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Journal ArticleDOI

Globular Adiponectin as a Complete Mesoangioblast Regulator: Role in Proliferation, Survival, Motility, and Skeletal Muscle Differentiation

15 Mar 2010-Molecular Biology of the Cell (American Society for Cell Biology)-Vol. 21, Iss: 6, pp 848-859

TL;DR: In vivo experiments confirm that globular adiponectin increases the survival, engraftment, and localization to muscle of mesoangioblasts in α-sarcoglycan-null mice.

AbstractMesoangioblasts are progenitor endowed with multipotent mesoderm differentiation ability. Despite the promising results obtained with mesoangioblast transplantation in muscle dystrophy, an improvement of their efficient engrafting and survival within damaged muscles, as well as their ex vivo activation/expansion and commitment toward myogenic lineage, is highly needed and should greatly increase their therapeutic potential. We show that globular adiponectin, an adipokine endowed with metabolic and differentiating functions for muscles, regulates vital cues of mesoangioblast cell biology. The adipokine drives mesoangioblasts to entry cell cycle and strongly counteracts the apoptotic process triggered by growth factor withdrawal, thereby serving as an activating and prosurvival stem cell factor. In addition, adiponectin provides a specific protection against anoikis, the apoptotic death due to lack of anchorage to extracellular matrix, suggesting a key protective role for these nonresident stem cells after systemic injection. Finally, adiponectin behaves as a chemoattractive factor toward mature myotubes and stimulates their differentiation toward the skeletal muscle lineage, serving as a positive regulator in mesoangioblast homing to injured or diseased muscles. We conclude that adiponectin exerts several advantageous effects on mesoangioblasts, potentially valuable to improve their efficacy in cell based therapies of diseased muscles.

Topics: Mesoangioblast (70%), Cellular differentiation (53%), Stem cell (52%), Myogenesis (52%), Anoikis (51%)

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The aim of this review is to analyse the molecular mechanisms governing both anoikis and anoIKis resistance, focusing on their regulation in physiological processes, as well as in several diseases, including metastatic cancers, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes.
Abstract: Anoikis is a programmed cell death occurring upon cell detachment from the correct extracellular matrix, thus disrupting integrin ligation. It is a critical mechanism in preventing dysplastic cell growth or attachment to an inappropriate matrix. Anoikis prevents detached epithelial cells from colonizing elsewhere and is thus essential for tissue homeostasis and development. As anchorage-independent growth and epithelial-mesenchymal transition, two features associated with anoikis resistance, are crucial steps during tumour progression and metastatic spreading of cancer cells, anoikis deregulation has now evoked particular attention from the scientific community. The aim of this review is to analyse the molecular mechanisms governing both anoikis and anoikis resistance, focusing on their regulation in physiological processes, as well as in several diseases, including metastatic cancers, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes.

310 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: regulation of adiponectin production, its mechanism of action via receptor isoforms and signaling pathways, and its principal physiological effects (i.e., metabolic and cardiovascular) are discussed.
Abstract: The widespread physiological actions of adiponectin have now been well characterized as clinical studies and work in animal models have established strong correlations between circulating adiponectin levels and various disease-related outcomes. Thus, conventional thinking attributes many of adiponectins beneficial effects to endocrine actions of adipose-derived adiponectin. However, it is now clear that several tissues can themselves produce adiponectin and there is growing evidence that locally produced adiponectin can mediate functionally important autocrine or paracrine effects. In this review article we discuss regulation of adiponectin production, its mechanism of action via receptor isoforms and signaling pathways and its principal physiological effects (ie. metabolic and cardiovascular). The role of endocrine actions of adiponectin and changes in local production of adiponectin or its receptors in whole body physiology is discussed.

84 citations


Cites background from "Globular Adiponectin as a Complete ..."

  • ...Finally, autocrine effects of gAd have recently been identified in the regulation of skeletal muscle cell differentiation (Fiaschi et al., 2009, 2010)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In summary, adiponectin acting in an autocrine and endocrine manner has important metabolic and insulin sensitizing effects on skeletal muscle which contribute to the overall anti-diabetic outcome of adiponECTin action.
Abstract: The beneficial metabolic effects of adiponectin which confer insulin-sensitizing and anti-diabetic effects are well established. Skeletal muscle is an important target tissue for adiponectin where it regulates glucose and fatty acid metabolism directly and via insulin sensitizing effects. Cell surface receptors and the intracellular signaling events via which adiponectin orchestrates metabolism are now becoming well characterized. The initially accepted dogma of adiponectin action was that the physiological effects were mediated via endocrine effects of adipose-derived adiponectin. However, in recent years it has been established that skeletal muscle can also produce and secrete adiponectin that can elicit important functional effects. There is evidence that skeletal muscle adiponectin resistance may develop in obesity and play a role in the pathogenesis of diabetes. In summary, adiponectin acting in an autocrine and endocrine manner has important metabolic and insulin sensitizing effects on skeletal muscle which contribute to the overall anti-diabetic outcome of adiponectin action.

