) refer to the degree of overlap between the self and some other person, place, or point in time. We propose a complementary view in which perceptual and motor representations of physical distance influence people's thoughts and feelings without reference to the self, extending research and theory on the effects of distance into domains where construal-level theory is silent. Across four experiments, participants were primed with either spatial closeness or spatial distance by plotting an assigned set of points on a Cartesian coordinate plane. Compared with the closeness prime, the distance prime produced greater enjoyment of media depicting embarrassment (Study 1), less emotional distress from violent media (Study 2), lower estimates of the number of calories in unhealthy food (Study 3), and weaker reports of emotional attachments to family members and hometowns (Study 4). These results support a broader conceptualization o...

379 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A major revolution in the study of metaphor occurred 30 years ago with the introduction of conceptual metaphor theory (CMT) as discussed by the authors, which proposed that metaphor is not just an aspect of language, but a fundamental part of human thought.
Abstract: A major revolution in the study of metaphor occurred 30 years ago with the introduction of “conceptual metaphor theory” (CMT). Unlike previous theories of metaphor and metaphorical meaning, CMT proposed that metaphor is not just an aspect of language, but a fundamental part of human thought. Indeed, most metaphorical language arises from preexisting patterns of metaphorical thought or conceptual metaphors. This article provides an evaluation of the linguistic and psychological evidence supporting CMT, and responds to some of the criticisms of CMT offered by scholars within cognitive science. Some new ways of thinking of conceptual metaphors from the perspective of embodied simulations and dynamical systems theory are also presented.

335 citations

Book Chapter
01 May 2007
TL;DR: In this paper, a unified account of the lexical adjustment process using relevance theory has been proposed, and an inferential account of this process using the framework of relevance theory is presented.
Abstract: According to recent work in the new field of lexical pragmatics, the meanings of words are frequently pragmatically adjusted and fine-tuned in context, so that their contribution to the proposition expressed is different from their lexically encoded sense. Well-known examples include lexical narrowing (e.g. ‘drink’ used to mean ALCOHOLIC DRINK), approximation (or loosening) (e.g. ‘flat’ used to mean RELATIVELY FLAT) and metaphorical extension (e.g. ‘bulldozer’ used to mean FORCEFUL PERSON). These three phenomena are often studied in isolation from each other and given quite distinct kinds of explanation. In this chapter, we will propose a more unified account. We will try to show that narrowing, loosening and metaphorical extension are simply different outcomes of a single interpretive process which creates an ad hoc concept, or occasion-specific sense, based on interaction among encoded concepts, contextual information and pragmatic expectations or principles. We will outline an inferential account of the lexical adjustment process using the framework of relevance theory, and compare it with some alternative accounts.

325 citations