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Proceedings ArticleDOI

Glove: Global Vectors for Word Representation

TL;DR: A new global logbilinear regression model that combines the advantages of the two major model families in the literature: global matrix factorization and local context window methods and produces a vector space with meaningful substructure.
Abstract: Recent methods for learning vector space representations of words have succeeded in capturing fine-grained semantic and syntactic regularities using vector arithmetic, but the origin of these regularities has remained opaque. We analyze and make explicit the model properties needed for such regularities to emerge in word vectors. The result is a new global logbilinear regression model that combines the advantages of the two major model families in the literature: global matrix factorization and local context window methods. Our model efficiently leverages statistical information by training only on the nonzero elements in a word-word cooccurrence matrix, rather than on the entire sparse matrix or on individual context windows in a large corpus. The model produces a vector space with meaningful substructure, as evidenced by its performance of 75% on a recent word analogy task. It also outperforms related models on similarity tasks and named entity recognition.

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Citations
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Posted Content
TL;DR: A new language representation model, BERT, designed to pre-train deep bidirectional representations from unlabeled text by jointly conditioning on both left and right context in all layers, which can be fine-tuned with just one additional output layer to create state-of-the-art models for a wide range of tasks.
Abstract: We introduce a new language representation model called BERT, which stands for Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers. Unlike recent language representation models, BERT is designed to pre-train deep bidirectional representations from unlabeled text by jointly conditioning on both left and right context in all layers. As a result, the pre-trained BERT model can be fine-tuned with just one additional output layer to create state-of-the-art models for a wide range of tasks, such as question answering and language inference, without substantial task-specific architecture modifications. BERT is conceptually simple and empirically powerful. It obtains new state-of-the-art results on eleven natural language processing tasks, including pushing the GLUE score to 80.5% (7.7% point absolute improvement), MultiNLI accuracy to 86.7% (4.6% absolute improvement), SQuAD v1.1 question answering Test F1 to 93.2 (1.5 point absolute improvement) and SQuAD v2.0 Test F1 to 83.1 (5.1 point absolute improvement).

29,480 citations


Cites methods from "Glove: Global Vectors for Word Repr..."

  • ...Ando and Zhang, 2005; Blitzer et al., 2006) and neural (Collobert and Weston, 2008; Mikolov et al., 2013; Pennington et al., 2014) methods....

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  • ..., 2006) and neural (Mikolov et al., 2013; Pennington et al., 2014) methods....

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Proceedings ArticleDOI
11 Oct 2018
TL;DR: BERT as mentioned in this paper pre-trains deep bidirectional representations from unlabeled text by jointly conditioning on both left and right context in all layers, which can be fine-tuned with just one additional output layer to create state-of-the-art models for a wide range of tasks.
Abstract: We introduce a new language representation model called BERT, which stands for Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers. Unlike recent language representation models (Peters et al., 2018a; Radford et al., 2018), BERT is designed to pre-train deep bidirectional representations from unlabeled text by jointly conditioning on both left and right context in all layers. As a result, the pre-trained BERT model can be fine-tuned with just one additional output layer to create state-of-the-art models for a wide range of tasks, such as question answering and language inference, without substantial task-specific architecture modifications. BERT is conceptually simple and empirically powerful. It obtains new state-of-the-art results on eleven natural language processing tasks, including pushing the GLUE score to 80.5 (7.7 point absolute improvement), MultiNLI accuracy to 86.7% (4.6% absolute improvement), SQuAD v1.1 question answering Test F1 to 93.2 (1.5 point absolute improvement) and SQuAD v2.0 Test F1 to 83.1 (5.1 point absolute improvement).

24,672 citations

Proceedings Article
28 May 2020
TL;DR: GPT-3 achieves strong performance on many NLP datasets, including translation, question-answering, and cloze tasks, as well as several tasks that require on-the-fly reasoning or domain adaptation, such as unscrambling words, using a novel word in a sentence, or performing 3-digit arithmetic.
Abstract: Recent work has demonstrated substantial gains on many NLP tasks and benchmarks by pre-training on a large corpus of text followed by fine-tuning on a specific task. While typically task-agnostic in architecture, this method still requires task-specific fine-tuning datasets of thousands or tens of thousands of examples. By contrast, humans can generally perform a new language task from only a few examples or from simple instructions - something which current NLP systems still largely struggle to do. Here we show that scaling up language models greatly improves task-agnostic, few-shot performance, sometimes even reaching competitiveness with prior state-of-the-art fine-tuning approaches. Specifically, we train GPT-3, an autoregressive language model with 175 billion parameters, 10x more than any previous non-sparse language model, and test its performance in the few-shot setting. For all tasks, GPT-3 is applied without any gradient updates or fine-tuning, with tasks and few-shot demonstrations specified purely via text interaction with the model. GPT-3 achieves strong performance on many NLP datasets, including translation, question-answering, and cloze tasks, as well as several tasks that require on-the-fly reasoning or domain adaptation, such as unscrambling words, using a novel word in a sentence, or performing 3-digit arithmetic. At the same time, we also identify some datasets where GPT-3's few-shot learning still struggles, as well as some datasets where GPT-3 faces methodological issues related to training on large web corpora. Finally, we find that GPT-3 can generate samples of news articles which human evaluators have difficulty distinguishing from articles written by humans. We discuss broader societal impacts of this finding and of GPT-3 in general.