72 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The role of adiponectin in tissue regeneration, mainly referring to skeletal muscle regeneration, is dealt with, a process in which adip onectin is deeply involved and increases proliferation, migration and myogenic properties of both resident stem cells and non-resident muscle precursors.
Abstract: The great interest that scientists have for adiponectin is primarily due to its central metabolic role. Indeed, the major function of this adipokine is the control of glucose homeostasis that it exerts regulating liver and muscle metabolism. Adiponectin has insulin-sensitizing action and leads to down-regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis and an increase of fatty acid oxidation. In addition, adiponectin is reported to play an important role in the inhibition of inflammation. The hormone is secreted in full-length form, which can either assemble into complexes or be converted into globular form by proteolytic cleavage. Over the past few years, emerging publications reveal a more varied and pleiotropic action of this hormone. Many studies emphasize a key role of adiponectin during tissue regeneration and show that adiponectin deficiency greatly inhibits the mechanisms underlying tissue renewal. This review deals with the role of adiponectin in tissue regeneration, mainly referring to skeletal muscle regeneration, a process in which adiponectin is deeply involved. In this tissue, globular adiponectin increases proliferation, migration and myogenic properties of both resident stem cells (namely satellite cells) and non-resident muscle precursors (namely mesoangioblasts). Furthermore, skeletal muscle could be a site for the local production of the globular form that occurs in an inflamed environment. Overall, these recent findings contribute to highlight an intriguing function of adiponectin in addition to its well-recognized metabolic action.

52 citations


Cites background from "Globular Adiponectin as a Complete ..."

  • ...ex vivo treatment of mesoangioblasts with gAd and their subsequent injection in dystrophic muscles ameliorates in vivo mesoangioblast survival and greatly improves their engraftment in diseased muscles [63]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results reveal an unanticipated role for tissue macrophages in mesoangioblast function and suggest that the treatment of muscle disorders with mesOangioblasts should take into consideration coexisting inflammatory pathways, whose activation may prove crucial for its success.
Abstract: The aim of this study was to verify whether macrophages influence the fate of transplanted mesoangioblasts--vessel-associated myogenic precursors--in a model of sterile toxin-induced skeletal muscle injury. We have observed that in the absence of macrophages, transplanted mesoangioblasts do not yield novel fibers. Macrophages retrieved from skeletal muscles at various times after injury display features that resemble those of immunoregulatory macrophages. Indeed, they secrete IL-10 and express CD206 and CD163 membrane receptors and high amounts of arginase I. We have reconstituted the muscle-associated macrophage population by injecting polarized macrophages before mesoangioblast injection: alternatively activated, immunoregulatory macrophages only support mesoangioblast survival and function. This action depends on the secretion of IL-10 in the tissue. Our results reveal an unanticipated role for tissue macrophages in mesoangioblast function. Consequently, the treatment of muscle disorders with mesoangioblasts should take into consideration coexisting inflammatory pathways, whose activation may prove crucial for its success.

47 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Dec 2001-Methods
Abstract: The two most commonly used methods to analyze data from real-time, quantitative PCR experiments are absolute quantification and relative quantification. Absolute quantification determines the input copy number, usually by relating the PCR signal to a standard curve. Relative quantification relates the PCR signal of the target transcript in a treatment group to that of another sample such as an untreated control. The 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method is a convenient way to analyze the relative changes in gene expression from real-time quantitative PCR experiments. The purpose of this report is to present the derivation, assumptions, and applications of the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method. In addition, we present the derivation and applications of two variations of the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method that may be useful in the analysis of real-time, quantitative PCR data.

116,500 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is concluded that decreased adiponectin is implicated in the development of insulin resistance in mouse models of both obesity and lipoatrophy and that the replenishment of adiponECTin might provide a novel treatment modality for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.
Abstract: Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived hormone. Recent genome-wide scans have mapped a susceptibility locus for type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome to chromosome 3q27, where the gene encoding adiponectin is located. Here we show that decreased expression of adiponectin correlates with insulin resistance in mouse models of altered insulin sensitivity. Adiponectin decreases insulin resistance by decreasing triglyceride content in muscle and liver in obese mice. This effect results from increased expression of molecules involved in both fatty-acid combustion and energy dissipation in muscle. Moreover, insulin resistance in lipoatrophic mice was completely reversed by the combination of physiological doses of adiponectin and leptin, but only partially by either adiponectin or leptin alone. We conclude that decreased adiponectin is implicated in the development of insulin resistance in mouse models of both obesity and lipoatrophy. These data also indicate that the replenishment of adiponectin might provide a novel treatment modality for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.

