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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/08164622.2021.1878863

Global optometrist top 200 research ranking

04 Mar 2021-Clinical and Experimental Optometry (Informa UK Limited)-Vol. 104, Iss: 4, pp 1-15
Abstract: Clinical relevance: Clinical optometric practice is underpinned by a rigorous research base, the primary evidence for which is publications in refereed scientific journals. Leading optometrists who...

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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/08164622.2021.1880868
Nathan Efron1, Philip B. Morgan2, Lyndon Jones3, Lyndon Jones4  +1 moreInstitutions (5)
Abstract: Research into the epidemiology, aetiology, and optics of ametropia is a fundamental cornerstone of the correction and management of refractive errors by eye care practitioners. At present, much of ...

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Topics: Refractive error (53%)

5 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/08164622.2021.1898277
Nathan Efron1Institutions (1)
Abstract: I have previously undertaken and published bibliometric analyses documenting the impact of Australia-trained optometrists,1,2 and have long harboured a desire to extend this to a ranking of optomet...

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1 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/08164622.2021.1896339
Nathan Efron1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Barry Leighton Cole AO (Figure 1) died on 27 January 2021. He was 86 years of age. Such was Barry’s status in the profession that he was previously the subject of two profiles in this journal: an i...

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/08164622.2021.1981744
Abstract: CLINICAL RELEVANCE Publications in refereed scientific journals provide a rigorous research base that underpins clinical optometric practice. Leading optometrists who generate this literature can be identified and ranked using standardised citation indicators. BACKGROUND This work seeks to identify and rank all optometrists included in a Science-Wide author database of standardised citation indicators (S-W) and to compare this ranking with the Global Optometrist Top 200 Research Ranking (T200). METHODS A search was conducted for the names of all optometrists in the T200 who were included in the S-W, which is a world-wide listing of the top 2% of scientists in each of 174 subfield disciplines, ranked according to a composite citation indicator (cns) that excludes self-citations and corrects for multiple authorships and author order. RESULTS The names of 66 optometrists are found in the S-W. Of these, 58 are designated as working in the primary sub-field 'Ophthalmology & Optometry'; this listing, in rank-order of cns, is referred to as the 'S-W-derived Optometrist Research Ranking' (S-WORR). Australian optometrist Nathan Efron is ranked #1 in the S-WORR. The number (%) of optometrists in the S-WORR from each country is: the United States - 26 (45%), Australia - 12 (21%), the United Kingdom - 11 (19%), Canada - 5 (9%), Spain - 2 (3%), Hong Kong - 1 (2%) and South Africa - 1 (2%). The universities housing the equal highest number of optometrists in the S-WORR (five each) are the University of California, Berkeley, USA; the University of New South Wales, Australia; and Queensland University of Technology, Australia. There is a moderately strong correlation between T200 and S-WORR rankings (ρ = 0.6017, N = 58, p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS The S-WORR represents an elite cohort of optometrists who ought to be celebrated for their outstanding, leading and impactful contributions to optometric research.

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39 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1073/PNAS.0507655102
J. E. Hirsch1Institutions (1)
Abstract: I propose the index h, defined as the number of papers with citation number ≥h, as a useful index to characterize the scientific output of a researcher.

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Topics: g-index (56%), Index (economics) (53%), Scientific citation (52%) ... read more

