Global Jihadism: Theory and Practice
03 Sep 2008-
TL;DR: Part 1: Theory 1. Introduction 2. Doctrine and Schools 3. Ideologues 4. Strategists 5. Propogandists 6. Al-Qa`ida in Saudi Arabia 7. Global Jihadism in the UK 8. Conclusion
Abstract: Global Jihadism exposes the core doctrine and strategy of today’s global Jihadist movement. The first half of the book explores the ideas upon which groups such as Al Qaeda are built, including the concepts of Jihad, al-Wala wal-Bara, Takfir and Tawhid. Jarret Brachman exposes a genre of Jihadist strategic scholarship that has been virtually ignored in the West and helps to situate it within the broader Salafist religious movement. The second half explores the thinking and activities of Al Qaeda’s propaganda machine, explaining its intricacies and idiosyncrasies. It includes case studies on the rise and fall of global Jihadist terrorism in Saudi Arabia post-9/11, and highlights the explosive results of bringing theory to bear on practice in the United Kingdom over the past twenty years. The book concludes by providing innovative strategies for combating the global Jihadist ideology.
TL;DR: In this paper, five major models of radicalization are reviewed and the commonalities and discrepancies among these models are identified and analyzed in the context of empirical evidence in the field of terrorism research and social psychology.
Abstract: This article attempts to consolidate theorizing about the radicalization of Western homegrown jihadists. Five major models of radicalization are reviewed. The commonalities and discrepancies among these models are identified and analyzed in the context of empirical evidence in the field of terrorism research and social psychology. Three psychological factors emerge as contributors to radicalization: group relative deprivation, identity conflicts, and personality characteristics. Avenues for future research concerning the radicalization of homegrown jihadists are suggested, focusing on research that may not only be practical for counter-terrorism, but also feasible given the challenges of research with radicalized individuals.
•01 Jun 2017
TL;DR: Hadiz et al. as discussed by the authors compared the evolution of Islamic populism in Indonesia, the country with the largest Muslim population in the world, to the Middle East, and argued that competing strands of Islamic politics can be understood as the product of contemporary struggles over power, material resources and the result of conflict across a variety of social and historical contexts.
Abstract: In a novel approach to the field of Islamic politics, this provocative new study compares the evolution of Islamic populism in Indonesia, the country with the largest Muslim population in the world, to the Middle East. Utilising approaches from historical sociology and political economy, Vedi R. Hadiz argues that competing strands of Islamic politics can be understood as the product of contemporary struggles over power, material resources and the result of conflict across a variety of social and historical contexts. Drawing from detailed case studies across the Middle East and Southeast Asia, the book engages with broader theoretical questions about political change in the context of socio-economic transformations and presents an innovative, comparative framework to shed new light on the diverse trajectories of Islamic politics in the modern world.
TL;DR: The authors argue that government should play a more energetic role in reducing the demand for radicalization and violent extremist messages, by encouraging civic challenges to extremist narratives and by promoting awareness and education of young people.
Abstract: The purpose of this article is to inform the debate about strategies and options for countering online radicalization within the U.S. domestic context. Its aim is to provide a better understanding of how the Internet facilitates radicalization; an appreciation of the dilemmas and tradeoffs that are involved in countering online radicalization within the United States; and ideas and best practices for making the emerging approach and strategy richer and more effective. It argues that online radicalization can be dealt with in three ways. Approaches aimed at restricting freedom of speech and removing content from the Internet are not only the least desirable, they are also the least effective. Instead, government should play a more energetic role in reducing the demand for radicalization and violent extremist messages—for example, by encouraging civic challenges to extremist narratives and by promoting awareness and education of young people. In the short term, the most promising way for dealing with the pr...
•11 Jun 2012
TL;DR: Al-Maqdisi's Life and his Place in the Jihadi Ideological Spectrum, 1859-2009: 1. Wavering between quietism and jihadism 2. Al-Maqsoudi's quietist jihadi-salafi 'Aqida as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: Introduction Part I. Al-Maqdisi's Life and his Place in the Jihadi Ideological Spectrum, 1859-2009: 1. Wavering between quietism and jihadism 2. Al-Maqdisi's quietist jihadi-salafi 'Aqida 3. Al-Maqdisi's quietist jihadi-salafi Manha Part II. Al-Maqdisi's Influence on the Saudi Islamic Opposition, 1989-2005: 4. Saudi Arabia's post-Gulf War opposition 5. Al-Qa 'ida on the Arabian peninsula Part III. Al-Maqdisi's Influence on the Development of al-Wala wa-l-Bara, 1984-2009: 6. The revival of al-Isti ana bi-l-Kuffar 7. 'Salafising' jihad Part IV. Al-Maqdisi's Influence on the Jordanian Jihadi-Salafi Community, 1992-2009: 8. Guidance to the seekers 9. The leader of the Jordanian jihadi-salafi community? Conclusion.
01 Jan 2015
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors study the evolution of militant groups' meso-level evolution from their emergence to their potential non-violent transformation, based on a social movement theory framework.
Abstract: This research theorises militant groups' meso-level evolution from their emergence to their potential non-violent transformation. The central argument of this thesis is that the timing of militant groups' adoption of violence in semi-authoritarian regimes is crucial in accounting for their subsequent ideational and organisational evolution, according to a path-dependent model. When a militant group predates its legitimisation of armed violence, the time period preceding the latter encourages low-risk activism mobilising patterns, which are defined as safer modes of mobilisation that are not directly opposed by the state and therefore do not entail high individual costs. These mobilizing patterns facilitate the creation of strong horizontal ties between the group's leaders and the development of collective group identity shared by its leaders and members. These three factors collectively ease the internal legitimisation of shared horizontal and vertical organisational norms, which respectively refer to the norms uniting the leaders of the group and the norms uniting the leaders to their followers. Theses norms include the normalisation of the prerogatives of the group's leadership, an internal culture of consensus and shared decision making processes. These factors subsequently shape the group's evolution, whose possible non-violent transformation becomes contingent on the ability of its leadership to exploit external macro stimuli or internal learning processes, and to draw on the group's collective identity to internally legitimise a new strategic direction. Conversely, the second type of militant group is defined by its members' immediate engagement in high-risk activism forms of mobilisation, defined by their high individual cost caused by their intrinsically violent nature (e.g. staging a military coup). The combination of early ideational justifications of violence and its associated mobilising patterns fuel internal factionalism and hinder the legitimisation of internal norms of decision making and the consolidation of a controlled collective group identity. This mobilising pattern often sparks splits over any new tactical and strategic issues which may arise overtime, and eventually impedes the successful consensual transformation of this type of group in changing macro circumstances. This theorisation of militant groups' evolution is applied to the Egyptian Islamic and Jihad Groups. This thesis is based on a social movement theory framework. It is a qualitative small-n comparative case-study research using field research and interviews with numerous leaders and members of these two groups.
Related Papers (5)
14 May 2004
01 Jan 2008
01 Jan 2006