4,627 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is shown that phosphorylation and activation of the 5′-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) are stimulated with globular and full-length Ad in skeletal muscle and only with full- lengths Ad in the liver, indicating that stimulation of glucose utilization and fatty-acid oxidation by Ad occurs through activation of AMPK.
Abstract: Adiponectin (Ad) is a hormone secreted by adipocytes that regulates energy homeostasis and glucose and lipid metabolism. However, the signaling pathways that mediate the metabolic effects of Ad remain poorly identified. Here we show that phosphorylation and activation of the 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) are stimulated with globular and full-length Ad in skeletal muscle and only with full-length Ad in the liver. In parallel with its activation of AMPK, Ad stimulates phosphorylation of acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC), fatty-acid oxidation, glucose uptake and lactate production in myocytes, phosphorylation of ACC and reduction of molecules involved in gluconeogenesis in the liver, and reduction of glucose levels in vivo. Blocking AMPK activation by dominant-negative mutant inhibits each of these effects, indicating that stimulation of glucose utilization and fatty-acid oxidation by Ad occurs through activation of AMPK. Our data may provide a novel paradigm that an adipocyte-derived antidiabetic hormone, Ad, activates AMPK, thereby directly regulating glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in vitro and in vivo.

4,094 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is confirmed that obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated with low plasma adiponectin concentrations in different ethnic groups and indicate that the degree of hypoadiponectinemia is more closely related to thedegree of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia than to the level of adiposity and glucose intolerance.
Abstract: Plasma concentrations of adiponectin, a novel adipose-specific protein with putative antiatherogenic and antiinflammatory effects, were found to be decreased in Japanese individuals with obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, conditions commonly associated with insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. To further characterize the relationship between adiponectinemia and adiposity, insulin sensitivity, insulinemia, and glucose tolerance, we measured plasma adiponectin concentrations, body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), insulin sensitivity (M, hyperinsulinemic clamp), and glucose tolerance (75-g oral glucose tolerance test) in 23 Caucasians and 121 Pima Indians, a population with a high propensity for obesity and type 2 diabetes. Plasma adiponectin concentration was negatively correlated with percent body fat (r = -0.43), waist-to-thigh ratio (r = -0.46), fasting plasma insulin concentration (r = -0.63), and 2-h glucose concentration (r = -0.38), and positively correlated with M (r = 0.59) (all P < 0.001); all relations were evident in both ethnic groups. In a multivariate analysis, fasting plasma insulin concentration, M, and waist-to-thigh ratio, but not percent body fat or 2-h glucose concentration, were significant independent determinates of adiponectinemia, explaining 47% of the variance (r(2) = 0.47). Differences in adiponectinemia between Pima Indians and Caucasians (7.2 +/- 2.6 vs. 10.2 +/- 4.3 microg/ml, P < 0.0001) and between Pima Indians with normal, impaired, and diabetic glucose tolerance (7.5 +/- 2.7, 6.1 +/- 2.0, 5.5 +/- 1.6 microg/ml, P < 0.0001) remained significant after adjustment for adiposity, but not after additional adjustment for M or fasting insulin concentration. These results confirm that obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated with low plasma adiponectin concentrations in different ethnic groups and indicate that the degree of hypoadiponectinemia is more closely related to the degree of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia than to the degree of adiposity and glucose intolerance.

3,434 citations


"Globular Adiponectin as a Complete ..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The peculiarity of adiponectin compared with sphingosine 1-phosphate is that the adipokine is produced by adipose tissue in an inverse relationship with fat mass, and its level is strongly decreased in diabetic patients (Weyer et al., 2001; Rasouli and Kern, 2008)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
12 Jun 2003-Nature
TL;DR: The cloning of complementary DNAs encoding adiponectin receptors 1 and 2 by expression cloning supports the conclusion that they serve as receptors for globular and full-length adiponECTin, and that they mediate increased AMP kinase and PPAR-α ligand activities, as well as fatty-acid oxidation and glucose uptake by adiponectionin.
Abstract: Adiponectin (also known as 30-kDa adipocyte complement-related protein; Acrp30) is a hormone secreted by adipocytes that acts as an antidiabetic and anti-atherogenic adipokine. Levels of adiponectin in the blood are decreased under conditions of obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Administration of adiponectin causes glucose-lowering effects and ameliorates insulin resistance in mice. Conversely, adiponectin-deficient mice exhibit insulin resistance and diabetes. This insulin-sensitizing effect of adiponectin seems to be mediated by an increase in fatty-acid oxidation through activation of AMP kinase and PPAR-alpha. Here we report the cloning of complementary DNAs encoding adiponectin receptors 1 and 2 (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) by expression cloning. AdipoR1 is abundantly expressed in skeletal muscle, whereas AdipoR2 is predominantly expressed in the liver. These two adiponectin receptors are predicted to contain seven transmembrane domains, but to be structurally and functionally distinct from G-protein-coupled receptors. Expression of AdipoR1/R2 or suppression of AdipoR1/R2 expression by small-interfering RNA supports our conclusion that they serve as receptors for globular and full-length adiponectin, and that they mediate increased AMP kinase and PPAR-alpha ligand activities, as well as fatty-acid oxidation and glucose uptake by adiponectin.

2,874 citations


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