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Journal ArticleDOI

Global Epidemiology of Campylobacter Infection

01 Jul 2015-Clinical Microbiology Reviews (American Society for Microbiology)-Vol. 28, Iss: 3, pp 687-720

TL;DR: Overall, campylobacteriosis is still one of the most important infectious diseases that is likely to challenge global health in the years to come.

AbstractCampylobacter jejuni infection is one of the most widespread infectious diseases of the last century. The incidence and prevalence of campylobacteriosis have increased in both developed and developing countries over the last 10 years. The dramatic increase in North America, Europe, and Australia is alarming, and data from parts of Africa, Asia, and the Middle East indicate that campylobacteriosis is endemic in these areas, especially in children. In addition to C. jejuni, there is increasing recognition of the clinical importance of emerging Campylobacter species, including Campylobacter concisus and Campylobacter ureolyticus. Poultry is a major reservoir and source of transmission of campylobacteriosis to humans. Other risk factors include consumption of animal products and water, contact with animals, and international travel. Strategic implementation of multifaceted biocontrol measures to reduce the transmission of this group of pathogens is paramount for public health. Overall, campylobacteriosis is still one of the most important infectious diseases that is likely to challenge global health in the years to come. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the global epidemiology, transmission, and clinical relevance of Campylobacter infection.

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The data for GBS suggests that the immunologic mechanism can involve molecular mimicry, at least in some GBS variants, and it is likely that multiple mechanisms render the axon vulnerable.
Abstract: Summary Guillain-Barre syndrome is the most common and most severe acute paralytic neuropathy, with about 100 000 people developing the disorder every year worldwide. Under the umbrella term of Guillain-Barre syndrome are several recognisable variants with distinct clinical and pathological features. The severe, generalised manifestation of Guillain-Barre syndrome with respiratory failure affects 20–30% of cases. Treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin or plasma exchange is the optimal management approach, alongside supportive care. Understanding of the infectious triggers and immunological and pathological mechanisms has advanced substantially in the past 10 years, and is guiding clinical trials investigating new treatments. Investigators of large, worldwide, collaborative studies of the spectrum of Guillain-Barre syndrome are accruing data for clinical and biological databases to inform the development of outcome predictors and disease biomarkers. Such studies are transforming the clinical and scientific landscape of acute autoimmune neuropathies.

620 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Overall, poultry is an important reservoir and source of human campylobacteriosis, although the contribution of other sources, reservoirs and transmission warrants more research.
Abstract: The incidence of human infections caused by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, the main bacterial agents of gastrointestinal disease, has been increasing worldwide. Here, we review the role of poultry as a source and reservoir for Campylobacter. Contamination and subsequent colonization of broiler flocks at the farm level often lead to transmission of Campylobacter along the poultry production chain and contamination of poultry meat at retail. Yet Campylobacter prevalence in poultry, as well as the contamination level of poultry products, vary greatly between different countries so there are differences in the intervention strategies that need to be applied. Temporal patterns in poultry do not always coincide with those found in human infections. Studies in rural and urban areas have revealed differences in Campylobacter infections attributed to poultry, as poultry seems to be the predominant reservoir in urban, but not necessarily in rural, settings. Furthermore, foreign travel is considered a major risk factor in acquiring the disease, especially for individuals living in the northern European countries. Intervention strategies aimed at reducing Campylobacter colonization in poultry and focused at the farm level have been successful in reducing the number of Campylobacter cases in several countries. Increasing farm biosecurity and education of consumers are likely to limit the risk of infection. Overall, poultry is an important reservoir and source of human campylobacteriosis, although the contribution of other sources, reservoirs and transmission warrants more research.

217 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The evidence that links animals as vehicles of the foodborne pathogens Salmonella, Campylobacter, Shiga toxigenic E. coli, and L. monocytogenes, their impact, and their current status is reviewed.
Abstract: Food-producing animals are the major reservoirs for many foodborne pathogens such as Campylobacter species, non-Typhi serotypes of Salmonella enterica, Shiga toxin-producing strains of Escherichia coli, and Listeria monocytogenes. The zoonotic potential of foodborne pathogens and their ability to produce toxins causing diseases or even death are sufficient to recognize the seriousness of the situation. This manuscript reviews the evidence that links animals as vehicles of the foodborne pathogens Salmonella, Campylobacter, Shiga toxigenic E. coli, and L. monocytogenes, their impact, and their current status. We conclude that these pathogenic bacteria will continue causing outbreaks and deaths throughout the world, because no effective interventions have eliminated them from animals and food.