7,899 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61689-4
Christopher J L Murray1, Theo Vos2, Rafael Lozano1, Mohsen Naghavi1  +366 moreInstitutions (141)
15 Dec 2012-The Lancet
Abstract: Summary Background Measuring disease and injury burden in populations requires a composite metric that captures both premature mortality and the prevalence and severity of ill-health. The 1990 Global Burden of Disease study proposed disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) to measure disease burden. No comprehensive update of disease burden worldwide incorporating a systematic reassessment of disease and injury-specific epidemiology has been done since the 1990 study. We aimed to calculate disease burden worldwide and for 21 regions for 1990, 2005, and 2010 with methods to enable meaningful comparisons over time. Methods We calculated DALYs as the sum of years of life lost (YLLs) and years lived with disability (YLDs). DALYs were calculated for 291 causes, 20 age groups, both sexes, and for 187 countries, and aggregated to regional and global estimates of disease burden for three points in time with strictly comparable definitions and methods. YLLs were calculated from age-sex-country-time-specific estimates of mortality by cause, with death by standardised lost life expectancy at each age. YLDs were calculated as prevalence of 1160 disabling sequelae, by age, sex, and cause, and weighted by new disability weights for each health state. Neither YLLs nor YLDs were age-weighted or discounted. Uncertainty around cause-specific DALYs was calculated incorporating uncertainty in levels of all-cause mortality, cause-specific mortality, prevalence, and disability weights. Findings Global DALYs remained stable from 1990 (2·503 billion) to 2010 (2·490 billion). Crude DALYs per 1000 decreased by 23% (472 per 1000 to 361 per 1000). An important shift has occurred in DALY composition with the contribution of deaths and disability among children (younger than 5 years of age) declining from 41% of global DALYs in 1990 to 25% in 2010. YLLs typically account for about half of disease burden in more developed regions (high-income Asia Pacific, western Europe, high-income North America, and Australasia), rising to over 80% of DALYs in sub-Saharan Africa. In 1990, 47% of DALYs worldwide were from communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional disorders, 43% from non-communicable diseases, and 10% from injuries. By 2010, this had shifted to 35%, 54%, and 11%, respectively. Ischaemic heart disease was the leading cause of DALYs worldwide in 2010 (up from fourth rank in 1990, increasing by 29%), followed by lower respiratory infections (top rank in 1990; 44% decline in DALYs), stroke (fifth in 1990; 19% increase), diarrhoeal diseases (second in 1990; 51% decrease), and HIV/AIDS (33rd in 1990; 351% increase). Major depressive disorder increased from 15th to 11th rank (37% increase) and road injury from 12th to 10th rank (34% increase). Substantial heterogeneity exists in rankings of leading causes of disease burden among regions. Interpretation Global disease burden has continued to shift away from communicable to non-communicable diseases and from premature death to years lived with disability. In sub-Saharan Africa, however, many communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional disorders remain the dominant causes of disease burden. The rising burden from mental and behavioural disorders, musculoskeletal disorders, and diabetes will impose new challenges on health systems. Regional heterogeneity highlights the importance of understanding local burden of disease and setting goals and targets for the post-2015 agenda taking such patterns into account. Because of improved definitions, methods, and data, these results for 1990 and 2010 supersede all previously published Global Burden of Disease results. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

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Topics: Disease burden (72%), Disability-adjusted life year (64%), Years of potential life lost (59%) ... read more

6,252 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(97)11096-0
Andrew J. Wakefield1, S. H. Murch1, A Anthony1, J Linnell1  +9 moreInstitutions (1)
28 Feb 1998-The Lancet
Abstract: Summary Background We investigated a consecutive series of children with chronic enterocolitis and regressive developmental disorder. Methods 12 children (mean age 6 years [range 3–10], 11 boys) were referred to a paediatric gastroenterology unit with a history of normal development followed by loss of acquired skills, including language, together with diarrhoea and abdominal pain. Children underwent gastroenterological, neurological, and developmental assessment and review of developmental records. Ileocolonoscopy and biopsy sampling, magnetic-resonance imaging (MRI), electroencephalography (EEG), and lumbar puncture were done under sedation. Barium follow-through radiography was done where possible. Biochemical, haematological, and immunological profiles were examined. Findings Onset of behavioural symptoms was associated, by the parents, with measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination in eight of the 12 children, with measles infection in one child, and otitis media in another. All 12 children had intestinal abnormalities, ranging from lymphoid nodular hyperplasia to aphthoid ulceration. Histology showed patchy chronic inflammation in the colon in 11 children and reactive ileal lymphoid hyperplasia in seven, but no granulomas. Behavioural disorders included autism (nine), disintegrative psychosis (one), and possible postviral or vaccinal encephalitis (two). There were no focal neurological abnormalities and MRI and EEG tests were normal. Abnormal laboratory results were significantly raised urinary methylmalonic acid compared with agematched controls (p=0·003), low haemoglobin in four children, and a low serum IgA in four children. Interpretation We identified associated gastrointestinal disease and developmental regression in a group of previously normal children, which was generally associated in time with possible environmental triggers.