10,132 citations

Posted Content
TL;DR: GraphSAGE is presented, a general, inductive framework that leverages node feature information (e.g., text attributes) to efficiently generate node embeddings for previously unseen data and outperforms strong baselines on three inductive node-classification benchmarks.
Abstract: Low-dimensional embeddings of nodes in large graphs have proved extremely useful in a variety of prediction tasks, from content recommendation to identifying protein functions. However, most existing approaches require that all nodes in the graph are present during training of the embeddings; these previous approaches are inherently transductive and do not naturally generalize to unseen nodes. Here we present GraphSAGE, a general, inductive framework that leverages node feature information (e.g., text attributes) to efficiently generate node embeddings for previously unseen data. Instead of training individual embeddings for each node, we learn a function that generates embeddings by sampling and aggregating features from a node's local neighborhood. Our algorithm outperforms strong baselines on three inductive node-classification benchmarks: we classify the category of unseen nodes in evolving information graphs based on citation and Reddit post data, and we show that our algorithm generalizes to completely unseen graphs using a multi-graph dataset of protein-protein interactions.

7,926 citations


Cites methods from "Glove: Global Vectors for Word Repr..."

  • ...For features, we use off-the-shelf 300-dimensional GloVe CommonCrawl word vectors [27]; for each post, we concatenated (i) the average embedding of the post title, (ii) the average embedding of all the post’s comments (iii) the post’s score, and (iv) the number of comments made on the post....

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Proceedings ArticleDOI
15 Feb 2018
TL;DR: This paper introduced a new type of deep contextualized word representation that models both complex characteristics of word use (e.g., syntax and semantics), and how these uses vary across linguistic contexts (i.e., to model polysemy).
Abstract: We introduce a new type of deep contextualized word representation that models both (1) complex characteristics of word use (e.g., syntax and semantics), and (2) how these uses vary across linguistic contexts (i.e., to model polysemy). Our word vectors are learned functions of the internal states of a deep bidirectional language model (biLM), which is pre-trained on a large text corpus. We show that these representations can be easily added to existing models and significantly improve the state of the art across six challenging NLP problems, including question answering, textual entailment and sentiment analysis. We also present an analysis showing that exposing the deep internals of the pre-trained network is crucial, allowing downstream models to mix different types of semi-supervision signals.

7,412 citations

References
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Proceedings Article
Tomas Mikolov1, Ilya Sutskever1, Kai Chen1, Greg S. Corrado1, Jeffrey Dean1 
05 Dec 2013
TL;DR: This paper presents a simple method for finding phrases in text, and shows that learning good vector representations for millions of phrases is possible and describes a simple alternative to the hierarchical softmax called negative sampling.
Abstract: The recently introduced continuous Skip-gram model is an efficient method for learning high-quality distributed vector representations that capture a large number of precise syntactic and semantic word relationships. In this paper we present several extensions that improve both the quality of the vectors and the training speed. By subsampling of the frequent words we obtain significant speedup and also learn more regular word representations. We also describe a simple alternative to the hierarchical softmax called negative sampling. An inherent limitation of word representations is their indifference to word order and their inability to represent idiomatic phrases. For example, the meanings of "Canada" and "Air" cannot be easily combined to obtain "Air Canada". Motivated by this example, we present a simple method for finding phrases in text, and show that learning good vector representations for millions of phrases is possible.

24,012 citations


"Glove: Global Vectors for Word Repr..." refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...In fact, Mikolov et al. (2013a) observe that performance can be increased by filtering the data so as to reduce the effective value of the weighting factor for frequent words....

    [...]

  • ...Although we offer only empirical motivation for choosing the value 3/4, it is interesting that a similar fractional power scaling was found to give the best performance in (Mikolov et al., 2013a)....

    [...]

  • ...Recently, Mikolov et al. (2013c) introduced a new evaluation scheme based on word analogies that probes the finer structure of the word vector space by examining not the scalar distance between word vectors, but rather their various dimensions of difference....

    [...]

  • ...We conduct experiments on the word analogy task of Mikolov et al. (2013a), a variety of word similarity tasks, as described in (Luong et al., 2013), and on the CoNLL-2003 shared benchmark dataset for NER (Tjong Kim Sang and De Meulder, 2003)....

    [...]

  • ...The two main model families for learning word vectors are: 1) global matrix factorization methods, such as latent semantic analysis (LSA) (Deerwester et al., 1990) and 2) local context window methods, such as the skip-gram model of Mikolov et al. (2013c)....

    [...]