161 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Antibiotics are frequently supplied without a prescription in many countries and this overuse of antibiotics could facilitate the development and spread of antibiotic resistance.
Abstract: Objective To estimate the proportion of over-the-counter antibiotic requests or consultations that resulted in non-prescription supply of antibiotics in community pharmacies globally. Methods We systematically searched EMBASE, Medline and CINAHL databases for studies published from January 2000 to September 2017 reporting the frequency of non-prescription sale and supply of antibiotics in community pharmacies across the world. Additional articles were identified by checking reference lists and a Google Scholar search. A random effects meta-analysis was conducted to calculate pooled estimates of non-prescription supply of antibiotics. Results Of the 3302 articles identified, 38 studies from 24 countries met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. All the included countries with the exception of one, classified antibiotics as prescription-only medicines. The overall pooled proportion of non-prescription supply of antibiotics was 62% (95% CI 53 – 72). The pooled proportion of non-prescription supply of antibiotics following a patient request was 78% (95% CI 59 - 97) and based on community pharmacy staff recommendation was 58% (95% CI 48 – 68). The regional supply of non-prescription antibiotics was highest in South America, 78% (95% CI 72 - 84). Antibiotics were commonly supplied without a prescription to patients with symptoms of urinary tract infections (68%, 95% CI 42 – 93) and upper respiratory tract infections (67%, 95% CI 55 - 79). Fluoroquinolones and Penicillins respectively were the most commonly supplied antibiotic classes for these indications. Conclusion Antibiotics are frequently supplied without prescription in many countries. This overuse of antibiotics could facilitate the development and spread of antibiotic resistance.

140 citations


Cites background from "Global Epidemiology of Campylobacte..."

  • ...Therefore, the emergence of resistance to these antibiotics could have a significant impact on population health given the high and increasing incidence of campylobacter infections in children especially Campylobacter jejuni.(30)...

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The aim of the paper is to summarize and provide information on campylobacteriosis, salmonellosis, yersiniosis, and listeriosis and the aetiological factors of those diseases, along with the general characteristics of pathogens, virulence factors, and reservoirs.
Abstract: Zoonoses are diseases transmitted from animals to humans, posing a great threat to the health and life of people all over the world. According to WHO estimations, 600 million cases of diseases caused by contaminated food were noted in 2010, including almost 350 million caused by pathogenic bacteria. Campylobacter, Salmonella, as well as Yersinia enterocolitica and Listeria monocytogenes may dwell in livestock (poultry, cattle, and swine) but are also found in wild animals, pets, fish, and rodents. Animals, often being asymptomatic carriers of pathogens, excrete them with faeces, thus delivering them to the environment. Therefore, pathogens may invade new individuals, as well as reside on vegetables and fruits. Pathogenic bacteria also penetrate food production areas and may remain there in the form of a biofilm covering the surfaces of machines and equipment. A common occurrence of microbes in food products, as well as their improper or careless processing, leads to common poisonings. Symptoms of foodborne infections may be mild, sometimes flu-like, but they also may be accompanied by severe complications, some even fatal. The aim of the paper is to summarize and provide information on campylobacteriosis, salmonellosis, yersiniosis, and listeriosis and the aetiological factors of those diseases, along with the general characteristics of pathogens, virulence factors, and reservoirs.

136 citations


Cites background from "Global Epidemiology of Campylobacte..."

  • ...could cause symptoms associated with campylobacteriosis, and 9 × 104 bacteria is considered the optimum infective dose [27]....

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  • ...Symptoms disappear within 5–7 days [27,51]....

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  • ...This movement is possible due to a single, polar flagellum positioned on one or both ends of the cell [27,28]....