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2,346 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/0042-6989(93)90156-Q
01 Jan 1993-Vision Research
Abstract: The Gestalt law of “good continuation” has been used to describe a variety of phenomena demonstrating the importance of continuity in human perception. In this study, we consider how continuity may be represented by a visual system that filters spatial data using arrays of cells selective for orientation and spatial frequency. Many structures (e.g. fractal contours) show a form of redundancy which is well represented by the continuity of features as they vary across space and frequency. We suggest that it is possible to take advantage of the redundancy in continuous, but non-aligned features by associating the outputs of filters with similar tuning. Five experiments were performed, to determine the rules that govern the perception of continuity. Observers were presented with arrays of oriented, band-pass elements (Gabor patches) in which a subset of the elements was aligned along a “jagged” path. Using a forced-choice procedure, observers were found to be capable of identifying the path within a field of randomly-oriented elements even when the spacing between the elements was considerably larger than the size of any of the individual elements. Furthermore, when the elements were oriented at angles up to ± 60 deg relative to one another, the path was reliably identified. Alignment of the elements along the path was found to play a large role in the ability to detect the path. Small variations in the alignment or aligning the elements orthogonally (i.e. “side-to-side” as opposed to “end-to-end”) significantly reduced the observer's ability to detect the presence of a path. The results are discussed in terms of an “association field” which integrates information across neighboring filters tuned to similar orientations. We suggest that some of the processes involved in texture segregation may have a similar explanation.

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Topics: Spatial frequency (51%)

1,564 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.OPHTHA.2016.01.006
Brien A. Holden1, Timothy R. Fricke2, David A. Wilson1, Monica Jong2  +9 moreInstitutions (4)
01 May 2016-Ophthalmology
Abstract: Purpose Myopia is a common cause of vision loss, with uncorrected myopia the leading cause of distance vision impairment globally. Individual studies show variations in the prevalence of myopia and high myopia between regions and ethnic groups, and there continues to be uncertainty regarding increasing prevalence of myopia. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of myopia and high myopia and estimated temporal trends from 2000 to 2050 using data published since 1995. The primary data were gathered into 5-year age groups from 0 to ≥100, in urban or rural populations in each country, standardized to definitions of myopia of −0.50 diopter (D) or less and of high myopia of −5.00 D or less, projected to the year 2010, then meta-analyzed within Global Burden of Disease (GBD) regions. Any urban or rural age group that lacked data in a GBD region took data from the most similar region. The prevalence data were combined with urbanization data and population data from United Nations Population Department (UNPD) to estimate the prevalence of myopia and high myopia in each country of the world. These estimates were combined with myopia change estimates over time derived from regression analysis of published evidence to project to each decade from 2000 through 2050. Results We included data from 145 studies covering 2.1 million participants. We estimated 1406 million people with myopia (22.9% of the world population; 95% confidence interval [CI], 932–1932 million [15.2%–31.5%]) and 163 million people with high myopia (2.7% of the world population; 95% CI, 86–387 million [1.4%–6.3%]) in 2000. We predict by 2050 there will be 4758 million people with myopia (49.8% of the world population; 3620–6056 million [95% CI, 43.4%–55.7%]) and 938 million people with high myopia (9.8% of the world population; 479–2104 million [95% CI, 5.7%–19.4%]). Conclusions Myopia and high myopia estimates from 2000 to 2050 suggest significant increases in prevalences globally, with implications for planning services, including managing and preventing myopia-related ocular complications and vision loss among almost 1 billion people with high myopia.

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Topics: Population (54%), Orthokeratology (52%)

1,294 Citations


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