Posted Content
TL;DR: This paper proposed two novel model architectures for computing continuous vector representations of words from very large data sets, and the quality of these representations is measured in a word similarity task and the results are compared to the previously best performing techniques based on different types of neural networks.
Abstract: We propose two novel model architectures for computing continuous vector representations of words from very large data sets. The quality of these representations is measured in a word similarity task, and the results are compared to the previously best performing techniques based on different types of neural networks. We observe large improvements in accuracy at much lower computational cost, i.e. it takes less than a day to learn high quality word vectors from a 1.6 billion words data set. Furthermore, we show that these vectors provide state-of-the-art performance on our test set for measuring syntactic and semantic word similarities.

20,077 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A new method for automatic indexing and retrieval to take advantage of implicit higher-order structure in the association of terms with documents (“semantic structure”) in order to improve the detection of relevant documents on the basis of terms found in queries.
Abstract: A new method for automatic indexing and retrieval is described. The approach is to take advantage of implicit higher-order structure in the association of terms with documents (“semantic structure”) in order to improve the detection of relevant documents on the basis of terms found in queries. The particular technique used is singular-value decomposition, in which a large term by document matrix is decomposed into a set of ca. 100 orthogonal factors from which the original matrix can be approximated by linear combination. Documents are represented by ca. 100 item vectors of factor weights. Queries are represented as pseudo-document vectors formed from weighted combinations of terms, and documents with supra-threshold cosine values are returned. initial tests find this completely automatic method for retrieval to be promising.

12,443 citations

Proceedings Article
16 Jan 2013
TL;DR: Two novel model architectures for computing continuous vector representations of words from very large data sets are proposed and it is shown that these vectors provide state-of-the-art performance on the authors' test set for measuring syntactic and semantic word similarities.
Abstract: We propose two novel model architectures for computing continuous vector representations of words from very large data sets. The quality of these representations is measured in a word similarity task, and the results are compared to the previously best performing techniques based on different types of neural networks. We observe large improvements in accuracy at much lower computational cost, i.e. it takes less than a day to learn high quality word vectors from a 1.6 billion words data set. Furthermore, we show that these vectors provide state-of-the-art performance on our test set for measuring syntactic and semantic word similarities.

9,270 citations


"Glove: Global Vectors for Word Repr..." refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...In fact, Mikolov et al. (2013a) observe that performance can be increased by filtering the data so as to reduce the effective value of the weighting factor for frequent words....

    [...]

  • ...Although we offer only empirical motivation for choosing the value 3/4, it is interesting that a similar fractional power scaling was found to give the best performance in (Mikolov et al., 2013a)....

    [...]

  • ...Recently, Mikolov et al. (2013c) introduced a new evaluation scheme based on word analogies that probes the finer structure of the word vector space by examining not the scalar distance between word vectors, but rather their various dimensions of difference....

    [...]

  • ...We conduct experiments on the word analogy task of Mikolov et al. (2013a), a variety of word similarity tasks, as described in (Luong et al., 2013), and on the CoNLL-2003 shared benchmark dataset for NER (Tjong Kim Sang and De Meulder, 2003)....

    [...]

  • ...The two main model families for learning word vectors are: 1) global matrix factorization methods, such as latent semantic analysis (LSA) (Deerwester et al., 1990) and 2) local context window methods, such as the skip-gram model of Mikolov et al. (2013c)....

    [...]

Book
01 Jan 2009
TL;DR: The motivations and principles regarding learning algorithms for deep architectures, in particular those exploiting as building blocks unsupervised learning of single-layer modelssuch as Restricted Boltzmann Machines, used to construct deeper models such as Deep Belief Networks are discussed.
Abstract: Can machine learning deliver AI? Theoretical results, inspiration from the brain and cognition, as well as machine learning experiments suggest that in order to learn the kind of complicated functions that can represent high-level abstractions (e.g. in vision, language, and other AI-level tasks), one would need deep architectures. Deep architectures are composed of multiple levels of non-linear operations, such as in neural nets with many hidden layers, graphical models with many levels of latent variables, or in complicated propositional formulae re-using many sub-formulae. Each level of the architecture represents features at a different level of abstraction, defined as a composition of lower-level features. Searching the parameter space of deep architectures is a difficult task, but new algorithms have been discovered and a new sub-area has emerged in the machine learning community since 2006, following these discoveries. Learning algorithms such as those for Deep Belief Networks and other related unsupervised learning algorithms have recently been proposed to train deep architectures, yielding exciting results and beating the state-of-the-art in certain areas. Learning Deep Architectures for AI discusses the motivations for and principles of learning algorithms for deep architectures. By analyzing and comparing recent results with different learning algorithms for deep architectures, explanations for their success are proposed and discussed, highlighting challenges and suggesting avenues for future explorations in this area.

7,767 citations


"Glove: Global Vectors for Word Repr..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...This evaluation scheme favors models that produce dimensions of meaning, thereby capturing the multi-clustering idea of distributed representations (Bengio, 2009)....

    [...]