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  • ...Possible complications include: peripheral neuropathies, including the Guillain–Barré Syndrome (GBS, neurological disorder characterised by weakness of limbs, possible involvement of respiratory muscles, anaemia, and sensory loss); reactive arthritis (REA, involving knees and ankles, occurring about a month after infection and developing for as long as 5 years); and functional intestinal disorders, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) [27,46,52,53]....

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Interventions targeting five pathogens can substantially reduce the burden of moderate-to-severe diarrhoea and suggest new methods and accelerated implementation of existing interventions (rotavirus vaccine and zinc) are needed to prevent disease and improve outcomes.
Abstract: Summary Background Diarrhoeal diseases cause illness and death among children younger than 5 years in low-income countries. We designed the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) to identify the aetiology and population-based burden of paediatric diarrhoeal disease in sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia. Methods The GEMS is a 3-year, prospective, age-stratified, matched case-control study of moderate-to-severe diarrhoea in children aged 0–59 months residing in censused populations at four sites in Africa and three in Asia. We recruited children with moderate-to-severe diarrhoea seeking care at health centres along with one to three randomly selected matched community control children without diarrhoea. From patients with moderate-to-severe diarrhoea and controls, we obtained clinical and epidemiological data, anthropometric measurements, and a faecal sample to identify enteropathogens at enrolment; one follow-up home visit was made about 60 days later to ascertain vital status, clinical outcome, and interval growth. Findings We enrolled 9439 children with moderate-to-severe diarrhoea and 13 129 control children without diarrhoea. By analysing adjusted population attributable fractions, most attributable cases of moderate-to-severe diarrhoea were due to four pathogens: rotavirus, Cryptosporidium , enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli producing heat-stable toxin (ST-ETEC; with or without co-expression of heat-labile enterotoxin), and Shigella . Other pathogens were important in selected sites (eg, Aeromonas, Vibrio cholerae O1, Campylobacter jejuni ). Odds of dying during follow-up were 8·5-fold higher in patients with moderate-to-severe diarrhoea than in controls (odd ratio 8·5, 95% CI 5·8–12·5, p E coli (HR 2·6; 1·6–4·1) in infants aged 0–11 months, and Cryptosporidium (HR 2·3; 1·3–4·3) in toddlers aged 12–23 months. Interpretation Interventions targeting five pathogens (rotavirus, Shigella , ST-ETEC, Cryptosporidium , typical enteropathogenic E coli ) can substantially reduce the burden of moderate-to-severe diarrhoea. New methods and accelerated implementation of existing interventions (rotavirus vaccine and zinc) are needed to prevent disease and improve outcomes. Funding The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

2,333 citations


"Global Epidemiology of Campylobacte..." refers background in this paper

  • ...with moderate to severe diarrhea in children from Kolkata, India, Mirzapur, Bangladesh, and Karachi, Pakistan (66)....

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  • ...In addition, in a prospective case-control study conducted between 1 December 2007 and 3 March 2011 to identify the etiology of diarrhea in children aged 0 to 59 months, C. jejuni was reported to be significantly associated July 2015 Volume 28 Number 3 cmr.asm.org 693Clinical Microbiology Reviews on M arch 21, 2021 by guest http://cm r.asm .org/ D ow nloaded from with moderate to severe diarrhea in children from Kolkata, India, Mirzapur, Bangladesh, and Karachi, Pakistan (66)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Two important processes have occurred to legitimize these conditions, and to increase attention toward the research and clinical care of patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID), a shift in conceptualizing these disorders from a disease-based, reductionistic model, to a more integrated, biopsychosocial model of illness.
Abstract: Man should strive to have his intestines relaxed all the days of his life. Moses Maimonides, AD 1135–1204 A good set of bowels is worth more to a man than any quantity of brains. Josh Billings (Henry Wheeler Shaw), AD 1818–1885 For centuries, physicians and historians have recognized that it is common for maladies to afflict the intestinal tract, producing symptoms of pain, nausea, vomiting, bloating, diarrhea, constipation, difficult passage of food or feces, or any combination.1When these symptoms are experienced as severe, or when they impact on daily life, those afflicted often attribute the symptoms to an illness and seek medical care. Traditionally, the physicians caring for these patients will search for inflammatory, infectious, neoplastic, and other structural abnormalities to make a specific diagnosis and offer specific treatment. Yet as has been common in medical practice,2 when no structural etiology is found, the patient is diagnosed as having “functional” symptoms and is treated symptomatically. Until recently, the limited scientific knowledge about the pathophysiology of these symptoms, and the need to diagnose by excluding “organic” disease, has led physicians to feel uncertain about the legitimacy of these symptoms as bona fide disorders.3 Some have felt insecure in their ability to manage patients with these conditions, and might even avoid caring for patients with these complaints. But over the past two decades, two important processes have occurred to legitimize these conditions, and to increase attention toward the research and clinical care of patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID). The first has been a shift in conceptualizing these disorders from a disease-based, reductionistic model, where the effort is directed toward identifying a single underlying biological etiology, to a more integrated, biopsychosocial model of illness.4 5 The latter model allows for symptoms to be understood as physiologically …

2,147 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
02 Jul 1977-BMJ
TL;DR: Campylobacters are a relatively unrecognised cause of acute enteritis, but these findings suggest that they may be a common cause, and poultry may be the primary source of the organism.
Abstract: By selective culture campylobacters (C jejuni and C coli) were isolated from the faeces of 57 (7-1%) out of 803 unselected patients with diarrhoea; none were isolated from 194 people who had not got diarrhoea. Specific agglutinins were found in the sera of 31 out of 38 patients with campylobacter enteritis and 10 of them had a rising titre. Half the patients were aged 15 to 44 years, but the incidence was highest in young children. All the patients with campylobacters had a distinctive clinical illness with severe abdominal pain. Campylobacters are a relatively unrecognised cause of acute enteritis, but these findings suggest that they may be a common cause. Spread of infection was observed within 12 out of 29 households, and in these cases children were usually implicated. Several patients were apparently infected from chickens, both live and dressed, and poultry may be the primary source of the organism. In two cases dogs with diarrhoea were found to be infected with strains indistinguishable from their human contacts. Ten patients acquired their infections while travelling abroad.

1,408 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The composition of the microbiota in colorectal carcinoma is characterized using whole genome sequences from nine tumor/normal pairs and Fusobacterium sequences were enriched in carcinomas, confirmed by quantitative PCR and 16S rDNA sequence analysis of 95 carcinoma/normal DNA pairs.
Abstract: The tumor microenvironment of colorectal carcinoma is a complex community of genomically altered cancer cells, nonneoplastic cells, and a diverse collection of microorganisms. Each of these components may contribute to carcinogenesis; however, the role of the microbiota is the least well understood. We have characterized the composition of the microbiota in colorectal carcinoma using whole genome sequences from nine tumor/normal pairs. Fusobacterium sequences were enriched in carcinomas, confirmed by quantitative PCR and 16S rDNA sequence analysis of 95 carcinoma/normal DNA pairs, while the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes phyla were depleted in tumors. Fusobacteria were also visualized within colorectal tumors using FISH. These findings reveal alterations in the colorectal cancer microbiota; however, the precise role of Fusobacteria in colorectal carcinoma pathogenesis requires further investigation.

1,261 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Overabundance of Fusobacterium sequences in tumor versus matched normal control tissue is verified by quantitative PCR analysis from a total of 99 subjects, and a positive association with lymph node metastasis is observed.
Abstract: An estimated 15% or more of the cancer burden worldwide is attributable to known infectious agents. We screened colorectal carcinoma and matched normal tissue specimens using RNA-seq followed by host sequence subtraction and found marked over-representation of Fusobacterium nucleatum sequences in tumors relative to control specimens. F. nucleatum is an invasive anaerobe that has been linked previously to periodontitis and appendicitis, but not to cancer. Fusobacteria are rare constituents of the fecal microbiota, but have been cultured previously from biopsies of inflamed gut mucosa. We obtained a Fusobacterium isolate from a frozen tumor specimen; this showed highest sequence similarity to a known gut mucosa isolate and was confirmed to be invasive. We verified overabundance of Fusobacterium sequences in tumor versus matched normal control tissue by quantitative PCR analysis from a total of 99 subjects (p = 2.5 × 10(-6)), and we observed a positive association with lymph node metastasis.

1,229 citations